Table 1: Formation energies (eV) of M-doped (M = Al, Ga, In) ZnONSs.

Configurations Formation energies (eV)
M–ZnM–O

Al-ZnONSs3.975.76
Ga-ZnONSs6.606.81
In-ZnONSs7.788.83
Bulk ZnO1.26