Journal of Mycology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Investigating Acid Stress Response in Different Saccharomyces Strains Thu, 17 Apr 2014 10:03:03 +0000 Yeast cells need to respond to a variety of stresses found in such different conditions as gastrointestinal tract after probiotic ingestion or fermentation vat during ethanol production. In the present study, H+ neutralisation capacity, membrane fatty acid composition, H+-ATPase activity, and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration were evaluated in yeast cells used for probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) and laboratory (Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303) purposes, as well as in some W303 mutant strains for ENA1 gene and S. cerevisiae BY4741. Results show that the H+ internal concentration of yeast is regulated by several systems, including the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, and that Ena1p has an important but undefined role in the cellular response to acid. Membrane fatty acid composition of S. cerevisiae W303 strain was affected by exposure to acidic pH, but the presence of 86 mM NaCl prevented this effect, whereas membrane fatty acid composition of S. boulardii was unaffected by acidic pH. We also demonstrated that the acid stress response is dependent on calcium metabolism and blocked by FK 506. Rogelio Lopes Brandão, Júlio César Câmara Rosa, Jacques Robert Nicoli, Marcos Vinicius Simi Almeida, Ana Paula do Carmo, Heloa Teixeira Queiros, and Ieso Miranda Castro Copyright © 2014 Rogelio Lopes Brandão et al. All rights reserved. Some New Records of Stinkhorns (Phallaceae) from Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:30:14 +0000 This research paper represents for the first time an updated list of stinkhorn family, Phallaceae, in Hollongapar Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Jorhat, Assam, India. There are seven species of stinkhorns naturally present in the study area. A description of all the species is given along with images of fruiting bodies of the fungi and their microstructures; information on the ecology and general distribution and data on the literature have been documented. The seven species of stinkhorns were found in and around area of the sanctuary which include Phallus indusiatus, Phallus duplicatus, Phallus cinnabarinus, Phallus merulinus, Phallus atrovolvatus, Mutinus bambusinus, and Clathrus delicatus. Girish Gogoi and Vipin Parkash Copyright © 2014 Girish Gogoi and Vipin Parkash. All rights reserved. Availability of Wild Edible Fungi in La Malinche National Park, Mexico Wed, 05 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of this paper is to compare edible mushroom availability between the two slopes of La Malinche National Park in central México, and to discuss the possible relation between their availability and traditional use. Eight transects were set up. Samples were collected weekly during the rainy seasons of years 1998–2000. Sixty-one edible mushroom species were collected from a total area of 3200 m2 (0.32 ha). Over the three-year period, the diversity of mushrooms ranged from 21 to 28 taxa per transect line. Sporocarps were produced at a rate from 2.06 to 6.05 kg/401.51 m2. The highest species richness and production values for spatio-temporal frequency were obtained in Southeast slope. Edible mushrooms availability in the Southeast slope showed a strong dominance, driven mainly by Laccaria trichodermophora and Hebeloma mesophaeum. The Southwest slope had more diversified availability in time and space, with the most representative species, being L. trichodermophora. The characteristics of traditional management on each slope determined the differences found. A. Montoya, A. Kong, R. Garibay-Orijel, C. Méndez-Espinoza, Rodham E. Tulloss, and A. Estrada-Torres Copyright © 2014 A. Montoya et al. All rights reserved. Mycobiota of Commercially Available Triphala Powder: A Well Known Dietary Supplement of Indian System of Medicine Mon, 20 Jan 2014 11:58:09 +0000 Sixty samples, categorized on the basis of manufacturers, were analyzed during the study. A total of 16 fungal species, belonging to 7 different genera, were isolated from the collected samples. Aspergillus was recorded as the most dominant genus with 9 species, namely, A. niger, A. carbonarius, A. luchuensis, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. nidulans, A. terreus, A. ochraceous, and A. wentii. A. niger was the most predominant species with frequency of occurrence of 63.33%. A large variation in fungal load and diversity was observed among the samples of different manufacturing categories. The percent moisture content and pH of samples were directly related to the extent of contamination. Samples with low pH and high moisture content were more contaminated. The higher incidence of A. niger (74.36%) was observed among the triphala powder of all manufacturing categories. Detection of ochratoxin producing fungi in triphala powder may pose a serious risk of ochratoxin production. Thus, there is an urgent need to enforce quality standards and regulation to minimize the fungal contamination to the globally expectable limit. Sushil Sharma, Madhu Gupta, and Rekha Bhadauria Copyright © 2014 Sushil Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiology and Virulence Determinants including Biofilm Profile of Candida Infections in an ICU in a Tertiary Hospital in India Sun, 12 Jan 2014 16:28:35 +0000 The purpose of this prospective study was to isolate, speciate, and determine antifungal susceptibility and virulence patterns of Candida species recovered from the intensive care units (ICUs) in an Indian hospital. Study included 125 medical/postoperative patients admitted to ICU. Identification and speciation of yeast isolates were done by the biochemical methods. Antifungal susceptibility was done by broth microdilution method. Virulence testing of Candida species was done by phospholipase, proteinase, and adherence assay. A total of 103 Candida isolates were isolated; C. tropicalis was the predominant species (40.7%), followed by C. albicans (38.83 %), C. glabrata (11.65%), C. parapsilosis (3.88%), and 1.94% each of C. krusei, C. kefyr, and C. sphaerica. 60 Candida isolates (58.25%) showed resistance to fluconazole, while 7 (6.7%) isolates showed resistance to amphotericin B. Phospholipase and proteinase activities were seen in 73.8% and 55.3% Candida isolates with different species showing a wide range of activities, while 68.9% Candida isolates showed {4+} adherence activity. The present study revealed that nonalbicans Candida species (NAC spp.) caused most of the cases of Candidemia in the ICU patients. The isolation of C. tropicalis from a large number of cases highlights the ability of this pathogen to cause bloodstream infections. The presence of azole resistance is a matter of concern. Ravinder Kaur, Ritu Goyal, Megh S. Dhakad, Preena Bhalla, and Rakesh Kumar Copyright © 2014 Ravinder Kaur et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of C/N Ratio and Inducers for Wastewater Paper Industry Treatment Using Trametes versicolor Immobilized in Bubble Column Reactor Tue, 31 Dec 2013 17:49:49 +0000 C/N ratio and MnSO4 and CuSO4 concentrations were optimized for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of bleached Kraft pulp mill effluent by Trametes versicolor immobilized in polyurethane foam. Statistical differences () at high C/N ratios (169), 2 mM CuSO4, and 0.071 mM MnSO4 were determined. Decolorization of 60.5%, COD removal of 55%, laccase (LAC) 60 U/L, and manganese peroxidase (MnP) 8.4 U/L were obtained. Maximum of decolorization (82%), COD removal (83%), LAC (443.5 U/L), and MnP (18 U/L) activities at C/N ratio of 405 (6.75 mM CuSO4 and 0.22 mM MnSO4) was achieved in step 7 at 4 d. Positive correlation between the decolorization, COD removal, and enzymatic activity was found (). T. versicolor bioremediation capacity was evaluated in bubble column reactor during 8 d. Effluent was adjusted according to optimized parameters and treated at 25°C and air flow of 800 mL/min. Heterotrophic bacteria growth was not inhibited by fungus. After 4 d, 82% of COD reduction and 80% decolorization were recorded. Additionally, enzymatic activity of LAC (345 U/L) and MnP (78 U/L) was observed. The COD reduction and decolorization correlated positively () with enzymatic activity. Chlorophenol removal was 98% of pentachlorophenol (PCP), 92% of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP), 90% of 3,4-dichlorophenol (3,4-DCP), and 99% of 4-chlorophenols (4CP). Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez and Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez Copyright © 2013 Aura M. Pedroza-Rodríguez and Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez. All rights reserved. Molecular and Phenotypic Descriptions of Cystodermella cinnabarina from Western Himalaya: A New Genus for Pakistan Sun, 22 Dec 2013 14:14:13 +0000 Cystodermella cinnabarina is reported here for the first time from the moist temperate forests of western Himalaya and is the first collection of a Cystodermella from Pakistan. This species is redescribed here using morphological and molecular data. The phylogenetic analysis which is based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS) showed that the Pakistani collection clustered distinctly with similar European sequences in the Cystodermella clade. The Italian and north European sequences of this species clustered in two separate subclades and the Pakistani sequences closely matched the Italian sequences. It is evident that the Pakistani population has a very close evolutionary affinity with the Italian individuals rather than those from northern Europe. The species is distributed in Europe, in North America, and now in the western Himalaya of Asia. Abdul Razaq, Sobia Ilyas, and Abdul Nasir Khalid Copyright © 2013 Abdul Razaq et al. All rights reserved. Biodiversity, Antimicrobial Potential, and Phylogenetic Placement of an Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum NFX 06 Isolated from Nothapodytes foetida Sun, 22 Dec 2013 10:13:02 +0000 Biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with the medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida of Agumbe forest was determined and evaluated for its microbial activity. A total of 170 endophytic isolates were obtained from leaf, stem, seed, and fruit tissues of Nothapodytes foetida. The dominant endophytic fungi belong to genera Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Colletotrichum. Maximum endophytic isolates were obtained from leaves segments followed by fruit, stem, and seed tissues. Hyphomycetes were the dominant group found with 75.29% over other fungal groups. Shannon-Weiner and Simpson indexes showed rich diversity of endophytic fungi suggesting even and uniform occurrence of various species. 88.57%, 74.28%, 62.85%, and 65.71% of isolates have shown activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Candida albicans (ATCC 69548), respectively. One of the isolate NFX 06 isolated from leaf has showed considerable antimicrobial activity against all the test pathogens. It was identified as Fusarium oxysporum by ITS sequence analysis; the nucleotide sequence was submitted in the GenBank with an accession number KC914432. Phylogenetic relationship confirmed that the strain F. oxysporum NFX 06 has evolved from an endophytic ancestor. Sogra Fathima Musavi and Raj Mohan Balakrishnan Copyright © 2013 Sogra Fathima Musavi and Raj Mohan Balakrishnan. All rights reserved. LCMS-QTOF Determination of Lentinan-Like β-D-Glucan Content Isolated by Hot Water and Alkaline Solution from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and Selected Local Market Mushrooms Wed, 18 Dec 2013 09:16:57 +0000 Lentinan, 1152 Dalton β-D-glucan found in Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes), has been claimed to have anticancer and immunomodulatory activity. Several extraction methods have been used by researchers to isolate Lentinan including hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH). In this study, hot water and alkaline solution (1.25 M NaOH) were used to extract the Lentinan-like β-D-glucan (1151 Dalton) from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom, Termite Mushroom, and selected local market mushrooms. The isolated Lentinan-like β-D-glucan from both hot water and alkaline solution was analyzed by LCMS-QTOF. Commercial Lentinan standard from Lentinus edodes was used as a reference. The results showed significant differences on chromatogram patterns of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan between both extracts. The peak of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan was only found in isolated polysaccharide glucan of hot water extracts. The isolated polysaccharide glucans from Tiger’s Milk Mushroom and Termite Mushroom were found to have  μg/mg and  μg/mg Lentinan-like β-D-glucan. Button Mushroom, Shiitake Mushroom, and Oyster Mushroom showed the presence of Lentinan-like β-D-glucan at  μg/mg, , and  μg/mg, respectively. Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil, Norasfaliza Rahmad, Noraswati Mohd Nor Rashid, Mohd Hafis Yuswan Mohd Yusoff, Nur Syahidah Shaharuddin, and Norihan Mohd Saleh Copyright © 2013 Nor Azreen Mohd Jamil et al. All rights reserved. Screening of Fusarium graminearum Isolates for Enzymes Extracellular and Deoxynivalenol Production Thu, 05 Dec 2013 11:06:21 +0000 Fusarium graminearum, the main etiological agent of Fusarium head bligh, has high intraspecific genetic diversity, which is related to the variability in the aggressiveness among isolates against wheat. The aggressiveness involves different mechanisms as the production and liberation of extracellular enzymes and mycotoxins. In the present paper, several F. graminearum isolates obtained from wheat spikes from Pampas region, Argentina, were screened for polygalacturonase (pectinase), proteolytic, and lipase extracellular enzymatic activities production, as well as for the capacity to produce deoxynivalenol. The enzymatic production in terms of magnitude was varied among isolates, which could be related to a differential capacity to infect wheat. Both polygalacturonase as proteolytic activities had a maximum activity in the first days of incubation. Instead, the lipase activity reached its maximum activity after advanced incubation time. Deoxynivalenol production was delayed over time with respect to the first enzymatic activities, which would infer its relation to the progress of the disease in the host, more than with the early stages of infection. The characterization carried out in this research would allow us to apply a selection criterion among isolates for further research. Leonel M. Ortega, Gisele E. Kikot, Andrea L. Astoreca, and Teresa M. Alconada Copyright © 2013 Leonel M. Ortega et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Molecular Description of Phytophthora insolita Isolated from Citrus Orchard in India Mon, 21 Oct 2013 09:47:09 +0000 Citrus, an important cash crop in India, is adversely affected by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. palmivora, and P. citrophthora. Phytophthora insolita is known to be associated with citrus and reported for the first time in India. It is a rare and poorly characterized Phytophthora species, as its natural host and pathogenic impact are unclear. Previously, it was reported only in Taiwan and China; so to confirm our suspected isolate is P. insolita, regions of internal transcribed spacer, elongation factor, beta-tubulin, and cytochrome oxidase genes were sequenced. This study provides description of the lone Indian P. insolita isolate with respect to molecular identity, morphology, mating behaviour, and pathogenicity. Swapnil Bawage, Sagar Nerkar, Ashok Kumar, and Ashis Das Copyright © 2013 Swapnil Bawage et al. All rights reserved. Cutaneous Mycoses among Rice Farmers in Anambra State, Nigeria Wed, 25 Sep 2013 14:38:32 +0000 Rice grain is one of the world's most important food crops, and its cultivation is a major occupation in Anambra State, Nigeria. These rice farmers are exposed to various agents that predispose them to cutaneous mycoses. The aim of this work was to screen rice farmers for lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses and to isolate and identify fungal agents associated with the infection. This survey was carried out between November 2009 and June 2011 in Anambra State, Nigeria. Clinical samples collected from 201 farmers with lesions suggestive of cutaneous mycoses were processed and the organisms identified. Questionnaires were used to obtain other necessary data and were statistically analyzed. Of the 2,580 rice farmers screened, 201 (7.79%) showed positive lesions. Organisms recovered included Microsporum audouinii, Microsporum ferrugineum, Trichophyton megnini, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus scleriotorum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Scopulariopsis sp., Chrysosporium sp., Eupenicillium javanicum, Fusarium sp., Penicillium aculeatum, and Penicillium pinophilum. At the end of this work, onychomycosis was observed to be the most prevalent with nondermatophyte molds now becoming very important agents of cutaneous mycoses among rice farmer. Chito Clare Ekwealor and Christie Amechi Oyeka Copyright © 2013 Chito Clare Ekwealor and Christie Amechi Oyeka. All rights reserved. Functions, Cooperation, and Interplays of the Vegetative Growth Signaling Pathway in the Aspergilli Mon, 23 Sep 2013 08:38:55 +0000 Knowledge on the functions, cooperation, and interplays of the signaling and regulatory pathways of filamentous fungi is crucial when their industrial performance is improved or when new-type antifungals are developed. Many research groups aim at a deeper understanding of vegetative growth signaling because this cascade also influences other important physiological processes including asexual and sexual developments, autolysis and apoptotic cell death as well as the production of a wide array of important secondary metabolites. This review also focuses on how this signaling pathway is interconnected with other signaling cascades setting up a robust but delicately regulated signaling network in the Aspergilli. Tünde Pusztahelyi and István Pócsi Copyright © 2013 Tünde Pusztahelyi and István Pócsi. All rights reserved. Integration between Compost, Trichoderma harzianum and Essential Oils for Controlling Peanut Crown Rot under Field Conditions Tue, 27 Aug 2013 13:37:29 +0000 The effect of T. harzianum and some essential oils alone or in combination with compost on the peanut crown rot disease under field conditions was evaluated. Under laboratory conditions, results indicated that all concentrations of essential oils significantly reduced the growth of A. niger. Complete reduction was obtained with thyme and lemongrass oils at 0.5%. All T. harzianum isolates significantly reduced the growth of A. niger. The highest reduction was obtained with isolate no. 1 which reduced the growth by 81.1%. Under field conditions, results indicated that all treatments significantly reduced the peanut crown rot disease. The highest reduction was obtained with combined treatments (compost + T. harzianum + thyme and compost + T. harzianum + lemongrass) which reduced the disease incidence at both pre- and post-emergence growth stages, respectively. Similar trend corresponding to the previous treatments significantly increased the peanut yield which calculated as an increase in yield more than 75.0 and 80.0 during two growing seasons, respectively. It could be suggested that combined treatment between biocompost and essential oils might be used commercially for controlling peanut crown rot disease under field conditions. Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader, Faried Abdel-Kareem, Nehal S. El-Mougy, and R. S. El-Mohamady Copyright © 2013 Mokhtar M. Abdel-Kader et al. All rights reserved. Tetrazolium/Formazan Test as an Efficient Method to Determine Fungal Chitosan Antimicrobial Activity Mon, 03 Jun 2013 08:01:35 +0000 Fungal chitosan was extracted from Aspergillus niger mycelia. The produced chitosan was characterized with deacetylation degree of 89.2%, a molecular weight of 2.4 × 104 Da, and 96.0% solubility in 1% acetic acid solution. The antibacterial activity of fungal chitosan was evaluated against two foodborne pathogens, that is, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus, using the established antibacterial assays, for example, zone of growth inhibition and agar plat count tests, and using 2,3,5,-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) as chromogenic marker for qualitative and quantitative determining of antibacterial potentiality. The TTC (0.5% w/v) was added, at concentration of 10%, to cultured broth, containing chitosan with different concentrations then the formed formazan was separated. The formation of red formazan could be considered as a qualitative indication for antibacterial activity, whereas the measurement of color intensity for the resuspended red formazan, using spectrophotometer at 480 nm, provided a quantitative evidence for the strength of the used antibacterial agent. Regarding the rapidity, technical simplicity, and cost-effectiveness, TTC assay could be recommended as an efficient alternative method for qualitative and quantitative determination of chitosan antibacterial activity and could be suggested for general evaluation of antibacterial agents. Shaaban H. Moussa, Ahmed A. Tayel, Ahmed A. Al-Hassan, and A. Farouk Copyright © 2013 Shaaban H. Moussa et al. All rights reserved. DNA Based Identification and Phylogenetic Characterisation of Endophytic and Saprobic Fungi from Antidesma madagascariense, a Medicinal Plant in Mauritius Tue, 28 May 2013 08:37:07 +0000 Endophytes are fungi associated with plants without causing symptoms, and they are quite diverse and have enormous potential for production of important secondary metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, we report for the first time fungi (both endophytes and saprobes) from Antidesma madagascariense, a medicinal plant in Mauritius, in view of identifying potential candidates for screening of fungi for pharmaceutical importance. In addition the phylogenetic placement of fungi recovered from leaves samples was investigated based on rDNA sequence analysis. Most commonly isolated fungi were related to Aspergillus, Guignardia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, and Trichoderma. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that fungi recovered belong to 5 different fungal lineages (Hypocreaceae, Trichocomaceae, Nectriaceae, Xylariaceae, and Botryosphaeriaceae). DNA data from the ITS regions were reliable in classification of all recovered isolates up to genus level, but identification to an exact species name was not possible at this stage. Despite criticisms pertaining to the use of ITS sequence data in molecular systematics, our approach here provides an opportunity to justify the reliability of ITS sequence data for possible identification and discovering of evolutionary scenarios among isolates that do not sporulate under cultural conditions. Rajesh Jeewon, Jayesh Ittoo, Devendra Mahadeb, Yasmina Jaufeerally-Fakim, Hong-Kai Wang, and Ai-Rong Liu Copyright © 2013 Rajesh Jeewon et al. All rights reserved. Using Commercial Compost as Control Measures against Cucumber Root-Rot Disease Wed, 15 May 2013 14:16:24 +0000 Five commercial composts were evaluated to suppress the root-rot pathogens (Fusarium solani (Mart.) App. and Wr, Pythium ultimum Trow, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.) of cucumber plants under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. In vitro tests showed that all tested unautoclaved and unfiltrated composts water extracts (CWEs) had inhibitor effect against pathogenic fungi, compared to autoclaved and filtrated ones. Also, the inhibitor effects of 40 bacteria and 15 fungi isolated from composts were tested against the mycelial growth of cucumber root-rot pathogens. Twenty two bacteria and twelve fungal isolates had antagonistic effect against root-rot pathogens. The antagonistic fungal isolates were identified as 6 isolates belong to the genus Aspergillus spp., 5 isolates belong to the genus Penicillium spp. and one isolate belong to the genus Chaetomium spp. Under greenhouse conditions, the obtained results in pot experiment using artificial infested soil with cucumber root-rot pathogens showed that the compost amended soil reduced the percentage of disease incidence, pathogenic fungi population, and improved the cucumber vegetative parameters as shoot length, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight. These results suggested that composts are consequently considered as control measure against cucumber root-rot pathogens. Kamel Kamal Sabet, Magdy Mohamed Saber, Mohamed Adel-Aziz El-Naggar, Nehal Samy El-Mougy, Hatem Mohamed El-Deeb, and Ibrahim El-Saied El-Shahawy Copyright © 2013 Kamel Kamal Sabet et al. All rights reserved. Four New Species Records of Umbelopsis (Mucoromycotina) from China Thu, 09 May 2013 15:14:30 +0000 Four species of Umbelopsis newly found in China, that is, U. angularis, U. dimorpha, U. nana, and U. versiformis, are reported in this paper. Descriptions and illustrations are provided for each of them. Ya-ning Wang, Xiao-yong Liu, and Ru-yong Zheng Copyright © 2013 Ya-ning Wang et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing Containment and Control of Candida parapsilosis Fungemia among Neonates in the Outbreak Setting Using a Mathematical Modeling Approach Sun, 17 Mar 2013 09:29:51 +0000 Candida is the second leading cause of sepsis related death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Using the C. parapsilosis paradigm, the endogenous and exogenous routes of infection were simulated in order to enhance prevention among neonates at highest risk. A deterministic model was constructed with transmission parameters calculated from the basic reproductive number (), derived from the mean serial interval from two published outbreaks. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed via Latin hypercube sampling. Prevention measure effects were ascertained by incorporating percent coverage and efficacies into the existing model. The colonized and infected neonatal prevalence peaked at 17.4% and 39.4%, respectively, and reduction was achieved by compartmental replacement with susceptibles. Containment of greater than 60% of the cohort had minimal effect on the effective reproductive number () unless hand hygiene compliance dropped below 40% at a fixed ratio of nurses to neonates. Antifungal prophylaxis in combination with hand hygiene and cohorting extinguished an outbreak 14 days sooner than baseline. The critical proportion () requiring prophylaxis in order to stop an outbreak increases, as rises, and the prophylaxis efficacies decrease. Internal and external sources of Candida lead to invasive disease in neonates differentially. Optimal prevention is dependent upon understanding the dynamics of this disease process under diverse circumstances. Anil A. Panackal Copyright © 2013 Anil A. Panackal. All rights reserved. Biofilm Formation by Filamentous Fungi Recovered from a Water System Mon, 04 Mar 2013 16:20:38 +0000 Filamentous fungi have been constantly recovered from diverse aquatic environments including drinking water distribution systems. Although most of the works are focused on the study of planktonic form, recent researches have shown that fungi develop biofilm within these systems. In this study, Aspergillus sp. (section Nigri), Aspergillus sp. (section Flavi), Alternaria sp., Botrytis sp., Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. recovered from water biofilms were used to evaluate their capability to grow as biofilms under laboratorial conditions. Morphological and physiological characteristics were analysed using image analysis and biomass and cell activity estimation. All six isolates were able to form biofilm, though different patterns of development were observed. Only Alternaria sp. formed biofilm in water over 24 h of analysis. MEB was shown to be the best culture media for biofilm formation. A direct correlation between biomass and cell activity was not observed, but biomass values and morphological parameters, that is, monolayer and EPS production, were directly correlated. Thus, the results present here highlight the capability of fungi to form biofilms and the emergent necessity to standardize methods for further research in this area. Virgínia M. Siqueira and Nelson Lima Copyright © 2013 Virgínia M. Siqueira and Nelson Lima. All rights reserved.