Journal of Nuclear Chemistry The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Determination of Effective Atomic Numbers Using Different Methods for Some Low-Z Materials Thu, 07 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 In the present work, different methods were used to determine the effective atomic numbers of some low-Z materials, namely, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), Perspex (PX), polycarbonate (PC), nylon 6-6 (PA-6), plaster of Paris (POP), and TH/L2. These methods are the direct method, the interpolation method, Auto- software, and single value XMuDat computer program. Some of the results obtained were compared with experimental data wherever possible. It can be concluded from this work that the effective atomic numbers calculated with the direct, the interpolation and Auto- methods demonstrate a good agreement in Compton scattering and pair production energy regions. A large difference in the effective atomic numbers calculated by the direct and the interpolation methods of low-Z materials was also observed in photoelectric and pair production regions. It was determined that PE, PS, PX, and PA-6 were equivalent to adipose and muscle; POP was equivalent to cortical bone; TH/L2 was equivalent to thyroid tissue; PP was equivalent to yellow bone marrow and adipose tissues; PC was equivalent to spongiosa. Vishwanath P. Singh, N. M. Badiger, and Nil Kucuk Copyright © 2014 Vishwanath P. Singh et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Iodine Content of Some Commonly Consumed Foods in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria, Using PCNAA and Sandell-Kolthoff Reaction Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The Nigerian Research Reactor-1 was employed in the analysis of iodine in local food samples at an operating flux of  ncm−2 s−1. Preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PCNAA) was compared against the most common spectroscopic (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction) technique, giving a concentration range of 0.295 to 2.960 mg/Kg and 0.264 to 2.725 mg/Kg, respectively, with an average percentage deviation of 11.34% and a positive correlation between the methods at 0.89. PCNAA and Sandell-Kolthoff spectroscopy of NIST 1548a reported values of  mg/Kg and with Student’s t-test score of 1 and 0.95 and percentage standard deviation of 0 and 1.12%, respectively. T. Muhammad, A. Uzairu, M. S. Sallau, and M. O. A. Oladipo Copyright © 2014 T. Muhammad et al. All rights reserved. Probing Uranium(IV) Hydrolyzed Colloids and Polymers by Light Scattering Wed, 26 Mar 2014 08:12:54 +0000 Tetravalent uranium readily undergoes hydrolysis even in highly acidic aqueous solutions. In the present work, solutions ranging from 0.4 to 19 mM (total U) concentration () are carefully investigated by light scattering technique with special emphasis on polymerization leading to colloid formation. The results clearly indicate that the concentration has significant effect on particle size as well as stability of colloids. With increasing concentration the size of colloids formed is smaller due to more crystalline nature of the colloids. Stability of colloids formed at lower concentration is greater than that of colloids formed at higher concentration. Weight average molecular weight of the freshly prepared and colloidal polymers aged for 3 days is determined from the Debye plot. It increases from 1,800 to 13,000 Da. 40–50 atoms of U are considered to be present in the polymer. Positive value of second virial coefficient shows that solute-solvent interaction is high leading to stable suspension. The results of this work are a clear indication that U(IV) hydrolysis does not differ from hydrolysis of Pu(IV). N. Priyadarshini, M. Sampath, Shekhar Kumar, U. Kamachi Mudali, and R. Natarajan Copyright © 2014 N. Priyadarshini et al. All rights reserved. Immobilization of Simulated Borate Radioactive Waste Solution in Cement-Poly(methylmethacrylate) Composite: Mechanical and Chemical Characterizations Tue, 10 Sep 2013 15:35:42 +0000 Solidified cured cement blocks containing different concentrations of the borate waste simulate were impregnated using methyl methacrylate monomer having 0.3% by weight benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Then, the polymerization process was completed by heating the impregnated blocks at ≈40°C. To define the suitability, range of applicability, and compatibility of the inert matrix used, relevant to the borate waste immobilized, the final radioactive borate waste forms are evaluated on the basis of their mechanical and chemical properties. Some factors that may affect the characterization of the obtained final waste form, for example, concentration of the incorporated borate waste solution simulate, aging of the solid waste form, before immersion, immersion in various leachants, and time of immersion, were followed systematically. It could be stated that cement-poly(methylmethacrylate) composite exhibited better mechanical and chemical characters compared to the cement as a unique matrix for immobilization of borate waste concentrates. H. M. Saleh and H. A. Shatta Copyright © 2013 H. M. Saleh and H. A. Shatta. All rights reserved. Characterization of Radium Sulphate Wed, 22 May 2013 13:30:41 +0000 This paper examines the crystal structure of radium sulphate and compares its structure to barium sulphate, strontium sulphate, and lead sulphate. The radium sulphate powder was measured by both powder X-ray diffraction and EXAFS. The unit cell was determined to be orthorhombic, belonging to the Pnma (no. 62) space group with the cell parameters  Å,  Å,  Å, and  Å3. These data support the fact that radium sulphate is isostructural with barium, strontium, and lead sulphate. The bond distances were determined using EXAFS. The mean Ra–O and S–O bond distances were found to be 2.96(2) Å and 1.485(8) Å, respectively, and the Ra–O–S bond angle was . Findings of EXAFS data are quite consistent and support the XRD data. These findings show that it is possible for radium to coprecipitate with barium, strontium, and lead in sulphate media to form a substitutional solid solution. Hanna Hedström, Ingmar Persson, Gunnar Skarnemark, and Christian Ekberg Copyright © 2013 Hanna Hedström et al. All rights reserved. Studies on the Rain Scavenging Process of Tritium in a Tropical Site at Narora in India Tue, 02 Apr 2013 19:09:24 +0000 This study presents the results of systematic experiments on tritium (3H) concentrations in ground level air against those in rainwater near a pressurized heavy water reactor in a tropical region. The samples were collected over the rainy season of year 2011 from eight locations in the environment around Narora Atomic Power Station. The specific activity ratio of 3H between rainwater and air moisture at ground level was calculated for each data set. The average specific activity ratio was found to be ranged from 0.12 to 1.1. A correlation ( to 0.76, ) was observed between the total rain hours in a day and the rainwater 3H activity. Higher rain duration with slower rain rate yielded higher 3H concentrations as more time was available for the scavenging/wash-out process to take effect together with lower dilution. Annual tritium (HTO) wet deposition has been measured and calculated for the year 2011 within 0.8 km distance from 145 m high stack of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) at nine locations in different directions. The range of deposition velocity, (m·s−1), at nine locations for the years 2011 is found to be from 4.43E − 04 to 6.42E − 03. The average value for wet deposition velocity for NAPS site is estimated as 3.17E − 03 m·s−1. Y. P. Gautam, Saivajay Sharma, A. K. Sharma, Aviansh Kumar, P. M. Ravi, and P. K. Sarkar Copyright © 2013 Y. P. Gautam et al. All rights reserved.