Table 2: Summary of IMC diffusion kinetics and activation energies comparing Au and PdCu ball bonds used in 110 nm device packaging.

IMC TypeHTSL test conditions (eV) (m2s−1)Reference

CuAl175, 200, 2500.63 to 0.781.21 × 10−7[13, 14]
CuAl200, 250, 3001.011.21 × 10−7[15]
CuAl150, 2001.341.63 × 10−4[16]
CuAlUnknown2.042.00 × 10−5[17]
CuAl175, 200, 225, 2501.263.70 × 10−5[18]
CuAl150, 250, 3001.14N/A[19, 20]
CuAl150, 175, 2001.181.43 × This work
AuAlUnknown1.809.10 × 10−6[17]
AuAlUnknown1.002.62 × 10−7[21]
AuAl150, 175, 2001.041.97 × This work