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Figure 1: Liposomes functionalized with E-selectin (ES) adhesively bind and deliver doxorubicin to MCF7 breast cancer cells. (a) Flow cytometry fluorescence histograms of MCF7 cells adhered to fluorescently tagged (FL) liposomes and FL ES functionalized liposomes after exposure to fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer. FITC: Fluorescein isothiocyanate. (b) Confocal microscopy image of FL ES liposomes (green) bound to MCF7 cells after fluid shear stress exposure. Cell nucleus = blue. Scale bar = 10 μm. (c) Number of viable MCF7 cells after treatment with empty liposomes (EL), liposomal doxorubicin (L-DXR) or ES functionalized L-DXR (ES-PEG L-DXR) under static conditions for a period of 1–4 days. (d) Dose response of MCF7 cells after treatment with liposomes over a 4-day period. ((e)–(h)) Bright field microscopy images of untreated MCF7 cells (e) and those treated with EL (f), L-DXR (g), and ES-PEG L-DXR (h) after a 4-day period. Scale bars = 100 μm. ((i)–(l)) Fluorescence microscopy images of doxorubicin uptake (red) of untreated MCF7 cells (i) and those treated with EL (j), L-DXR (k), and ES-PEG L-DXR (l) after a 4-day period.