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Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 319898, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/319898
Review Article

Oxidative Stress and Its Clinical Applications in Dementia

1The Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
2The Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA

Received 5 June 2012; Accepted 16 July 2012

Academic Editor: Peter Crouch

Copyright © 2013 Peizhong Mao. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dementia is a complex disorder that mostly affects the elderly and represents a significant and growing public health burden in the world. Alzheimer’s disease (AD)- associated dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are the most common forms of dementia, in which oxidative stress is significantly involved. Oxidative stress mechanisms may have clinical applications, that is, providing information for potential biomarkers. Thus brain-rich peptides with an antioxidant property, such as CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), may be promising new markers. This paper summarizes the progress in research regarding oxidative stress in dementia with a focus on potential biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the main forms of dementia. Other central and peripheral biomarkers, especially those considered oxidative stress related, are also discussed. This paper aims to provide information to improve current understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of dementia. It also offers insight into the differential diagnosis of AD and DLB.