Table 1: Comparison of detection limits between AFP-nanoarray chips and other methods.

MethodDynamic range (ng/mL)LOD (ng/mL)References

SPR 1.0–200 (14 pM–2.8 nM)0.65 (9.1 pM)[22]
BL immunoassay I0.01–100 (140 fM–1.4 nM) 0.01 (140 fM)[23]
BL immunoassay II0.02–200 (280 fM–2.8 nM) 0.02 (280 fM)[28, 29]
CRET 5–70 (70 pM–980 pM)2.50 (35 pM)[25]
FRET inhibition assay0.8–45 (11.2 pM–0.63 nM)0.41 (5.74 pM)[30]
Pz immunoassay20–640 (280 pM–8.96 nM) 20 (280 pM)[31]
EC immunoassay I 0.5–80 (7 pM–1.12 nM)0.25 (3.5 pM)[32]
EC immunoassay II0.1–30 (1.4 pM–420 pM)0.018 (252 fM)[33]
EC immunoassay III 0.01–200 (140 fM–2.8 nM)0.004 (56 fM)[34]
EC immunoassay IV 1.0–10 (14 pM–140 pM)0.70 (9.8 pM)[35]
ECL immunoassay0.002–32 (28 fM–448 pM)0.002 (28 fM)[36]
CL immunoassay 0.01–0.5 (140 fM–7 pM)0.005 (70 fM)[37]
AFP-nanoarray chip 50 × 10−9–714.3 (720 zM–10 nM)50 × 10−9 (720 zM)This work

Indication: SPR: surface plasmon resonance; BL: bioluminescent; CRET: chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer; FRET: fluorescence resonance energy transfer; Pz: piezoelectric; EC: electrochemical; ECL: electrogenerated chemiluminescence; CL: chemiluminescence; LOD: limit of detection.