- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 193725, 9 pages
Investigating the Formation Process of Sn-Based Lead-Free Nanoparticles with a Chemical Reduction Method
1Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200436, China
2School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, China
3Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4390, USA
Received 22 October 2012; Revised 15 January 2013; Accepted 29 January 2013
Academic Editor: Xuedong Bai
Copyright © 2013 Weipeng Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. F. Arenas, M. He, and V. L. Acoff, “Effect of flux on the wetting characteristics of SnAg, SnCu, SnAgBi, and SnAgCu lead-free solders on copper substrates,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1530–1536, 2006.
- J. H. Lee and Y. B. Park, “Abnormal failure behavior of Sn-3.5Ag solder bumps under excessive electric current stressing conditions,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 2194–2200, 2009.
- Y. M. Hung and C. M. Chen, “Electromigration of Sn-9wt.%Zn solder,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 887–893, 2008.
- F. Guo, G. Xu, H. He, M. Zhao, J. Sun, and C. H. Wang, “Effect of electromigration and isothermal aging on the formation of metal whiskers and hillocks in eutectic Sn-Bi solder joints and reaction films,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2647–2658, 2009.
- H. Y. Guo, J. D. Guo, and J. K. Shang, “Influence of thermal cycling on the thermal resistance of solder interfaces,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2470–2478, 2009.
- I. Ohnuma, M. Miyashita, K. Anzai et al., “Phase equilibria and the related properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based Pb-free solder alloys,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1137–1144, 2000.
- T. Siewert, S. Liu, D. R. Smith, and J. C. Madeni, “Database for solder properties with emphasis on new lead-free solders,” NIST & Colorado School of Mines, Release, vol. 4, 2002.
- P. Buffat and J. P. Borel, “Size effect on the melting temperature of gold particles,” Physical Review A, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2287–2298, 1976.
- W. A. Jesser, G. J. Shiflet, G. L. Allen, and J. L. Crawford, “Equilibrium phase diagrams of isolated nano-phases,” Materials Research Innovations, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 211–216, 1999.
- J. Lee, J. Lee, T. Tanaka, H. Mori, and K. Penttilä, “Phase diagrams of nanometer-sized particles in binary systems,” Journal of Management, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 56–59, 2005.
- M. Lučić Lavčević and Z. Ogorelec, “Melting and solidification of Sn-clusters,” Materials Letters, vol. 57, pp. 4134–4139, 2003.
- C. R. M. Wronski, “The size dependence of the melting point of small particles of tin,” British Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1731–1737, 1967.
- W. A. Jesser, R. Z. Shneck, and W. W. Gile, “Solid-liquid equilibria in nanoparticles of Pb-Bi alloys,” Physical Review B, vol. 69, no. 14, Article ID 144121, 2004.
- J. S. Benjamin, “Dispersion strengthened superalloys by mechanical alloying,” Metallurgical Transactions, vol. 1, no. 10, pp. 2943–2951, 1970.
- R. Birringer, H. Gleiter, H. P. Klein, and P. Marquardt, “Nanocrystalline materials an approach to a novel solid structure with gas-like disorder?” Physics Letters A, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 365–369, 1984.
- I. T. H. Chang and Z. Ren, “Simple processing method and characterisation of nanosized metal powders,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 375-377, no. 1-2, pp. 66–71, 2004.
- C. H. Bernard Ng, J. Yang, and W. Y. Fan, “Synthesis and self-assembly of one-dimensional sub-10 nm Ag nanoparticles with cyclodextrin,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 11, pp. 4141–4145, 2008.
- H. J. Jiang, K. S. Moon, and C. P. Wong, “Tin/silver/copper alloy nanoparticle pastes for low temperature lead-free interconnect applications,” in Proceedings of the 58th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC '08), pp. 1400–1404, May 2008.
- L. Y. Hsiao and J. G. Duh, “Synthesis and characterization of lead-free solders with Sn-3.5Ag-xCu (x = 0.2, 0.5, 1.0) alloy nanoparticles-by the chemical reduction method,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 152, no. 9, pp. J105–J109, 2005.
- H. Jiang, K. S. Moon, F. Hua, and C. P. Wong, “Synthesis and thermal and wetting properties of tin/silver alloy nanoparticles for low melting point lead-free solders,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 4482–4485, 2007.
- L. Y. Hsiao and J. G. Duh, “Revealing the nucleation and growth mechanism of a novel solder developed from Sn-3.5Ag-0.5Cu nanoparticles by a chemical reduction method,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1755–1760, 2006.
- X. Yang, Q. Wang, Y. Tao, and H. Xu, “A modified method to prepare diselenides by the reaction of selenium with sodium borohydride,” Journal of Chemical Research, no. 4, pp. 160–161, 2002.
- C. Zou, Y. Gao, B. Yang, and Q. Zhai, “Nanoparticles of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu alloy synthesized at room temperature with large melting temperature depression,” Journal of Materials Science, pp. 1–6, 2011.
- W. Lee, R. Scholz, K. Nielsch, and U. Gösele, “A template-based electrochemical method for the synthesis of multisegmented metallic nanotubes,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 44, no. 37, pp. 6050–6054, 2005.
- C. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Qian, W. Wang, and Y. Qian, “Ultrafine powder of silver sulfide semiconductor prepared in alcohol solution,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1083–1086, 1998.
- X. F. Qian, J. Yin, S. Feng, S. H. Liu, and Z. K. Zhu, “Preparation and characterization of polyvinylpyrrolidone films containing silver sulfide nanoparticles,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 2504–2506, 2001.
- A. Y. Robin, J. L. Sagué, and K. M. Fromm, “On the coordination behaviour of in coordination compounds with Ag+: part 1. Solubility effect on the formation of coordination polymer networks between AgNO3 and L (L = ethanediyl bis(isonicotinate) as a function of solvent,” CrystEngComm, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 403–416, 2006.
- M. Szymańska-Chargot, A. Gruszecka, A. Smolira et al., “Formation of nanoparticles and nanorods via UV irradiation of AgNO3 solutions,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 486, no. 1-2, pp. 66–69, 2009.
- A. Corrias, G. Ennas, G. Licheri, G. Marongiu, and G. Paschina, “Amorphous metallic powders prepared by chemical reduction of metal ions with potassium borohydride in aqueous solution,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 363–366, 1990.
- D. Zeng and M. J. Hampden-Smith, “Synthesis and characterization of nanophase group 6 metal (M) and metal carbide (M2C) powders by chemical reduction methods,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 681–689, 1993.
- L. Mulfinger, S. D. Solomon, M. Bahadory, A. V. Jeyarajasingam, S. A. Rutkowsky, and C. Boritz, “Synthesis and study of silver nanoparticles,” Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 84, pp. 322–325, 2007.
- R. G. Reifler and B. F. Smets, “Enzymatic reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and related nitroarenes: kinetics linked to one-electron redox potentials,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 34, no. 18, pp. 3900–3906, 2000.
- O. S. Ivanova and F. P. Zamborini, “Size-dependent electrochemical oxidation of silver nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 70–72, 2010.
- M. M. P. Janssen and J. Moolhuysen, “State and action of the tin atoms in platinum-tin catalysts for methanol fuel cells,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 1977.
- F. Kooli, V. Rives, and W. Jones, “Reduction of Ni2+-Al3+ and Cu2+-Al3+ layered double hydroxides to metallic Ni0 and Cu0 via polyol treatment,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 2231–2235, 1997.
- R. Qiu, X. L. Zhang, R. Qiao, Y. Li, Y. I. Kim, and Y. S. Kang, “CuNi dendritic material: synthesis, mechanism discussion, and application as glucose sensor,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 19, no. 17, pp. 4174–4180, 2007.
- V. K. Lamer and R. H. Dinegar, “Theory, production and mechanism of formation of monodispersed hydrosols,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 4847–4854, 1950.
- M. A. Watzky and R. G. Finke, “Transition metal nanocluster formation kinetic and mechanistic studies. A new mechanism when hydrogen is the reductant: slow, continuous nucleation and fast autocatalytic surface growth,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 119, no. 43, pp. 10382–10400, 1997.
- H. Yu, P. C. Gibbons, K. F. Kelton, and W. E. Buhro, “Heterogeneous seeded growth: a potentially general synthesis of monodisperse metallic nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 123, no. 37, pp. 9198–9199, 2001.
- G. Schmid, H. West, J. O. Malm, J. O. Bovin, and C. Grenthe, “Catalytic properties of layered gold-palladium colloids,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 35, no. 17, pp. 1099–1103, 1996.
- Y. Luo, Y. Sun, U. Schwarz, and M. Armbrüster, “Systematic exploration of synthesis pathways to nanoparticulate ZnPd,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 24, pp. 3094–3100, 2012.
- W. W. Brandt, F. P. Dwyer, and E. C. Gyarfas, “Chelate complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline and related compounds,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 959–1017, 1954.
- J. Ferguson, C. J. Hawkins, N. A. P. Kane-Maguire, and H. Lip, “Absolute configurations of 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2′-bipyridine metal complexes,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 771–779, 1969.
- J. Gallagher, C. H. B. Chen, C. Q. Pan, D. M. Perrin, Y. M. Cho, and D. S. Sigman, “Optimizing the targeted chemical nuclease activity of 1,10- phenanthroline-copper by ligand modification,” Bioconjugate Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 413–420, 1996.
- N. H. Jang, J. S. Suh, and M. Moskovits, “Effect of surface geometry on the photochemical reaction of 1,10-phenanthroline adsorbed on silver colloid surfaces,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 101, no. 41, pp. 8279–8285, 1997.
- M. C. Lim, E. Sinn, and R. B. Martin, “Crystal structure of a mixed-ligand complex of copper(II), 1,10-phenanthroline, and glycylglycine dianion: glycylglycinato(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) trihydrate,” Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 807–811, 1976.
- M. Muniz-Miranda, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering and normal coordinate analysis of 1,10-phenanthroline adsorbed on silver sols,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol. 104, no. 33, pp. 7803–7810, 2000.
- C. Pettinari, M. Pellei, M. Miliani et al., “Tin(IV) and organotin(IV) complexes containing mono or bidentate N-donor ligands : III.1 1-methylimidazole derivatives: synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization,” Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, vol. 553, no. 1-2, pp. 345–369, 1998.
- S. Sarkar, M. Pradhan, A. K. Sinha, M. Basu, and T. Pal, “Chelate effect in surface enhanced Raman scattering with transition metal nanoparticles,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 439–444, 2010.
- D. S. Sigman, “Nuclease activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-copper ion,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 180–186, 1986.
- Y. Wang and J. Y. Lee, “Molten salt synthesis of tin oxide nanorods: morphological and electrochemical features,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 46, pp. 17832–17837, 2004.
- Y. Wang, J. Y. Lee, and T. C. Deivaraj, “Controlled synthesis of V-shaped SnO2 nanorods,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 36, pp. 13589–13593, 2004.
- C. Yoon, M. D. Kuwabara, A. Spassky, and D. S. Sigman, “Sequence specificity of the deoxyribonuclease activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-copper ion,” Biochemistry, pp. 2116–2121, 1990.
- I. M. Lifshitz and V. V. Slyozov, “The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 19, no. 1-2, pp. 35–50, 1961.
- C. Wagner, “Theorie der alterung von niederschlägen durch umlösen (Ostwald-Reifung),” Zeitschrift Für Elektrochemie, Berichte Der Bunsengesellschaft Für Physikalische Chemie, vol. 65, pp. 581–591, 1961.
- H. W. Sheng, G. Wilde, and E. Ma, “The competing crystalline and amorphous solid solutions in the Ag-Cu system,” Acta Materialia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 475–488, 2002.
- P. R. Subramanian and J. H. Perepezko, “The ag-cu (silver-copper) system,” Journal of Phase Equilibria, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 62–75, 1993.
- M. Hirai and A. Kumar, “Wavelength tuning of surface plasmon resonance by annealing silver-copper nanoparticles,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 100, no. 1, Article ID 014309, 2006.
- S. J. Kim, E. A. Stach, and C. A. Handwerker, “Fabrication of conductive interconnects by Ag migration in Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 96, no. 14, Article ID 144101, 2010.
- Y. I. Vesnin and Y. V. Shubin, “Equilibrium solid solubilities in the Ag-Cu system by X-ray diffractometry,” Journal of Physics F, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 2381–2386, 1988.