Table 1: A summary of optimizing various electrode materials and suitable strategies to construct 3DSNAEs on various current collector substrates.

3DSANEsCollectorMaterialsGrowth methodRemark

Cathode AlV2O5 [69], LiCoO2 [70]Template-based chemical or physical depositionNeeding complicated synthesis techniques
Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) V2O5-TiO2 [68], InVO4 [71] Chemical or physical deposition
Anode Cu
CNTs [72], Si [73], metal (Sn, Bi) [74, 75], MO (M = Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni) [65, 7678], alloy (SnCo [79], NiSn [18, 80, 81], SiGe [82]), Cu2S [83], Cu3P [84], Sn/graphene [85]
Template-based chemical or physical deposition
Solution-based growth
NiNi3S2 [60], MnO2 [86], Co3O4 [87]Electrodeposition, solution-based growth
Fe-based alloyMO (M = Sn, Fe, Zn) [8890]Hydrothermal, solution-based growth
GoldSnO2 [91], CNT-MnO2 [92], SnCo [93] Template-based chemical or physical depositionNeeding complicated synthesis techniques
Cathode or anodeThe stainless steelCNTs [94], Ge [95], Si [37, 9699], CNT-Si [100], Si/Cu [101], SnO2 [47], ITO/TiO2 [102], Ni/MnO2 [103], Fe2O3/SnO2 [104], V2O5/SnO2 [44], CNTs-LiCoO2 (LiMn2O4) [105], CNTs-LiCoPO4 [106, 107] Chemical/physical vapor deposition Needing high temperature
TiV2O5 [108], MO (M = Ti, Co, Fe, Sn) [49, 50, 62, 109]Anodization, hydro/solvothermal, Solution-based growthIt is a hope for large scale preparation
SiV2O5 [45], Si [56], Si/NiO [110], MnO2 [111], Cu2O [112], Sn [113]Chemical/physical deposition, etchingNeeding complicated synthesis techniques