Table 2: Growth of microorganisms on prepatterned and surface-modified AAO nanopores.

Surface modificationType of micropattern or coating on AAO nanoporesMicroorganism typeCoatingReference

Micropattern with physical barriers(i) Commercial Anodisc AAO chips (Whatman) with 200 nm pores were coated with Ordyl 314 acrylic film (Elga Europe)
(ii) Structuring via RIE created microwells from μm2 to μm2.
Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, Escherichia coli XL2 Blue, and Candida albicans JBZ32 Micropatterned AAO chip was cultivated on agar [79]
(i) Customised AAO nanopores produced via two-step anodisation (50 nm)
(ii) Structuring PEG coating via photolithography yielded circular microcompartments with diameters of 80 um
Escherichia coli O157:H7 N/A [80]

Cell micropatterns(i) Commercial Anodisc chips with 200 nm pore diameter (Whatman)
(ii) Contact printing of microorganisms with PDMS stamps
(iii) Cells were printed on untreated and on AAO membranes compartmentalized into μm2 culture areas by acrylic plastic walls covered with a 20 nm layer of platinum
Lactobacillus plantarum, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus fumigatus, and several strains of Candida N/A [81, 82]

ALD deposition (i) Commercial Anodisc nanopores with 20 and 200 nm diameter (Whatman)
(ii) Coating with ZnO and TiO2
Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans N/A [55, 56, 83]
(i) Customised AAO nanopores with 75 nm diameter, prepared in a two-step anodisation
(ii) ALD coating with Al2O3 reduced pore size to 15 to 40 nm
Phi29 viral particles Customised functionalisation and polishing procedure [84]