Journal of Mycology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Potential of Crude Extract of Curvularia lunata, an Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Cymbopogon caesius Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:07:24 +0000 Cymbopogon caesius grass is an aromatic tall grass species which grows in waste field and along the edges of crop fields in Karnataka. From this grass fungal endophytes were isolated on PDA medium and identified as Curvularia lunata. The fungus was cultured on Potato Dextrose broth for production of fungal metabolites. Ethyl acetate extract of the C. lunata was obtained by liquid-liquid partition of broth of endophyte and evaporation. Dried crude extract was tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. The extract showed antimicrobial nature against all the test pathogens. Crude extract of C. lunata is highly active against Staphylococcus aureus with the inhibition percentage of 92 and Candida albicans with 81 percent inhibition. K. S. Avinash, H. S. Ashwini, H. N. Ramesh Babu, and Y. L. Krishnamurthy Copyright © 2015 K. S. Avinash et al. All rights reserved. Mushrooms and Lichens in Bulgarian Ethnomycology Wed, 11 Nov 2015 06:09:21 +0000 The paper presents ethnomycological data on ritual, medicinal, tinder, and kindling usage of mushrooms and lichens in Bulgaria from prehistoric times till nowadays. It is based on the analysis of 17 ethnomycological sources recently available and on the authors inquiries and field trip data from the country made in the period 1986–2015. In total 18 mushrooms and 4 lichens with their usage are enlisted. Blagoy Angelov Uzunov and Maya Petrova Stoyneva-Gärtner Copyright © 2015 Blagoy Angelov Uzunov and Maya Petrova Stoyneva-Gärtner. All rights reserved. Recurring Events of Candida krusei Septicaemia: First Report from an ICU Mon, 26 Oct 2015 07:14:55 +0000 Resurgence of nonalbicans Candida spp. was observed thrice at the same location in our hospital over a period of four years. In two of these outbreaks it was identified up to the molecular level as Candida krusei. This fungus was traced to some environmental source in all three episodes. Prompt infection control measures were initiated which helped to control the outbreak every time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first series of recurring Candida krusei infections at the same site in a hospital with successful control of each episode. Shalini Dewan Duggal, Pragnya Paramita Jena, Renu Gur, Avinash Kumar, Sharon Rainy Rongpharpi, Mrignayani Pandey, Immaculata Xess, and Vineeta Wadhwa Copyright © 2015 Shalini Dewan Duggal et al. All rights reserved. The Anticandidal and Toxicity Properties of Lampranthus francisci Thu, 15 Oct 2015 11:26:31 +0000 Fungal infections have been rising due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients and intensive use of some antifungal agents. Lampranthus francisci is an ornamental succulent plant. In Zimbabwe, the fresh sap from the leaves is used to treat fungal scalp infections. The activity of L. francisci fresh and dry acetone, ethanol, hydroethanolic, and aqueous extracts against Candida albicans and Candida krusei was determined. Mouse peritoneal cavity cells and sheep red blood cells were used to investigate L. francisci’s toxicity profile. The hydroethanolic extracts were the most effective extracts against C. albicans. The fresh ethanol extract was the most effective extract against C. krusei. The dry acetone extract, dry ethanol extract, and the fresh and dry aqueous extracts promoted the growth of C. krusei. The hydroethanolic extracts caused haemolysis of sheep cells. The hydroethanolic extracts promoted the growth of the mouse peritoneal cavity red blood cells. Both aqueous extracts increased the density of the mouse cells, but only the fresh extract increased the metabolism of the mouse cells. L. francisci has some fungicidal activity and boosts the growth of immune cells, thus validating its use in ethnomedicine. L. francisci extracts are potential leads for the isolation of immune stimulatory compounds. Batanai Moyo and Stanley Mukanganyama Copyright © 2015 Batanai Moyo and Stanley Mukanganyama. All rights reserved. Macrofungi in Some Forests of Telangana State, India Sun, 18 Jan 2015 08:29:45 +0000 The fruiting bodies of macrofungi were collected from some forests, fences, waste fields, timber depots of Telangana state during rainy season. This is an attempt to give a broad picture of diversity of macrofungi belonging to the class Basidiomycetes in some forest areas of Telangana region. A total number of 50 fruiting bodies were collected and cultured and among them only ten were identified based on their macroscopic features and molecular identification since they showed good lignolytic activity. Gudikandula Krishna, Burra Samatha, S. V. S. S. S. L. Hima Bindu Nidadavolu, Metuku Ram Prasad, Byram Rajitha, and Maringanti Alha Singara Charaya Copyright © 2015 Gudikandula Krishna et al. All rights reserved. What Makes Oral Candidiasis Recurrent Infection? A Clinical View Sun, 28 Dec 2014 00:10:12 +0000 Clinical oral Candida infection (candidiasis) is one of the common oral mucosal infections, and its management is usually frustrating due to either treatment failure or recurrence. Historically, oral candidiasis has been branded as disease of diseased. The unsuccessful management of oral candidiasis can due to either incorrect diagnosis, failure to identify (or correct) the underlying predisposing factor(s), or inaccurate prescription of antifungal agents. Failure to properly treat oral candidiasis will lead to persistence of the fungal cell in the oral cavity and hence recurrence of infection. The oral health care provider should be aware of these fall pits in order to successfully manage oral candidiasis. Azmi M. G. Darwazeh and Tamer A. Darwazeh Copyright © 2014 Azmi M. G. Darwazeh and Tamer A. Darwazeh. All rights reserved. Effect of the Use of Pycnanthus angolensis and Different Supplements on Yields and on the Proximate Composition of Pleurotus sajor-caju Tue, 18 Nov 2014 06:41:06 +0000 This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Pleurotus sajor-caju cultivated on Pycnanthus angolensis sawdust supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% palm kernel cake (PKC), oil palm fibre (OPF), rice bran (RB), wheat chaff (WC), and corn cobs (CC). P. sajor-caju harvested produced maximum yield of 31.22 g on P. angolensis sawdust supplemented with 15% wheat chaff. The biological efficiency of substrates used ranged from 6.09% to 37.39%. Results also showed a maximum crude protein of 26.33% of P. sajor-caju cultivated on P. angolensis sawdust without any supplement and fat content ranging from 0.25% to 2.21%. Fibre content of harvested mushrooms ranged from 5.05% to 9.29%. The study revealed that supplementing P. angolensis sawdust significantly influenced the growth, yield, and proximate compositions of P. sajor-caju. Soji Fakoya, Abiodun Felix Adejumo, and Julliet Bamidele Akinyele Copyright © 2014 Soji Fakoya et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal Activity of Jasminum sambac against Malassezia sp. and Non-Malassezia sp. Isolated from Human Skin Samples Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:37:58 +0000 Malassezia sp. causes skin diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. The present study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of J. sambac or Arabian jasmine, a flowering plant abundant in the Southeast Asia against Malassezia sp. using disc diffusion and broth microdilution method. The methanol extract and essential oil from the flowers and leaves of J. sambac were, respectively, prepared using solvent extraction and hydrodistillation process. Skin samples from individuals with dandruff were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar overlaid with olive oil. The fungi that grew were observed microscopically, tested with Tween assimilation test, and cultured on CHROMagar (the chromogenic media pioneer) to identify Malassezia sp. Out of 5 skin samples, only 2 Malassezia sp. isolates were identified based on morphology and their ability to assimilate Tween. The inhibition zones of methanol extract of flowers and leaves of J. sambac and essential oil of flowers showed potential for antifungal activity with inhibition zones of 11.10 ± 1.92, 12.90 ± 1.68, and 13.06 ± 0.26 mm, respectively, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 80 mg/mL to 160 mg/mL and 50%, respectively. In conclusion, J. sambac may be used as an alternative treatment against Malassezia-associated skin infections. Jacinta Santhanam, Farhana Nadiah Abd Ghani, and Dayang Fredalina Basri Copyright © 2014 Jacinta Santhanam et al. All rights reserved. Incidence of Keratinophilic Fungi from Selected Soils of Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra State, India Mon, 10 Nov 2014 07:31:20 +0000 One hundred and fifty samples were collected from eleven districts of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique for isolation. Seventy-one isolates were recovered and identified. The cultures were identified using macro- and micromorphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/Genbank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose. Thirteen species of eight genera were isolated, namely, Auxarthron conjugatum (2.00%), Chrysosporium indicum (14.00%), Chrysosporium evolceanui (2.66%), Chrysosporium tropicum (4.66%), Chrysosporium zonatum (1.33%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (3.33%), Gymnascella dankaliensis (1.33%), Gymnascella hyalinospora (0.66%), Gymnoascoideus petalosporus (0.66%), Microsporum gypseum complex (9.33%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.00%), T. terrestre (3.33%), and Uncinocarpus queenslandicus (2.00%). This study indicates that the soils of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra may be significant reservoirs of certain keratinophilic fungi. Sunil Kumar Deshmukh and Shilpa Amit Verekar Copyright © 2014 Sunil Kumar Deshmukh and Shilpa Amit Verekar. All rights reserved. Diversity of Biscogniauxia mediterranea within Single Stromata on Cork Oak Tue, 14 Oct 2014 11:54:51 +0000 Charcoal canker, caused by the fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea, is one of the most frequent diseases of cork oak in Portugal. The pathogen has been considered a secondary invader that attacks only stressed hosts; however, in recent years, an increasing number of young trees exhibiting the disease symptoms have been recorded. A collection of monoascosporic cultures isolated from single stromata of B. mediterranea in cork oak from different locations was analyzed by means of microsatellite—Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction—using three microsatellite primers, in order to detect the genetic variation of the population thus discussing its plasticity and ability to adapt to different conditions. The results showed a high level of genetic variability among isolates obtained from the same stroma, being impossible to distinguish isolates from individual stromata neither from different geographical location. Joana Henriques, Filomena Nóbrega, Edmundo Sousa, and Arlindo Lima Copyright © 2014 Joana Henriques et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Activity of Lawsonia inermis (Henna) on Some Pathogenic Fungi Tue, 23 Sep 2014 11:06:24 +0000 The present study was conducted to investigate antifungal activity of Lawsonia inermis (Henna plant). Leaf samples of the plant were collected from Eastern Nile of Khartoum State, Sudan. Ethanol and petroleum ether extracts were obtained by maceration (cold method). The extracts were bioassayed in vitro to know their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of tested fungi. The cup-plate agar diffusion method was adopted to assess the antifungal activity of the extracts against tested yeasts, while agar incorporated method was used for other molds. Both extracts revealed antifungal activity against all yeast strains except Pichia fabianii which was found resistant to both ethanol and ether extracts. The results displayed antifungal activity against tested fungi. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/mL was found to inhibit the growth of tested dermatophytes. The obtained results revealed antifungal activity of Henna leaves extracts which support the traditional use of Henna in therapy of fungal infections. The possibility of therapeutic use of Sudanese Henna as antifungal agent is recommended. Elham Abdelbasit Suleiman and Elbasheir Ahmed Mohamed Copyright © 2014 Elham Abdelbasit Suleiman and Elbasheir Ahmed Mohamed. All rights reserved. Species Diversity, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Virulence Attributes of Candida Colonising the Oral Cavities of Adult Diabetic Patients Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:06:23 +0000 Oral candidiasis is a common occurrence in diabetic patients. Species of Candida isolated from these infections and their virulence pattern undergo changes over time and require periodic assessments. Objective of this study was to determine changes in the spectrum of Candida species colonizing oral cavity, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence attributes, in adult diabetic patients. Oral swabs were collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and an equal number of healthy controls. Specimens were cultured for Candida and species were identified, according to standard protocols. Of 100 diabetic patients, 42 were colonized by yeasts with C. albicans as the predominant species (51%). Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species accounted for 47% of the specimens, with C. tropicalis being the commonest. Among healthy controls, 23 were colonized by Candida species, of which C. albicans was predominant. Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavities of diabetic patients. Candidal carriage was significantly associated with duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar levels. Virulence attributes, proteinase and phospholipase secretion, and biofilm formation were significantly higher in DM group. Deepa Anil Kumar, Sumathi Muralidhar, Krishna Biswas, Uma Banerjee, Seemi Farhat Basir, and Luqman Ahmad Khan Copyright © 2014 Deepa Anil Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Qualitative Analysis of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Fungi in Cowshed Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:11:35 +0000 Air pollution is one of the most serious problems to human health. Fungi are the causal agents for different diseases in animals, plants, and human beings. Otomycosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, allergy, and systemic mycosis are among the fungal diseases caused. The present study was conducted to analyze the monthly incidence of airborne fungi, seasonal variation, and influence of meteorological parameters in indoor and outdoor fungi of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village, Bangalore. An aeromycological survey of indoor and outdoor area of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village in Bangalore city was carried out using the Andersen two-stage sampler onto a petri dish containing malt extract agar from January 2011 to December 2011. Altogether, 29 species belonging to 13 genera from indoor and 26 species belonging to 12 genera were recorded from outdoor environment of the cowshed; the dominant fungal species identified were Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Alternaria alternata. Seasonal occurrence of fungal spores in both indoor and outdoor of the cowshed revealed that maximum spores were recorded in summer season followed by winter and rainy season. R. Pavan and K. Manjunath Copyright © 2014 R. Pavan and K. Manjunath. All rights reserved. A Review on Fungal Isolates Reported as Anamorphs of Ophiocordyceps sinensis Mon, 08 Sep 2014 07:37:00 +0000 This brief review presents current developments on Ophiocordyceps sinensis and fungal strains which have been reported as its anamorphs. A survey of literature has shown that Hirsutella sinensis is currently receiving general acceptance as a true anamorph of O. sinensis. This isolate has been confirmed as the true anamorph by both morphological and molecular methods. The other isolates such as Paecilomyces sinensis, Scytalidium hepiali, Tolypocladium sinensis, Chrysosporium sinensis, Synnematium sinensis, Paecilomyces hepiali, Mortierella hepiali, and Scytalidium hepiali have been discarded as anamorphs of O. sinensis. The review also discusses various methods used to determine or confirm anamorphs of O. sinensis. Considering that the methods have strengths and weaknesses of varying magnitudes, a collective use of various methods is recommended for more reliable conclusions. Alfred Chioza and Shoji Ohga Copyright © 2014 Alfred Chioza and Shoji Ohga. All rights reserved. Antagonistic Evaluation of Bioactive Metabolite from Endophytic Fungus, Aspergillus flavipes KF671231 Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:50:02 +0000 Of the total 40 endophytic fungi isolated from foliar tissues of medicinal plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a fungal isolate, Aspergillus flavipes, was subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The fractionation was found active against medicinal plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with an inhibition zone of 29 mm in size. Further the metabolite was extracted which shows 20% growth inhibition in 24 h and 46% after 48 h, respectively. Bioassay guided chemical compound was identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester. On the basis of morphological characters and rDNA sequencing of ITS region the endophyte was identified as Aspergillus flavipes which showed promising plant growth promotory properties. Ankita Verma, B. N. Johri, and Anil Prakash Copyright © 2014 Ankita Verma et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of a Wild Edible Mushroom, Sparassis crispa (Wulf.) Fr., from North Western Himalayas, India Wed, 13 Aug 2014 10:54:30 +0000 Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Sparassis crispa collected from North Western Himalayan region of India were analyzed. Phenolic content  mg tannic acid equivalent per g of the extract and flavonoids  mg catechin equivalent per g of the extract were recorded to be the major antioxidant components in this wild edible mushroom. Significant antioxidant efficiency on inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was observed when compared to standard antioxidant like L-ascorbic acid. IC50 value of the extract was 2.11 mg/mL. The findings suggest S. crispa as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants. Madhavi Joshi and Anand Sagar Copyright © 2014 Madhavi Joshi and Anand Sagar. All rights reserved. Calvatia nodulata, a New Gasteroid Fungus from Brazilian Semiarid Region Mon, 21 Jul 2014 09:48:40 +0000 Studies carried out in tropical rain forest enclaves in semiarid region of Brazil revealed a new species of Calvatia. The basidiomata were collected during the rainy season of 2009 and 2012 in two states of Northeast Brazil. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were based on dried basidiomata with the aid of light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Calvatia nodulata is recognized by its pyriform to turbinate basidiomata, exoperidium granulose to pilose and not persistent, subgleba becoming hollow at maturity, nodulose capillitium, and punctate basidiospores (3–5 μm). Detailed description, taxonomic comments, and illustrations with photographs and drawings are provided. Dônis da Silva Alfredo, Ana Clarissa Moura Rodrigues, and Iuri Goulart Baseia Copyright © 2014 Dônis da Silva Alfredo et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi in Southern Spain Sun, 06 Jul 2014 11:54:24 +0000 The diversity of races and prevalence of pathogenic populations of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod) were surveyed in an area in southern Spain. From 54 farms, 132 isolates were collected from wilted carnation plants. Isolates were characterized by RAPD-PCR, DNA sequence analysis of the TEF1-α gene, and race-specific molecular markers. Selected isolates from RAPD groups were phenotypically evaluated by pathogenicity tests. Data analysis showed that Fod race 2 was the most frequent and prevalent race in the study area, followed by race 1/8. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses showed similar results, which were different to those of the race-specific PCR assays. It was concluded that (i) seven isolates were not classified in groups where Fod testers were clustered; even they showed different results when race-specific markers were used, (ii) ten isolates with retarded race 1 or race 8 specific band were characterized as F. proliferatum by TEF1-α gene sequencing and clustered into an outgroup, and (iii) six isolates failed to generate an amplification signal using race-specific markers. Furthermore, three of them were grouped close to race 2 tester according to the phylogenetic analyses, showing the same differential pathogenicity as race 2. This may indicate a Fod race 2 subgroup in this region. Raúl Castaño, Barbara Scherm, and Manuel Avilés Copyright © 2014 Raúl Castaño et al. All rights reserved. Further Investigations on Rhizocarpon of North-Eastern Iran: R. geographicum Tue, 29 Apr 2014 07:07:56 +0000 Morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry, ecology, and distribution of Rhizocarpon geographicum (Rhizocarpaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in north-eastern Iran are investigated and discussed. Mahroo Haji Moniri Copyright © 2014 Mahroo Haji Moniri. All rights reserved. Investigating Acid Stress Response in Different Saccharomyces Strains Thu, 17 Apr 2014 10:03:03 +0000 Yeast cells need to respond to a variety of stresses found in such different conditions as gastrointestinal tract after probiotic ingestion or fermentation vat during ethanol production. In the present study, H+ neutralisation capacity, membrane fatty acid composition, H+-ATPase activity, and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were evaluated in yeast cells used for probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) and laboratory (Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303) purposes, as well as in some W303 mutant strains for ENA1 gene and S. cerevisiae BY4741. Results show that the H+ internal concentration of yeast is regulated by several systems, including the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, and that Ena1p has an important but undefined role in the cellular response to acid. Membrane fatty acid composition of S. cerevisiae W303 strain was affected by exposure to acidic pH, but the presence of 86 mM NaCl prevented this effect, whereas membrane fatty acid composition of S. boulardii was unaffected by acidic pH. We also demonstrated that the acid stress response is dependent on calcium metabolism and blocked by FK 506. Rogelio Lopes Brandão, Júlio César Câmara Rosa, Jacques Robert Nicoli, Marcos Vinicius Simi Almeida, Ana Paula do Carmo, Heloa Teixeira Queiros, and Ieso Miranda Castro Copyright © 2014 Rogelio Lopes Brandão et al. All rights reserved. Some New Records of Stinkhorns (Phallaceae) from Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:30:14 +0000 This research paper represents for the first time an updated list of stinkhorn family, Phallaceae, in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Jorhat, Assam, India. There are seven species of stinkhorns naturally present in the study area. A description of all the species is given along with images of fruiting bodies of the fungi and their microstructures; information on the ecology and general distribution and data on the literature have been documented. The seven species of stinkhorns were found in and around area of the sanctuary which include Phallus indusiatus, Phallus duplicatus, Phallus cinnabarinus, Phallus merulinus, Phallus atrovolvatus, Mutinus bambusinus, and Clathrus delicatus. Girish Gogoi and Vipin Parkash Copyright © 2014 Girish Gogoi and Vipin Parkash. All rights reserved. Availability of Wild Edible Fungi in La Malinche National Park, Mexico Wed, 05 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of this paper is to compare edible mushroom availability between the two slopes of La Malinche National Park in central México, and to discuss the possible relation between their availability and traditional use. Eight transects were set up. Samples were collected weekly during the rainy seasons of years 1998–2000. Sixty-one edible mushroom species were collected from a total area of 3200 m2 (0.32 ha). Over the three-year period, the diversity of mushrooms ranged from 21 to 28 taxa per transect line. Sporocarps were produced at a rate from 2.06 to 6.05 kg/401.51 m2. The highest species richness and production values for spatio-temporal frequency were obtained in Southeast slope. Edible mushrooms availability in the Southeast slope showed a strong dominance, driven mainly by Laccaria trichodermophora and Hebeloma mesophaeum. The Southwest slope had more diversified availability in time and space, with the most representative species, being L. trichodermophora. The characteristics of traditional management on each slope determined the differences found. A. Montoya, A. Kong, R. Garibay-Orijel, C. Méndez-Espinoza, Rodham E. Tulloss, and A. Estrada-Torres Copyright © 2014 A. Montoya et al. All rights reserved. Mycobiota of Commercially Available Triphala Powder: A Well Known Dietary Supplement of Indian System of Medicine Mon, 20 Jan 2014 11:58:09 +0000 Sixty samples, categorized on the basis of manufacturers, were analyzed during the study. A total of 16 fungal species, belonging to 7 different genera, were isolated from the collected samples. Aspergillus was recorded as the most dominant genus with 9 species, namely, A. niger, A. carbonarius, A. luchuensis, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. terreus, A. ochraceous, and A. wentii. A. niger was the most predominant species with frequency of occurrence of 63.33%. A large variation in fungal load and diversity was observed among the samples of different manufacturing categories. The percent moisture content and pH of samples were directly related to the extent of contamination. Samples with low pH and high moisture content were more contaminated. The higher incidence of A. niger (74.36%) was observed among the triphala powder of all manufacturing categories. Detection of ochratoxin producing fungi in triphala powder may pose a serious risk of ochratoxin production. Thus, there is an urgent need to enforce quality standards and regulation to minimize the fungal contamination to the globally expectable limit. Sushil Sharma, Madhu Gupta, and Rekha Bhadauria Copyright © 2014 Sushil Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiology and Virulence Determinants including Biofilm Profile of Candida Infections in an ICU in a Tertiary Hospital in India Sun, 12 Jan 2014 16:28:35 +0000 The purpose of this prospective study was to isolate, speciate, and determine antifungal susceptibility and virulence patterns of Candida species recovered from the intensive care units (ICUs) in an Indian hospital. Study included 125 medical/postoperative patients admitted to ICU. Identification and speciation of yeast isolates were done by the biochemical methods. Antifungal susceptibility was done by broth microdilution method. Virulence testing of Candida species was done by phospholipase, proteinase, and adherence assay. A total of 103 Candida isolates were isolated; C. tropicalis was the predominant species (40.7%), followed by C. albicans (38.83 %), C. glabrata (11.65%), C. parapsilosis (3.88%), and 1.94% each of C. krusei, C. kefyr, and C. sphaerica. 60 Candida isolates (58.25%) showed resistance to fluconazole, while 7 (6.7%) isolates showed resistance to amphotericin B. Phospholipase and proteinase activities were seen in 73.8% and 55.3% Candida isolates with different species showing a wide range of activities, while 68.9% Candida isolates showed {4+} adherence activity. The present study revealed that nonalbicans Candida species (NAC spp.) caused most of the cases of Candidemia in the ICU patients. The isolation of C. tropicalis from a large number of cases highlights the ability of this pathogen to cause bloodstream infections. The presence of azole resistance is a matter of concern. Ravinder Kaur, Ritu Goyal, Megh S. Dhakad, Preena Bhalla, and Rakesh Kumar Copyright © 2014 Ravinder Kaur et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of C/N Ratio and Inducers for Wastewater Paper Industry Treatment Using Trametes versicolor Immobilized in Bubble Column Reactor Tue, 31 Dec 2013 17:49:49 +0000 C/N ratio and MnSO4 and CuSO4 concentrations were optimized for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent by Trametes versicolor immobilized in polyurethane foam. Statistical differences () at high C/N ratios (169), 2 mM CuSO4, and 0.071 mM MnSO4 were determined. Decolorization of 60.5%, COD removal of 55%, laccase (LAC) 60 U/L, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) 8.4 U/L were obtained. Maximum of decolorization (82%), COD removal (83%), LAC (443.5 U/L), and MnP (18 U/L) activities at C/N ratio of 405 (6.75 mM CuSO4 and 0.22 mM MnSO4) was achieved in step 7 at 4 d. Positive correlation between the decolorization, COD removal, and enzymatic activity was found (). T. versicolor bioremediation capacity was evaluated in bubble column reactor during 8 d. Effluent was adjusted according to optimized parameters and treated at 25°C and air flow of 800 mL/min. Heterotrophic bacteria growth was not inhibited by fungus. After 4 d, 82% of COD reduction and 80% decolorization were recorded. Additionally, enzymatic activity of LAC (345 U/L) and MnP (78 U/L) was observed. The COD reduction and decolorization correlated positively () with enzymatic activity. Chlorophenol removal was 98% of pentachlorophenol (PCP), 92% of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), 90% of 3,4-dichlorophenol (3,4-DCP), and 99% of 4-chlorophenols (4CP). Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez and Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez Copyright © 2013 Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez and Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez. All rights reserved. Molecular and Phenotypic Descriptions of Cystodermella cinnabarina from Western Himalaya: A New Genus for Pakistan Sun, 22 Dec 2013 14:14:13 +0000 Cystodermella cinnabarina is reported here for the first time from the moist temperate forests of western Himalaya and is the first collection of a Cystodermella from Pakistan. This species is redescribed here using morphological and molecular data. The phylogenetic analysis which is based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS) showed that the Pakistani collection clustered distinctly with similar European sequences in the Cystodermella clade. The Italian and north European sequences of this species clustered in two separate subclades and the Pakistani sequences closely matched the Italian sequences. It is evident that the Pakistani population has a very close evolutionary affinity with the Italian individuals rather than those from northern Europe. The species is distributed in Europe, in North America, and now in the western Himalaya of Asia. Abdul Razaq, Sobia Ilyas, and Abdul Nasir Khalid Copyright © 2013 Abdul Razaq et al. All rights reserved. Biodiversity, Antimicrobial Potential, and Phylogenetic Placement of an Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum NFX 06 Isolated from Nothapodytes foetida Sun, 22 Dec 2013 10:13:02 +0000 Biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with the medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida of Agumbe forest was determined and evaluated for its microbial activity. A total of 170 endophytic isolates were obtained from leaf, stem, seed, and fruit tissues of Nothapodytes foetida. The dominant endophytic fungi belong to genera Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Colletotrichum. Maximum endophytic isolates were obtained from leaves segments followed by fruit, stem, and seed tissues. Hyphomycetes were the dominant group found with 75.29% over other fungal groups. Shannon-Weiner and Simpson indexes showed rich diversity of endophytic fungi suggesting even and uniform occurrence of various species. 88.57%, 74.28%, 62.85%, and 65.71% of isolates have shown activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Candida albicans (ATCC 69548), respectively. One of the isolate NFX 06 isolated from leaf has showed considerable antimicrobial activity against all the test pathogens. It was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by ITS sequence analysis; the nucleotide sequence was submitted in the GenBank with an accession number KC914432. Phylogenetic relationship confirmed that the strain F. oxysporum NFX 06 has evolved from an endophytic ancestor. Sogra Fathima Musavi and Raj Mohan Balakrishnan Copyright © 2013 Sogra Fathima Musavi and Raj Mohan Balakrishnan. All rights reserved. LCMS-QTOF Determination of Lentinan-Like β-D-Glucan Content Isolated by Hot Water and Alkaline Solution from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and Selected Local Market Mushrooms Wed, 18 Dec 2013 09:16:57 +0000 Lentinan, 1152 Dalton β-D-glucan found in Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes), has been claimed to have anticancer and immunomodulatory activity. Several extraction methods have been used by researchers to isolate Lentinan including hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH). In this study, hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH) were used to extract the Lentinan-like β-D-glucan (1151 Dalton) from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and selected local market mushrooms. The isolated Lentinan-like β-D-glucan from both hot water and alkaline solution was analyzed by LCMS-QTOF. Commercial Lentinan standard from Lentinus edodes was used as a reference. The results showed significant differences on chromatogram patterns of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan between both extracts. The peak of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan was only found in isolated polysaccharide glucan of hot water extracts. The isolated polysaccharide glucans from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom and Termite Mushroom were found to have  μg/mg and  μg/mg Lentinan-like β-D-glucan. Button Mushroom, Shiitake Mushroom, and Oyster Mushroom showed the presence of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan at  μg/mg, , and  μg/mg, respectively. Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil, Norasfaliza Rahmad, Noraswati Mohd Nor Rashid, Mohd Hafis Yuswan Mohd Yusoff, Nur Syahidah Shaharuddin, and Norihan Mohd Saleh Copyright © 2013 Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil et al. All rights reserved. Screening of Fusarium graminearum Isolates for Enzymes Extracellular and Deoxynivalenol Production Thu, 05 Dec 2013 11:06:21 +0000 Fusarium graminearum, the main etiological agent of Fusarium head bligh, has high intraspecific genetic diversity, which is related to the variability in the aggressiveness among isolates against wheat. The aggressiveness involves different mechanisms as the production and liberation of extracellular enzymes and mycotoxins. In the present paper, several F. graminearum isolates obtained from wheat spikes from Pampas region, Argentina, were screened for polygalacturonase (pectinase), proteolytic, and lipase extracellular enzymatic activities production, as well as for the capacity to produce deoxynivalenol. The enzymatic production in terms of magnitude was varied among isolates, which could be related to a differential capacity to infect wheat. Both polygalacturonase as proteolytic activities had a maximum activity in the first days of incubation. Instead, the lipase activity reached its maximum activity after advanced incubation time. Deoxynivalenol production was delayed over time with respect to the first enzymatic activities, which would infer its relation to the progress of the disease in the host, more than with the early stages of infection. The characterization carried out in this research would allow us to apply a selection criterion among isolates for further research. Leonel M. Ortega, Gisele E. Kikot, Andrea L. Astoreca, and Teresa M. Alconada Copyright © 2013 Leonel M. Ortega et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Molecular Description of Phytophthora insolita Isolated from Citrus Orchard in India Mon, 21 Oct 2013 09:47:09 +0000 Citrus, an important cash crop in India, is adversely affected by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. palmivora, and P. citrophthora. Phytophthora insolita is known to be associated with citrus and reported for the first time in India. It is a rare and poorly characterized Phytophthora species, as its natural host and pathogenic impact are unclear. Previously, it was reported only in Taiwan and China; so to confirm our suspected isolate is P. insolita, regions of internal transcribed spacer, elongation factor, beta-tubulin, and cytochrome oxidase genes were sequenced. This study provides description of the lone Indian P. insolita isolate with respect to molecular identity, morphology, mating behaviour, and pathogenicity. Swapnil Bawage, Sagar Nerkar, Ashok Kumar, and Ashis Das Copyright © 2013 Swapnil Bawage et al. All rights reserved.