- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 478942, 7 pages
Morphological, Structural, and Electrical Characterization of Sol-Gel-Synthesized ZnO Nanorods
1Nano Biochip Research Group, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
2Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Electronic Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
Received 18 November 2012; Accepted 3 February 2013
Academic Editor: Ping Xiao
Copyright © 2013 M. Kashif et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Sun, Q. Dai, F. Liu et al., “The ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on Al-doped ZnO thin film with fast response,” Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 102–105, 2011.
- W. I. Park, J. S. Kim, G.-C. Yi, M. H. Bae, and H. J. Lee, “Fabrication and electrical characteristics of high-performance ZnO nanorod field-effect transistors,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, no. 21, pp. 5052–5054, 2004.
- S. Logothetidis, A. Laskarakis, S. Kassavetis, S. Lousinian, C. Gravalidis, and G. Kiriakidis, “Optical and structural properties of ZnO for transparent electronics,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 7, pp. 1345–1349, 2008.
- X. Fang, Y. Bando, U. K. Gautam et al., “ZnO and ZnS nanostructures: ultraviolet-light emitters, lasers, and sensors,” Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, vol. 34, no. 3-4, pp. 190–223, 2009.
- C.-L. Hsu and K.-C. Chen, “Improving piezoelectric nanogenerator comprises ZnO nanowires by bending the flexible PET substrate at low vibration frequency,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 116, no. 16, pp. 9351–9355, 2012.
- E. Mollow, Proceedings of the Conference on Photoconductivity, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1956.
- S. Liang, H. Sheng, Y. Liu, Z. Huo, Y. Lu, and H. Shen, “ZnO Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 225, no. 2–4, pp. 110–113, 2001.
- C. H. Seager and S. M. Myers, “Quantitative comparisons of dissolved hydrogen density and the electrical and optical properties of ZnO,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 2888–2894, 2003.
- T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono et al., “Correlation between the photoluminescence lifetime and defect density in bulk and epitaxial ZnO,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 532–534, 2003.
- P. Sharma, K. Sreenivas, and K. V. Rao, “Analysis of ultraviolet photoconductivity in ZnO films prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 3963–3970, 2003.
- D. Basak, G. Amin, B. Mallik, G. K. Paul, and S. K. Sen, “Photoconductive UV detectors on sol-gel-synthesized ZnO films,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 256, no. 1-2, pp. 73–77, 2003.
- Y. Takahashi, M. Kanamori, A. Kondoh, H. Minoura, and Y. Ohya, “Photoconductivity of ultrathin zinc oxide films,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 33, pp. 6611–6615, 1994.
- T. E. Murphy, K. Moazzami, and J. D. Phillips, “Trap-related photoconductivity in ZnO epilayers,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 543–549, 2006.
- D. H. Zhang and D. E. Brodie, “Photoresponse of polycrystalline ZnO films deposited by r.f. bias sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 261, no. 1-2, pp. 334–339, 1995.
- Q. H. Li, T. Gao, Y. G. Wang, and T. H. Wang, “Adsorption and desorption of oxygen probed from ZnO nanowire films by photocurrent measurements,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 86, no. 12, Article ID 123117, 3 pages, 2005.
- C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang et al., “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1003–1009, 2007.
- J. Joo, B. Y. Chow, M. Prakash, E. S. Boyden, and J. M. Jacobson, “Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis,” Nature Materials, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 596–601, 2011.
- C. Xu, B.-S. Kim, J.-H. Lee et al., “Seed-free electrochemical growth of ZnO nanotube arrays on single-layer graphene,” Materials Letters, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 25–28, 2012.
- X. Wu, F. Qu, X. Zhang, W. Cai, and G. Shen, “Fabrication of ZnO ring-like nanostructures at a moderate temperature via a thermal evaporation process,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 486, no. 1-2, pp. L13–L16, 2009.
- A. Khan, S. N. Khan, and W. M. Jadwisienczak, “One step growth of ZnO nano-tetrapods by simple thermal evaporation process: structural and optical properties,” Science of Advanced Materials, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 572–577, 2010.
- M. Kashif, S. M. Usman Ali, M. E. Ali et al., “Morphological, optical, and Raman characteristics of ZnO nanoflakes prepared via a sol-gel method,” Physica Status Solidi (a), vol. 209, no. 1, pp. 143–147, 2012.
- D. A. Lamb and S. J. C. Irvine, “Growth properties of thin film ZnO deposited by MOCVD with n-butyl alcohol as the oxygen precursor,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 273, no. 1-2, pp. 111–117, 2004.
- O. A. Fouad, A. A. Ismail, Z. I. Zaki, and R. M. Mohamed, “Zinc oxide thin films prepared by thermal evaporation deposition and its photocatalytic activity,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 62, no. 1-2, pp. 144–149, 2006.
- A. El-Shaer, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, M. Kreye, and A. Waag, “High-quality ZnO layers grown by MBE on sapphire,” Superlattices and Microstructures, vol. 38, no. 4–6, pp. 265–271, 2005.
- E. Azaceta, R. Tena-Zaera, R. Marcilla et al., “Electrochemical deposition of ZnO in a room temperature ionic liquid: 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2184–2186, 2009.
- M. Krunks, A. Katerski, T. Dedova, I. Oja Acik, and A. Mere, “Nanostructured solar cell based on spray pyrolysis deposited ZnO nanorod array,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 1016–1019, 2008.
- M. Kashif, U. Hashim, M. E. Ali et al., “Effect of different seed solutions on the morphology and electrooptical properties of ZnO nanorods,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2012, Article ID 452407, 6 pages, 2012.
- T. K. Lin, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, B. R. Huang, M. Fujita, and Y. Horikoshi, “ZnO MSM photodetectors with Ru contact electrodes,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 281, no. 2–4, pp. 513–517, 2005.
- M. Kang, J. S. Lee, S. K. Sim et al., “Photocurrent and photoluminescence characteristics of networked GaN nanowires,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Part 1, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 6868–6872, 2004.
- S.-E. Ahn, H. J. Ji, K. Kim et al., “Origin of the slow photoresponse in an individual sol-gel synthesized ZnO nanowire,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, no. 15, Article ID 153106, 3 pages, 2007.
- Y. Li, F. Della Valle, M. Simonnet, I. Yamada, and J.-J. Delaunay, “Competitive surface effects of oxygen and water on UV photoresponse of ZnO nanowires,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 94, no. 2, Article ID 023110, 3 pages, 2009.
- S. L. Chang, M.-C. Park, Q. Kuang et al., “Giant enhancement in UV response of ZnO nanobelts by polymer surface-functionalization,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 40, pp. 12096–12097, 2007.
- J. R. S. Aga, D. Jowhar, A. Ueda et al., “Enhanced photoresponse in ZnO nanowires decorated with CdTe quantum dot,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 23, Article ID 232108, 3 pages, 2007.
- K. Keem, H. Kim, G. T. Kim et al., “Photocurrent in ZnO nanowires grown from Au electrodes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 84, no. 22, pp. 4376–4378, 2004.
- O. Lupan, T. Pauporté, L. Chow et al., “Effects of annealing on properties of ZnO thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition in chloride medium,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 6, pp. 1895–1907, 2010.
- C. Li, X. C. Li, P. X. Yan et al., “Research on the properties of ZnO thin films deposited by using filtered cathodic arc plasma technique on glass substrate under different flow rate of O2,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 8, pp. 4000–4005, 2007.
- S. Senthilkumaar, K. Rajendran, S. Banerjee, T. K. Chini, and V. Sengodan, “Influence of Mn doping on the microstructure and optical property of ZnO,” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 6–12, 2008.
- “American society for testing and material, powder diffraction files, joint committee on powder diffraction standards,” swarthmore, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1996.
- S. C. Lyu, Y. Zhang, H. Ruh et al., “Low temperature growth and photoluminescence of well-aligned zinc oxide nanowires,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 363, no. 1-2, pp. 134–138, 2002.
- C. C. Kim, J. H. Je, D. W. Kim, H. K. Baik, S. M. Lee, and P. Ruterana, “Annealing behavior of Pd/GaN (0001) microstructure,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 82, no. 1–3, pp. 105–107, 2001.
- T. S. Moss, “A relationship between the refractive index and the infra-red threshold of sensitivity for photoconductors,” Proceedings to the Physical Society B, vol. 63, no. 3, article 302, pp. 167–176, 1950.
- V. P. Gupta and N. M. Ravindra, “Comments on the Moss Formula,” Physica Status Solidi (b), vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 715–719, 1980.
- Y. Al-Douri, Y. P. Feng, and A. C. H. Huan, “Optical investigations using ultra-soft pseudopotential calculations of Si0.5Ge0.5 alloy,” Solid State Communications, vol. 148, no. 11-12, pp. 521–524, 2008.
- Y. Al-Douri, A. H. Reshak, H. Baaziz et al., “An ab initio study of the electronic structure and optical properties of CdS1−xTex alloys,” Solar Energy, vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 1979–1984, 2010.
- P. Hervé and L. K. J. Vandamme, “General relation between refractive index and energy gap in semiconductors,” Infrared Physics and Technology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 609–615, 1994.
- N. M. Ravindra, S. Auluck, and V. K. Srivastava, “On the penn gap in semiconductors,” Physica Status Solidi (b), vol. 93, no. 2, pp. K155–K160, 1979.
- P. J. L. Hervé and L. K. J. Vandamme, “Empirical temperature dependence of the refractive index of semiconductors,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 5476–5477, 1995.
- D. K. Ghosh, L. K. Samanta, and G. C. Bhar, “A simple model for evaluation of refractive indices of some binary and ternary mixed crystals,” Infrared Physics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 1984.
- K. Hüemmer, “Interband magnetoreflection of ZnO,” Physica Status Solidi (b), vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 249–260, 1973.
- Z. Charifi, H. Baaziz, and A. H. Reshak, “Ab-initio investigation of structural, electronic and optical properties for three phases of ZnO compound,” Physica Status Solidi (b), vol. 244, no. 9, pp. 3154–3167, 2007.
- A. Schleife, F. Fuchs, J. Furthmüller, and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles study of ground- and excited-state properties of MgO, ZnO, and CdO polymorphs,” Physical Review B, vol. 73, no. 24, Article ID 245212, 14 pages, 2006.
- Y.-N. Xu and W. Y. Ching, “Electronic, optical, and structural properties of some wurtzite crystals,” Physical Review B, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 4335–4351, 1993.
- P. Schröer, P. Krüger, and J. Pollmann, “First-principles calculation of the electronic structure of the wurtzite semiconductors ZnO and ZnS,” Physical Review B, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 6971–6980, 1993.
- S. Ilican, M. Caglar, and Y. Caglar, “Sn doping effects on the electro-optical properties of sol gel derived transparent ZnO films,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 23, pp. 7204–7210, 2010.
- D. R. Penn, “Wave-number-dependent dielectric function of semiconductors,” Physical Review, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 2093–2097, 1962.
- J. A. van Vechten, “Quantum dielectric theory of electronegativity in covalent systems. I. Electronic dielectric constant,” Physical Review, vol. 182, no. 3, pp. 891–905, 1969.
- G. A. Samara, “Temperature and pressure dependences of the dielectric constants of semiconductors,” Physical Review B, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 3494–3505, 1983.
- M. Kashif, U. Hashim, M. E. Ali, A. A. Saif, M. U. Syed Ali, and M. Willander, “Structural and impedance spectroscopy study of Al-doped ZnO nanorods grown by sol-gel method,” Microelectronics International, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 131–135, 2012.
- F. E. Jones, B. P. Wood, J. A. Myers, C. Daniels-Hafer, and M. C. Lonergan, “Current transport and the role of barrier inhomogeneities at the high barrier n-InP ∣ poly(pyrrole) interface,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 6431–6441, 1999.
- Y. Li, F. D. Valle, M. Simonnet, I. Yamada, and J.-J. C. Delaunay, “High-performance UV detector made of ultra-long ZnO bridging,” Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 045501–045504, 2009.
- M. Mehrabian, R. Azimirad, K. Mirabbaszadeh, H. Afarideh, and M. Davoudian, “UV detecting properties of hydrothermal synthesized ZnO nanorods,” Physica E, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1141–1145, 2011.
- C. Y. Liu, B. P. Zhang, Z. W. Lu et al., “Fabrication and characterization of ZnO film based UV photodetector,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 197–201, 2009.