- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

Journal of Nanomaterials

Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 848274, 7 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/848274

## Effective Red Compensation of : Phosphor by Codoping Ions and Its Energy Transfer

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210009, China

Received 15 August 2012; Accepted 28 September 2012

Academic Editor: Su Chen

Copyright © 2012 Le Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

Mn^{2+} ions codoped Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+} phosphors were prepared by the solid-state reaction method using NH_{4}Cl as the flux. Their phase compositions, photoluminescence properties, and the energy transfer process were systematically investigated. All Mn/Dy codoped powders were ′-Sr_{2}SiO_{4}. The codoping concentration range of Mn^{2+} was mol% to keep the structure undamaged. The broad red emission of Mn^{2+} centered at 647 nm in Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Mn, Dy powders, which effectively compensated the red emission of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+} phosphor. The CIE chromaticity coordinates dramatically changed from (0.310, 0.340) to (0.332, 0.326) due to the red enhancement via the energy transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+}. This energy transfer is realized by the exchange interaction. But the luminescence quenching of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy, Mn phosphor was mainly caused by the electric multipoles interaction. The concentration optimized (Sr_{0.96}, Mn_{0.02}, Dy_{0.02})_{2}SiO_{4} phosphor with high and almost pure white emission has great potential to act as a single-matrix white phosphor for white LEDs.

#### 1. Introduction

White light emitting diodes have attracted more attention due to their potential applications in extensive fields, such as device indicators, backlight, automobile headlights, and general illumination [1–4]. Current white LEDs are composed of blue-emitting GaN chip and yellow-emitting YAG : Ce phosphor. However, YAG : Ce has a deficient red emission, leading the white LEDs to have a low color rendering index (CRI < 80) [5]. To enrich the red emission, the phosphor blend of YAG : Ce and a red emitting phosphor is generally applied [6, 7]. Another technology is the combination of tricolor phosphors with an UV-LED chip. The above phosphor mixtures give fluorescence reabsorption and nonuniformity of luminescence properties, resulting in a loss of luminous efficiency and time-dependent shift of the color point. Therefore, a single-phase phosphor with direct white light emission is desirable [8–11].

At present, the most of this kind phosphors have at least two luminescent centers, such as Eu^{2+}/Mn^{2+} [3, 12, 13], Ce^{3+}/Eu^{2+} [8], or Eu^{2+} (in different lattice sites) [9]. As the natural white light emission ions, Dy^{3+} ions have two dominant emission bands of blue (485 nm, ^{4}F_{9/2} → ^{6}H_{15/2}) and yellow (570 nm, ^{4}F_{9/2} → ^{6}H_{13/2}) [14, 15]. Recently, Dy^{3+} doped alkaline earth orthosilicates (Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+}) powders have attracted much attention due to its excellent emission characteristic, single luminescent center, and high absorption efficiency in the UV region [16–18]. This phosphor can emit white light with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.310, 0.340). However, there is still a gap comparing with the pure white light (0.330, 0.330) due to the weak red emission at ~665 nm. Predictably, the compensation of red light will effectively reduce this gap and enhance the CRI and then obtain warm white light.

As known, Mn^{2+} ions can effectively absorb UV light and then emit different colors from green to deep red depending on the surrounding crystal field strength [19]. Red or white phosphors were successfully obtained by adjusting the concentration ratios of Mn^{2+}/Dy^{3+} or Eu^{2+}/Dy^{3+} [20–22]. Therefore, there is reason to believe that the 3 configured Mn^{2+} ions may effectively compensate the red emission of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+} phosphor as a red-emitting center with suitable doping concentration.

In this paper, Dy^{3+} and Mn^{2+} ions codoped Sr_{2}SiO_{4} powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction method using 5 wt% NH_{4}Cl as the flux. The phase compositions and luminescence properties of prepared powders were systematically investigated as well as the energy transfer process from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+}. It was found that the broad emission band of Mn^{2+} centered at 650 nm was observed from Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Mn^{2+}, Dy^{3+} powders. The energy transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+} dramatically changed the CIE chromaticity coordinates from (0.310, 0.340) to (0.332, 0.326). Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+}, Mn^{2+} with high and almost pure white emission has great potential to act as single-matrix white phosphor for white LEDs.

#### 2. Materials and Experimental Details

All powder samples were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. High purity Dy_{2}O_{3} (>99.99%, the others are analytical grade), SrCO_{3}, SiO_{2}, MnCO_{3}, Li_{2}CO_{3} (the charge compensation agent), and NH_{4}Cl (5 wt%, the flux) were used as the starting materials. Stoichiometrical amounts of starting materials were mixed with ethanol and then ball milled using planetary milling machine for 8 h. The synthesis was performed at 1000°C for 4 h under the reducing atmosphere (5% H_{2} + 95% N_{2}). Series of (, )_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy_{0.02} powders and (, )_{2}SiO_{4} : Mn_{0.04} (–8.0, mol%) were prepared.

The crystalline phases of the synthesized powders were determined by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, D/Max2500, Rigaku, Japan) using Cu K radiation ( Å) in the range of 5°*~*80° with a step size of 0.02°. The photoluminescence spectra of the phosphors were measured using a fluorescent spectrophotometer (FL3-221, HOROBA, Jobin Yvon, France) with a 450 W xenon lamp as the excitation source (the multiplication voltage: 700 V; the slit width: 2.5 nm). All measurements were carried out at room temperature.

#### 3. Results and Discussion

##### 3.1. Phase Compositions of (Sr, Mn, Dy)_{2}SiO_{4} Powders

Figure 1 shows the XRD patterns of 1 mol% DyMn (~8.0 mol%) doped Sr_{2}SiO_{4} powders. The overlap between the diffraction peaks of -Sr_{2}SiO_{4} (JCPDS no. 39-1256) and -Sr_{2}SiO_{4} (no. 38-0271) was too much to index them precisely, especially at about 30–32°. Therefore, only the diffraction peaks with clear ownership were indexed. Obviously, the phase compositions of Dy/Mn codoped powders were almost pure -Sr_{2}SiO_{4} when mol%. The ionic radiuses of Sr^{2+}, Mn^{2+}, and Dy^{3+} are 1.12, 0.80, and 0.91 Å, respectively. Therefore, the diffraction peaks of all samples slightly shifted to the higher angle with increasing the substitution concentration of Mn^{2+} (Figure 1 (right)). However, minor SrSiO_{3} and MnO_{2} were found when the Mn concentration was increased to 8.0 mol%. In general, the substitution of Mn^{2+} with smaller ionic radius cannot change the crystal structure of host. However, the difference of ionic radiuses between Sr^{2+} and Mn^{2+} is 40.0% ((1.12–0.80)/0.80, much bigger than 15%) and the electronegativity of Mn^{2+} (1.55) is much bigger than that of Sr^{2+} (0.95), which make the excess Mn exist in “MnO_{2}” form [23].

When the Dy concentration was fixed at 1.0 mol%, the codoping concentration of Mn^{2+} for the maximum red emission was 2.0 mol% (see later part “*3.2 Luminescence of ** powders*”). Thus, the samples (, )_{2}SiO_{4} : Mn_{0.04} (–8.0, mol%) as a function of Dy concentration were also synthesized to obtain the simultaneous maximum of the emission of Dy and Mn. Their XRD patterns are shown in Figure 2. All Mn/Dy codoped powders were also phase. All diffraction peaks slightly shifted to higher angle with increasing the substitution concentration of Dy^{3+}. In fact, the phase compositions of all Mn/Dy codoped powders are consistent with the regularity suggested by our previous study [17]. Without any doping, the phase composition of host powders using 5.0 wt% NH_{4}Cl as the flux is almost pure phase [16]. But the smaller ions (Dy^{3+}/Mn^{2+}) doped or codoped powders are -Sr_{2}SiO_{4}. The doping of smaller ions within certain concentration range is beneficial to the formation of phase. Here, the structure is still stable even though the codoping concentration of Dy^{3+} reaches 8.0 mol%. However, the codoping concentration range of Mn^{2+} to keep the structure undamaged is ≤4.0 mol% in our experiments due to the big difference of ionic radius between Mn^{2+} and Sr^{2+}. Therefore, the codoped Mn^{2+} ions are considered to be effective to occupy the Sr^{2+} site in the range of 0.0~4.0 mol%.

##### 3.2. Luminescence of (Sr, Mn, Dy)_{2}SiO_{4} Powders

Figure 3(a) shows the excitation spectrum of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+} powders ( nm). The excitation peaks included 349, 364, 386, 452, and 466 nm corresponding to the transitions of ^{6}H_{15/2} → ^{4}D_{7/2}, ^{6}P_{7/2}, ^{4}F_{21/2}, ^{4}I_{15/2} and ^{4}F_{9/2}, respectively. The strongest excitation peak was at 349 nm. Its corresponding emission spectrum (Figure 3(b)) exhibited the typical characteristics of Dy^{3+} ions, including two strong peaks centered at 477 nm and 571 nm and a weak emission at 665 nm. The integrated intensities of blue (477 nm) and yellow (571 nm) colors were almost equal. Figure 4(a) shows the excitation spectrum of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Mn^{2+} powders ( nm). The main excitation peaks centered at 371, 416, and 543 nm, corresponding to the transitions from ^{6}A_{1}(^{6}S) ground state of Mn^{2+} to its ^{4}T_{2}(^{4}G),^{ 4}E(^{4}G), and ^{4}T_{1}(^{4}G) excited state, respectively. Under the excitation of 416 nm, a broad emission centered at 647 nm was observed (Figure 4(b)). This emission was caused by the transition of ^{4}T_{1}(^{4}G)-^{6}A_{1}(^{6}S) and its Gauss fitting curves (dotted line) included two peaks at 645 nm and 719 nm, which maybe resulting from the two kinds of lattice environment of Sr^{2+} site (their coordination numbers were 9 and 10, resp.).

From Figure 5 (a, excitation spectrum of Mn^{2+}) and (b, emission spectrum of Dy^{3+}), it can be seen that the excitation of Mn^{2+} was overlapped by the emission of Dy^{3+}, which indicated that a potential energy transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+} in Sr_{2}SiO_{4} lattice might exist. Figure 5(c) shows the excitation spectrum of Dy/Mn codoped (Sr_{0.97}Mn_{0.02})_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy_{0.02} powders. The monitored wavelength was 647 nm for the emission of Mn^{2+}. However, the strong absorption of Dy^{3+} at 349 nm appeared which strongly indicated that the energy transfer of Dy^{3+} → Mn^{2+} happened. In addition, the characteristic emission of Mn^{2+} at ~650 nm was also clearly observed under the excitation of 349 nm (Figure 5(d)). Though the emission of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy also contained the peak at 665 nm, the luminescence enhancement of Mn^{2+} at ~650 nm further proved the energy transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+}. The luminescence intensities of Mn^{2+} at 647 nm and Dy^{3+} at 571 nm asynchronously changed with their concentration variations shown in Figure 6 (only four concentration pairs with dramatic change are shown). The detailed change of the integrated intensities of 550–600 nm for Dy^{3+} and 635–700 nm for Mn^{2+} of all concentration-pairs is shown in Figure 7.

When the concentration of Dy^{3+} was fixed at 1.0 mol%, the emission intensity of Dy^{3+} gradually decreased with the increase of Mn^{2+} concentration (Figure 7(b)) and the emission intensity of Mn^{2+} firstly increased and then dropped down. The optimum concentration of Mn^{2+} for the maximum red-emission was 2.0 mol%. Therefore, the samples (, )_{2}SiO_{4} : Mn_{0.04} as a function of Dy^{3+} concentration were also synthesized to obtain the strong emissions of Dy^{3+} and Mn^{2+} simultaneously. The detailed emission change is shown in Figure 7(a). With the increase of the concentration of Dy^{3+}, the yellow emission intensity reached the maximum when the corresponding concentration of Dy^{3+} was 1.0 mol%. But when the red emission intensity of Mn^{2+} reached the maximum, the codoped concentration of Dy^{3+} was 2.0 mol%, and then the great decrease of the two emissions occurred due to the self-concentration quenching of Dy^{3+} ions. That is, the optimum concentration ranges of Dy^{3+} and Mn^{2+} to obtain the highest yellow and red emissions are 1.0~2.0 mol%. From the typical emission spectra of four concentration-pairs shown in Figure 6, it was noted that the peak location of red emission changed with the variation of the Dy/Mn concentrations. A red shift occurred from 651 nm to 659 nm with the increase of Mn concentration (b~d) and this may be due to the exchange interactions between Mn^{2+} ions [24].

The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the four concentration-pair powders are shown in Figure 8. They were all in white light region. However, comparing with the point (a), points (b, c, and d) had the purer white color and their CIE coordinates were closer with the pure white point (0.330, 0.330; five stars). The optimized coordinates were (0.332, 0.326) with higher emission intensity when the codoping concentrations of Dy^{3+} and Mn^{2+} were 2.0 mol% and 2.0 mol%, respectively. That is, the red emission of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy phosphor was effectively compensated by the codoping of Mn^{2+} ions, the concentration-optimizing of Dy/Mn, and the energy transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+}.

##### 3.3. Energy Transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+}

Figure 9 shows the schematic diagram of energy transfer in Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy, Mn powders. The excitation peaks of Mn^{2+} at 416 and 543 nm (^{6}A_{1}(6S) → ^{4}T_{2}(^{4}G)/^{4}T_{1}(^{4}G)) were covered by the emission peaks of Dy^{3+} at 477 nm and 571 nm (^{4}F_{9/2} → ^{4}H_{15/2}/^{6}H_{13/2}). This overlap indicates that the energy transfer mechanism is likely to be the radiative reabsorption or nonradiative cross relaxation. However, it could not be the radiative transfer because the oscillator strengths of ^{6}A_{1}(6S) → ^{4}T_{2}(^{4}D)/^{4}T_{1}(^{4}G) are very weak and the resulted energy transfer will be much weaker. Therefore, the energy transfer is likely to be the non-radiative cross-relaxation (CR) between the ^{4}F_{9/2} → ^{4}H_{15/2}, ^{6}H_{13/2} transitions of Dy^{3+}, and the ^{6}A_{1}(6S) → ^{4}T_{2}(^{4}G), ^{4}T_{1}(^{4}G) transitions of Mn^{2+} as shown in Figure 9.

In order to elucidate the type of the interaction involved in the energy transfer from the donor ions (Dy^{3+}) to the acceptor ions (Mn^{2+}), the luminescence intensities of Dy^{3+} and Mn^{2+} were integrated from the emission spectra of Dy/Mn codoped powders according to the VanUitert’s work [25–27]. The relationship between the luminescence intensity of the donor ions (Dy^{3+}) and the concentration of the acceptor ions (Mn^{2+}) satisfies the following formula [28]:
and are the luminescence intensity of donor ions (Dy^{3+}) without and with the appearance of acceptor ions (Mn^{2+}), respectively. is a constant for one host. When the value is 3, 6, 8, and 10, the interaction type is the exchange interaction, dipoles-dipoles (d-d), dipoles-quadrupoles (d-q), and quadrupoles-quadrupoles (q-q), respectively. The relation curve between log((Dy)) and log((Mn)) is plotted in Figure 10(a). According to the slope of the fitted line for the curve (a), is 1.02 and is 3.06. As stated in VanUitert’s theory [25], the energy transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+} is realized by the exchange interaction.

In the meantime, in Huang’s theory [28] for the interaction type among the donor ions (Dy^{3+}), the relationship between the luminescent intensity () and the concentration of activators () should be expressed as
where , is the transition probability of the donor ions (Dy^{3+}), is the sample dimension (), is a concentration-independent function, and is the concentration of the donor ions (Dy^{3+}). is the electric multipoles index. When value is 3, 6, 8 and 10, the interaction type is also exchange interaction, d-d, d-q, and q-q, respectively. After a mathematical operating,
is a concentration-independent constant. Thus, the value of could be obtained by the relation curve of plotted in Figure 10(b). According to the slope of the fitted line for the curve (b), is approximately equal to 4.80, which means that the d-d interaction () as well as the exchange interaction () are involved in the self-concentration quenching of the ^{4}F_{9/2} → ^{6}H_{13/2} transition of Dy^{3+} (571 nm). On the basis of a simple linear-algebraic calculation for the value (), where the value is the fraction of the exchange interaction, about 40% of the non-radiative energy transfer occurs via the exchange interaction. Therefore, the d-d interaction is involved in a major way in the luminescence quenching of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+}, Mn^{2+} phosphor.

#### 4. Conclusions

In this paper, Mn^{2+} ions codoped Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+} phosphors were successfully prepared by the solid-state reaction method using NH_{4}Cl as the flux. All Mn/Dy codoped powders were -Sr_{2}SiO_{4} with the slight shift of the diffraction peaks to higher angle with the increase of the substitution concentrations of Mn/Dy. The codoping concentration range of Mn^{2+} is ≤4.0 mol% to keep the structure undamaged. The broad red emission of Mn^{2+} centered at ~650 nm was observed from Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Mn, Dy powders, which effectively compensated the red emission of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+} phosphor. The CIE chromaticity coordinates dramatically changed from (0.310, 0.340) to (0.332, 0.326) due to the red enhancement via the energy transfer from Dy^{3+} to Mn^{2+}. This energy transfer is realized through the exchange interaction. But the d-d interaction plays a major role in the luminescence quenching of Sr_{2}SiO_{4} : Dy^{3+}, Mn^{2+} phosphor. The concentration optimized (Sr_{0.96}, Mn_{0.02}, Dy_{0.02})_{2}SiO_{4} phosphor with almost pure white emission has great potential to act as a single-matrix white phosphor for white LEDs.

#### Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the generous financial supports from the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2007724), National Natural Science Foundation of China (51202111), Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), and Research and Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province (CXZZ12_0410).

#### References

- R. V. Steele, “The story of a new light source,”
*Nature Photonics*, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 25–26, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto et al., “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,”
*Physica Status Solidi A*, vol. 204, no. 6, pp. 2087–2093, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeon, Y. H. Park et al., “White-light generation through ultraviolet-emitting diode and white-emitting phosphor,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 85, no. 17, pp. 3696–3698, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - F. B. Wu, D. W. Zhang, S. Z. Shang, Y. M. Zhu, S. L. Zhuang, and J. Xu, “Developing quantum dot phosphor-based light-emitting diodes for aviation lighting applications,”
*Journal of Nanomaterials*, vol. 2012, Article ID 629157, 5 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - M. A. Greenwood, “Phosphor-coated LED converts blue light to white,”
*Photonics Spectra*, vol. 42, no. 6, article 100, 2008. View at Scopus - G. Liu, S. Zhang, X. Dong, and J. Wang, “Solvothermal synthesis of Gd
_{2}O_{3}: Eu^{3+}luminescent nanowires,”*Journal of Nanomaterials*, vol. 2010, Article ID 365079, 5 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - C. S. Ciobanu, S. L. Iconaru, F. Massuyeau, L. V. Constantin, A. Costescu, and D. Predoi, “Synthesis, structure, and luminescent properties of europium-doped hydroxyapatite nanocrystalline powders,”
*Journal of Nanomaterials*, vol. 2012, Article ID 942801, 9 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - C. K. Chang and T. M. Chen, “Sr
_{3}B_{2}O_{6}: Ce^{3+}, Eu^{2+}: a potential single-phased white-emitting borate phosphor for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,”*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 91, no. 8, Article ID 081902, 3 pages, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - J. S. Kim, P. E. Jeonny, J. C. Choi, H. L. Park, S. I. Mho, and G. C. Kim, “Warm-white-light emitting diode utilizing a single-phase full-color Ba
_{3}MgSi_{2}O_{8}:Eu^{2+}, Mn^{2+}phosphor,”*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 84, no. 15, pp. 2931–2933, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Z. L. Wang, K. W. Cheah, H. L. Tam, and M. L. Gong, “Near-ultraviolet light excited deep blue-emitting phosphor for solid-state lighting,”
*Journal of Alloys and Compounds*, vol. 482, no. 1-2, pp. 437–439, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - S. G. Johnson and J. A. Simmons, “Materials for solid state lighting,” in
*Proceedings of the Materials and Devices for Optoelectronics and Microphotonics*, pp. 53–64, San Francisco, Calif, USA, April 2002. View at Scopus - A. A. Setlur, J. J. Shiang, and U. Happek, “Eu
^{2+}–Mn^{2+}phosphor saturation in 5 mm light emitting diode lamps,”*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 92, no. 8, Article ID 081104, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - S. H. Lee, J. H. Park, S. M. Son, J. S. Kim, and H. L. Park, “White-light-emitting phosphor: CaMgSi
_{2}O_{6}:Eu^{2+}, Mn^{2+}and its related properties with blending,”*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 89, no. 22, Article ID 221916, 3 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - E. Cavalli, M. Bettinelli, A. Belletti, and A. Speghini, “Optical spectra of yttrium phosphate and yttrium vanadate single crystals activated with Dy
^{3+},”*Journal of Alloys and Compounds*, vol. 341, no. 1-2, pp. 107–110, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - G. S. Raghuvanshi, H. D. Bist, and H. C. Kandpal, “Luminescence characteristics of Dy
^{3+}in different host matrices,”*Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids*, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 781–783, 1982. View at Scopus - L. Zhang, Z. Lu, H. Yang, P. Han, N. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Preparation of Dy
^{3+}-activated strontium orthosilicate (Sr_{2}SiO_{4}:Dy^{3+}) phosphors and its photoluminescent properties,”*Journal of Alloys and Compounds*, vol. 512, no. 1, pp. 5–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - L. Zhang, P. Han, Z. Lu et al., “Enhanced luminescence of Sr
_{2}SiO_{4}:Dy^{3+}by sensitization (Ce^{3+}/Bi^{3+}) and its composition-induced phase transition,”*Journal of Alloys and Compounds*, vol. 541, pp. 54–59, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - L. Zhang, Z. Lu, P. Han, and Q. Zhang, “Action mechanism of NH
_{4}Cl flux used to synthesize Sr_{2}SiO_{4}:Dy^{3+}phosphor by solid-state reactionmethod,”*Journal of The American Ceramic Society*. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - T. Moon, G. Y. Hong, H. C. Lee et al., “Effects of Eu
^{2+}co-doping on vuv photoluminescence properties of BaMgAl_{10}O_{17}: Mn^{2+}phosphors for plasma display panels,”*Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters*, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. J61–J63, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - L. Lin, M. Yin, C. Shi, and W. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of a new red long-lasting phosphor: Mg
_{2}SiO_{4}:Dy^{3+}, Mn^{2+},”*Journal of Alloys and Compounds*, vol. 455, no. 1-2, pp. 327–330, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - S. L. Yuan, Y. X. Yang, X. H. Zhang et al., “Eu
^{2+}and Mn^{2+}codoped Ba_{2}Mg(BO_{3})_{2}—new red phosphor for white LEDs,”*Optics Letters*, vol. 33, no. 23, pp. 2865–2867, 2008. View at Scopus - J. S. Kim, K. T. Lim, Y. S. Jeong, P. E. Jeon, J. C. Choi, and H. L. Park, “Full-color Ba
_{3}MgSi_{2}O_{8}:Eu^{2+}, Mn^{2+}phosphors for white-light-emitting diodes,”*Solid State Communications*, vol. 135, no. 1-2, pp. 21–24, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - Q. Zhang,
*Fundamentals of Inorganic Materials Science*, East China University of Science and Technology Press, Shanghai, China, 2006. - C. R. Ronda and T. Amrein, “Evidence for exchange-induced luminescence in Zn
_{2}SiO_{4}: Mn,”*Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 69, no. 5-6, pp. 245–248, 1996. View at Scopus - L. G. van Uitert and L. F. Johnson, “Energy transfer between rare-earth ions,”
*The Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 44, no. 9, pp. 3514–3522, 1966. View at Scopus - L. G. van Uitert, E. F. Dearborn, and H. M. Marcos, “Mechanisms of energy transfer involving trivalent Tb and Eu,”
*Applied Physics Letters*, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 255–257, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus - L. G. V. Uitert, “Characterization of energy transfer interactions between rare earth ions,”
*Journal of the Electrochemical Society*, vol. 114, no. 10, pp. 1048–1053, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - S. Huang and L. Lou, “Concentration dependence of sensitizer fluorescence intensity in enery transfer,”
*Chinese Journal of Luminescence*, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1990.