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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 460518, 6 pages
Research Article

Bioaccumulation, Subacute Toxicity, and Tissue Distribution of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

1Department of Bioengineering, Tunceli University, Ataturk mahallesi Muhlis Akarsu caddesi, 62000 Tunceli, Turkey
2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, P.O. Box 17910, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
3Department of Chemical Engineering, Tunceli University, Ataturk mahallesi Muhlis Akarsu caddesi, 62000 Tunceli, Turkey

Received 27 June 2013; Revised 22 August 2013; Accepted 2 September 2013

Academic Editor: Xiaoming Li

Copyright © 2013 Mehmet Ates et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The increased use of nanosized materials is likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. It is, however, unclear if these materials are harmful to aquatic animals. In this study, the sublethal effects of exposure of low and high concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) were investigated. Accumulation of TiO2 NPs increased from 42.71 to 110.68 ppb in the intestine and from 4.10 to 9.86 ppb in the gills of the goldfish with increasing exposure dose from 10 to 100 mg/L TiO2 NPs. No significant accumulation in the muscle and brain of the fish was detected. Malondialdehyde as a biomarker of lipid oxidation was detected in the liver of the goldfish. Moreover, TiO2 NPs exposure inhibited growth of the goldfish. Although there was an increase (8.1%) in the body weights of the goldfish for the control group, in the low and high exposure groups 1.8% increase and 19.7% decrease were measured, respectively. The results of this study contribute to the current understanding of the potential ecotoxicological effects of nanoparticles and highlight the importance of characterization of NPs in understanding their behavior, uptake, and effects in aquatic systems and in fish.