- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 196521, 9 pages
ZnO-Based Transparent Conductive Thin Films: Doping, Performance, and Processing
College of Material Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, China
Received 21 December 2012; Accepted 2 February 2013
Academic Editor: Xijin Xu
Copyright © 2013 Yanli Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Song, Y. He, J. Chen et al., “Bicolor light-emitting diode based on zinc oxide nanorod arrays and poly(2-methoxy,5-octoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 431–436, 2012.
- D. J. Rogers, F. H. Teherani, V. E. Sandana, and M. Razeghi, “ZnO thin films and nanostructures for emerging optoelectronic applications,” in Proceedings of the 12th Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, L. A. Eldada and E. H. Lee, Eds., January 2010.
- H. Zeng, X. Xu, Y. Bando et al., “Template deformation-tailored ZnO nanorod/nanowire arrays: full growth control and optimization of field-emission,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 19, no. 19, pp. 3165–3172, 2009.
- T. Minami, “Transparent conducting oxide semiconductors for transparent electrodes,” Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. S35–S44, 2005.
- D. B. Buchholz, J. Liu, T. J. Marks, M. Zhang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Control and characterization of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of amorphous zinc-indium-tin oxide thin films,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 1, no. 10, pp. 2147–2153, 2009.
- C. A. Hoel, T. O. Mason, J. F. Gaillard, and K. R. Poeppelmeier, “Transparent conducting oxides in the ZnO-In2O 3-SnO2 system,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 3569–3579, 2010.
- A. Stadler, “Transparent conducting oxides-an up-to-date overview,” Materials, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 661–683, 2012.
- C. G. Granqvist, “Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: a panoramic review,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 91, no. 17, pp. 1529–1598, 2007.
- U.S.G. Survey, “Mineral Commodity Summaries,” 2012.
- K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nature Photonics, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 809–817, 2012.
- T. Minami, “Substitution of transparent conducting oxide thin films for indium tin oxide transparent electrode applications,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 7, pp. 1314–1321, 2008.
- T. W. Kim, D. C. Choo, Y. S. No, W. K. Choi, and E. H. Choi, “High work function of Al-doped zinc-oxide thin films as transparent conductive anodes in organic light-emitting devices,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 4, pp. 1917–1920, 2006.
- T. Minami, “Present status of transparent conducting oxide thin-film development for Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) substitutes,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 17, pp. 5822–5828, 2008.
- H. Zeng, S. Yang, and W. Cai, “Reshaping formation and luminescence evolution of ZnO quantum dots by laser-induced fragmentation in liquid,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 12, pp. 5038–5043, 2011.
- H. B. Zeng, X.-W. Du, S. C. Singh, S. A. Kulinich, S. Yang, and J. He, “Nanomaterials via laser ablation/irradiation in liquid: a review,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1333–1353, 2012.
- A. Favier, D. Muñoz, S. Martín De Nicolás, and P. J. Ribeyron, “Boron-doped zinc oxide layers grown by metal-organic CVD for silicon heterojunction solar cells applications,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1057–1061, 2011.
- Q. Huang, Y. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and X. Zhang, “Transparent conductive ZnO:B films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 18, pp. 5960–5964, 2012.
- J. A. Sans, J. F. Sánchez-Royo, A. Segura, G. Tobias, and E. Canadell, “Chemical effects on the optical band-gap of heavily doped ZnO: MIII (M=Al,Ga,In): an investigation by means of photoelectron spectroscopy, optical measurements under pressure, and band structure calculations,” Physical Review B, vol. 79, no. 19, Article ID 195105, 2009.
- D. S. Bhachu, I. P. Parkin, and G. Sankar, “Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of transparent conductive Zinc oxide films,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 4704–4710, 2012.
- P. Nunes, E. Fortunato, P. Tonello, F. Braz Fernandes, P. Vilarinho, and R. Martins, “Effect of different dopant elements on the properties of ZnO thin films,” Vacuum, vol. 64, no. 3-4, pp. 281–285, 2002.
- J. L. Zhao, X. W. Sun, H. Ryu, and Y. B. Moon, “Thermally stable transparent conducting and highly infrared reflective Ga-doped ZnO thin films by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Optical Materials, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 768–772, 2011.
- S. M. Park, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Effects of substrate temperature on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 513, no. 1-2, pp. 90–94, 2006.
- Y. Geng, L. Guo, S. S. Xu et al., “Influence of Al doping on the properties of ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 25, pp. 12317–12321, 2011.
- D. Kim, H. Kim, K. Jang, S. Park, K. Pillai, and J. Yi, “Electrical and optical properties of low pressure chemical vapor deposited Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film solar cell,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. D191–D195, 2011.
- L. Cao, L. Zhu, J. Jiang, R. Zhao, Z. Ye, and B. Zhao, “Highly transparent and conducting fluorine-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 894–898, 2011.
- T. Wang, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, M. Wu, X. Sun, and F. Lu, “Low temperature synthesis wide optical band gap Al and (Al, Na) co-doped ZnO thin films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 6, pp. 2341–2345, 2011.
- D.-W. Kang, J.-Y. Kwon, D.-J. Lee, and M.-K. Han, “Boron and aluminum codoped ZnO transparent conducting films with high electrical stability,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 159, no. 2, p. H61, 2012.
- S. W. Shin, G. L. Agawane, I. Y. Kim, et al., “Development of transparent conductive Mg and Ga co-doped ZnO thin films: effect of Mg concentration,” Surface and Coatings Technology, 2012.
- S. W. Shin, I. Y. Kim, G. H. Lee et al., “Design and growth of quaternary Mg and Ga codoped ZnO thin films with transparent conductive characteristics,” Crystal Growth & Design, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 4819–4824, 2011.
- H. Zeng, W. Cai, P. Liu et al., “ZnO-based hollow nanoparticles by selective etching: elimination and reconstruction of metal—semiconductor interface, improvement of blue emission and photocatalysis,” ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1661–1670, 2008.
- D. P. Norton, Y. W. Heo, M. P. Ivill et al., “ZnO: growth, doping & processing,” Materials Today, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 34–40, 2004.
- H. Zeng, W. Cai, J. Hu, G. Duan, P. Liu, and Y. Li, “Violet photoluminescence from shell layer of Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticles induced by laser ablation,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, no. 17, Article ID 171910, 2006.
- H. Zeng, G. Duan, Y. Li, S. Yang, X. Xu, and W. Cai, “Blue luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles based on non-equilibrium processes: defect origins and emission controls,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 561–572, 2010.
- J. G. Lu, S. Fujita, T. Kawaharamura et al., “Carrier concentration dependence of band gap shift in n -type ZnO:Al films,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 101, no. 8, Article ID 083705, 2007.
- P. Gondoni, M. Ghidelli, F. Di Fonzo et al., “Structural and functional properties of Al:ZnO thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition at room temperature,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 14, pp. 4707–4711, 2012.
- G. Socol, D. Craciun, I. N. Mihailescu et al., “High quality amorphous indium zinc oxide thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 4, pp. 1274–1277, 2011.
- A. K. Das, P. Misra, and L. M. Kukreja, “Effect of Si doping on electrical and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown by sequential pulsed laser deposition,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 42, no. 16, Article ID 165405, 2009.
- H. Li, L. K. Schirra, J. Shim et al., “Zinc oxide as a model transparent conducting oxide: a theoretical and experimental study of the impact of hydroxylation, bacancies, interstitials, and extrinsic doping on the electronic properties of the polar ZnO (0002) surface,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 24, no. 15, pp. 3044–3055, 2012.
- H. Agura, A. Suzuki, T. Matsushita, T. Aoki, and M. Okuda, “Low resistivity transparent conducting Al-doped ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 445, no. 2, pp. 263–267, 2003.
- A. Illiberi, B. Kniknie, J. van Deelen et al., “Industrial high-rate (~14 nm/s) deposition of low resistive and transparent ZnOx:Al films on glass,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 1955–1959, 2011.
- A. Illiberi, P. J. P. M. Simons, B. Kniknie et al., “Growth of ZnOx:Al by high-throughput CVD at atmospheric pressure,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 347, no. 1, pp. 56–61, 2012.
- S. W. Shin, S. M. Pawar, T. W. Kim, J. H. Moon, and J. H. Kim, “Effect of film thickness on the structural and electrical properties of Ga-dopped ZnO thin films prepared on glass and Al2O3 (0001) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 441–447, 2009.
- D.-H. Lee, K. Kim, Y. S. Chun, S. Kim, and S. Y. Lee, “Substitution mechanism of Ga for Zn site depending on deposition temperature for transparent conducting oxides,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1586–1590, 2012.
- M. Y. Zhang, Q. Nian, and G. J. Cheng, “Room temperature deposition of alumina-doped zinc oxide on flexible substrates by direct pulsed laser recrystallization,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, no. 15, 2012.
- L. Luo, M. D. Rossell, D. Xie, R. Erni, and M. Niederberger, “Microwave-assisted nonaqueous Sol-Gel synthesis: from Al:ZnO nanoparticles to transparent conducting films,” ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 152–160, 2013.
- J. Clatot, G. Campet, A. Zeinert, C. Labrugère, M. Nistor, and A. Rougier, “Low temperature Si doped ZnO thin films for transparent conducting oxides,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 2357–2362, 2011.
- L. Gong, J. Lu, and Z. Ye, “Transparent and conductive Ga-doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering on polycarbonate substrates,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 937–941, 2010.
- L. Ficke and M. Cahay, “The bright future of organic LEDs,” IEEE Potentials, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 31–34, 2003.
- J. Z. Song, Y. He, D. Zhu, J. Chen, C. L. Pei, and J. A. Wang, “Polymer/ZnO micro-nano array composites for light-emitting layer of flexible optoelectronic devices,” Acta Physico-Chimica Sinica, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1207–1213, 2011.
- S. Esmaili-Sardari, A. Berkovich, and A. A. Iliadis, “Observation of conductivity type conversion in undoped ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition on silicon (100) substrates,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 100, no. 5, Article ID 053505, 2012.
- K. Kim, S. Y. Park, K.-H. Lim, C. Shin, J.-M. Myoung, and Y. S. Kim, “Low temperature and solution-processed Na-doped zinc oxide transparent thin film transistors with reliable electrical performance using methanol developing and surface engineering,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 22, no. 43, pp. 23120–23128, 2012.
- W.-J. Yang, C.-C. Tsao, C.-Y. Hsu, H.-C. Chang, C.-P. Chou, and J.-Y. Kao, “Fabrication and characterization of transparent conductive ZnO:Al thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 2140–2147, 2012.
- M. Y. Zhang and G. J. Cheng, “Highly conductive and transparent alumina-doped ZnO films processed by direct pulsed laser recrystallization at room temperature,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, no. 5, 2011.
- T. Moon, W. Yoon, K. S. Ji et al., “Enhancement of crystallinity in ZnO:Al films using a two-step process involving the control of the oxygen pressure,” in Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC '10), pp. 3709–3712, June 2010.
- T. Prasada Rao and M. C. Santhoshkumar, “Effect of thickness on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 8, pp. 4579–4584, 2009.
- J. Z. Song, Y. He, Z. D. Pan, D. Zhu, J. Chen, and J. A. Wang, “PANI/nano-ZnO composites prepared by in-situ polymerization under magnetic field,” Acta Chimica Sinica, vol. 69, no. 13, pp. 1582–1588, 2011.