- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 534042, 7 pages
Influence of Anode Area and Electrode Gap on the Morphology of Nanotubes Arrays
1Department of Power Engineering, School of Mechanical and Electronic Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
2Key Laboratory of Urban Stormwater System and Water Environment, Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China
Received 27 March 2013; Revised 30 April 2013; Accepted 5 May 2013
Academic Editor: Amir Kajbafvala
Copyright © 2013 Min Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Nakata, T. Ochiai, T. Murakami, and A. Fujishima, “Photoenergy conversion with TiO2 photocatalysis: new materials and recent applications,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 84, pp. 103–111, 2012.
- A. Zhang, M. Zhou, L. Han, and Q. Zhou, “The combination of rotating disk photocatalytic reactor and TiO2 nanotube arrays for environmental pollutants removal,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 186, no. 2-3, pp. 1374–1383, 2011.
- J. Bai, Y. Liu, J. Li, B. Zhou, Q. Zheng, and W. Cai, “A novel thin-layer photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reactor with double-faced titania nanotube arrays electrode for effective degradation of tetracycline,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 98, no. 3-4, pp. 154–160, 2010.
- H. Liu, G. Liu, J. Fan et al., “Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of 4,4′-dibromobiphenyl in aqueous solution on TiO2 and doped TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Chemosphere, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 2011.
- Y. Muramatsu, Q. Jin, M. Fujishima, and H. Tada, “Visible-light-activation of TiO2 nanotube array by the molecular iron oxide surface modification,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 119-120, pp. 74–80, 2012.
- F. Jiang, S. Zheng, L. An, and H. Chen, “Effect of calcination temperature on the adsorption and photocatalytic activity of hydrothermally synthesized TiO2 nanotubes,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 18, pp. 7188–7194, 2012.
- H. Li, L. Cao, W. Liu, G. Su, and B. Dong, “Synthesis and investigation of TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by anodization and their photocatalytic activity,” Ceramics International, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 5791–5797, 2012.
- J. M. Macak, M. Zlamal, J. Krysa, and P. Schmuki, “Self-organized TiO2 nanotube layers as highly efficient photocatalysts,” Small, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 300–304, 2007.
- Y. Lai, H. Zhuang, L. Sun, Z. Chen, and C. Lin, “Self-organized TiO2 nanotubes in mixed organic-inorganic electrolytes and their photoelectrochemical performance,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 54, no. 26, pp. 6536–6542, 2009.
- T. Kasuga, M. Hiramatsu, A. Hoson, T. Sekino, and K. Niihara, “Titania nanotubes prepared by chemical processing,” Advanced Materials, vol. 11, no. 15, pp. 1307–1311, 1999.
- Q. Chen, W. Zhou, G. H. Du, and L. M. Peng, “Trititanate nanotubes made via a single alkali treatment,” Advanced Materials, vol. 14, no. 17, pp. 1208–1211, 2002.
- C. C. Tsai and H. Teng, “Regulation of the physical characteristics of titania nanotube aggregates synthesized from hydrothermal treatment,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 16, no. 22, pp. 4352–4358, 2004.
- J. N. Nian and H. Teng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of single-crystalline anatase TiO2 nanorods with nanotubes as the precursor,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 4193–4198, 2006.
- P. Hoyer, “Formation of a titanium dioxide nanotube array,” Langmuir, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1411–1413, 1996.
- J. H. Lee, I. C. Leu, M. C. Hsu, Y. W. Chung, and M. H. Hon, “Fabrication of aligned TiO2 one-dimensional nanostructured arrays using a one-step templating solution approach,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 27, pp. 13056–13059, 2005.
- V. Zwilling, E. Darque-Ceretti, A. Boutry-Forveille, D. David, M. Y. Perrin, and M. Aucouturier, “Structure and physicochemistry of anodic oxide films on titanium and TA6V alloy,” Surface and Interface Analysis, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 629–637, 1999.
- D. Gong, C. A. Grimes, O. K. Varghese et al., “Titanium oxide nanotube arrays prepared by anodic oxidation,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 3331–3334, 2001.
- O. K. Varghese, D. Gong, M. Paulose, C. A. Grimes, and E. C. Dickey, “Crystallization and high-temperature structural stability of titanium oxide nanotube arrays,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 156–165, 2003.
- O. K. Varghese, M. Paulose, K. Shankar, G. K. Mor, and C. A. Grimes, “Water-photolysis properties of micron-length highly-ordered titania nanotube-arrays,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 1158–1165, 2005.
- H. Omidvar, S. Goodarzi, A. Seif, and A. R. Azadmehr, “Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO2 nanotube arrays,” Superlattices and Microstructures, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 26–39, 2011.
- S. Palmas, A. Da Pozzo, M. Mascia et al., “Effect of the preparation conditions on the performance of TiO2 nanotube arrays obtained by electrochemical oxidation,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 8894–8901, 2011.
- N. Kılınç, E. Şennik, and Z. Z. Öztürk, “Fabrication of TiO2 nanotubes by anodization of Ti thin films for VOC sensing,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 520, no. 3, pp. 953–958, 2011.
- Y. Liu, D. Wang, L. Cao, and S. Chen, “Structural engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array by periodic anodization of titanium,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 23, pp. 68–71, 2012.
- M. Okada, K. Tajima, Y. Yamada, and K. Yoshimura, “Self-organized formation of short TiO2 nanotube arrays by complete anodization of Ti thin films,” Physics Procedia, vol. 32, pp. 714–718, 2012.
- J. Wang and Z. Lin, “Freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays with ultrahigh aspect ratio via electrochemical anodization,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1257–1261, 2008.
- R. P. Antony, T. Mathews, A. Dasgupta, S. Dash, A. K. Tyagi, and B. Raj, “Rapid breakdown anodization technique for the synthesis of high aspect ratio and high surface area anatase TiO2 nanotube powders,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 624–632, 2011.
- L. Li, Z. Zhou, J. Lei, J. He, S. Zhang, and F. Pan, “Highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays and their stabilities as photo(electro)catalysts,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 8, pp. 3647–3651, 2012.
- G. A. Crawford, N. Chawla, K. Das, S. Bose, and A. Bandyopadhyay, “Microstructure and deformation behavior of biocompatible TiO2 nanotubes on titanium substrate,” Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 359–367, 2007.
- H. H. Ou and S. L. Lo, “Review of titania nanotubes synthesized via the hydrothermal treatment: fabrication, modification, and application,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 179–191, 2007.
- Y. Yu, J. C. Yu, C. Y. Chan et al., “Enhancement of adsorption and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by using carbon nanotubes for the treatment of azo dye,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 61, no. 1-2, pp. 1–11, 2005.
- K. C. Sun, Y. C. Chen, M. Y. Kuo et al., “Synthesis and characterization of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays for hydrogen generation via water splitting,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 129, no. 1-2, pp. 35–39, 2011.
- L. Xiong, F. Yang, L. Yan et al., “Bifunctional photocatalysis of TiO2/Cu2O composite under visible light: Ti3+ in organic pollutant degradation and water splitting,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 1104–1109, 2011.
- S. Zhang, S. Zhang, F. Peng, H. Zhang, H. Liu, and H. Zhao, “Electrodeposition of polyhedral Cu2O on TiO2 nanotube arrays for enhancing visible light photocatalytic performance,” Electrochemistry Communications, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 861–864, 2011.
- L. Zang, W. Macyk, C. Lange et al., “Visible-light detoxification and charge generation by transition metal chloride modified titania,” Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 379–384, 2000.
- F. Bosc, D. Edwards, N. Keller, V. Keller, and A. Ayral, “Mesoporous TiO2-based photocatalysts for UV and visible light gas-phase toluene degradation,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 495, no. 1-2, pp. 272–279, 2006.
- C. Han, Z. Li, and J. Shen, “Photocatalytic degradation of dodecyl-benzenesulfonate over TiO2-Cu2O under visible irradiation,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 215–219, 2009.
- H. Liu, H. K. Shon, X. Sun, S. Vigneswaran, and H. Nan, “Preparation and characterization of visible light responsive Fe2O3-TiO2 composites,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 13, pp. 5813–5819, 2011.
- L. Yang, S. Luo, Y. Li, Y. Xiao, Q. Kang, and Q. Cai, “High efficient photocatalytic degradation of p-nitrophenol on a unique Cu2O/TiO2 p-n heterojunction network catalyst,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 19, pp. 7641–7646, 2010.
- J. M. Macak, H. Tsuchiya, A. Ghicov et al., “TiO2 nanotubes: self-organized electrochemical formation, properties and applications,” Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 3–18, 2007.
- R. Narayanan, T. Y. Kwon, and K. H. Kim, “TiO2 nanotubes from stirred glycerol/NH4F electrolyte: roughness, wetting behavior and adhesion for implant applications,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 117, no. 2-3, pp. 460–464, 2009.
- H. E. Prakasam, K. Shankar, M. Paulose, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “A new benchmark for TiO2 nanotube array growth by anodization,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 20, pp. 7235–7241, 2007.
- S. E. Kim, J. H. Lim, S. C. Lee, S. C. Nam, H. G. Kang, and J. Choi, “Anodically nanostructured titanium oxides for implant applications,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 53, no. 14, pp. 4846–4851, 2008.
- M. Paulose, K. Shankar, S. Yoriya et al., “Anodic growth of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays to 134 μm in length,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 33, pp. 16179–16184, 2006.
- B. G. Lee, J. W. Choi, S. E. Lee, Y. S. Jeong, H. J. Oh, and C. S. Chi, “Formation behavior of anodic TiO2 nanotubes in fluoride containing electrolytes,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition), vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 842–845, 2009.
- W. Y. Choi, J. Chung, C. H. Cho, and J. O. Kim, “Fabrication and photocatalytic activity of a novel nanostructured TiO2 metal membrane,” Desalination, vol. 279, no. 1–3, pp. 359–366, 2011.
- T. Ruff, R. Hahn, and P. Schmuki, “From anodic TiO2 nanotubes to hexagonally ordered TiO2 nanocolumns,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 19, pp. 8177–8181, 2011.
- X. Zeng, Y. X. Gan, E. Clark, and L. Su, “Amphiphilic and photocatalytic behaviors of TiO2 nanotube arrays on Ti prepared via electrochemical oxidation,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 509, no. 24, pp. L221–L227, 2011.
- K. Srimuangmak and S. Niyomwas, “Effects of voltage and addition of water on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotubes prepared by anodization method,” Energy Procedia, vol. 9, pp. 435–439, 2011.
- K. Shankar, G. K. Mor, A. Fitzgerald, and C. A. Grimes, “Cation effect on the electrochemical formation of very high aspect ratio TiO2 nanotube arrays in formamide-water mixtures,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2007.
- A. El Ruby Mohamed and S. Rohani, “Modified TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs): progressive strategies towards visible light responsive photoanode, a review,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1065–1086, 2011.
- L. Sun, J. Li, C. L. Wang, S. F. Li, H. B. Chen, and C. J. Lin, “An electrochemical strategy of doping Fe3+ into TiO2 nanotube array films for enhancement in photocatalytic activity,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 1875–1880, 2009.
- J. Mo, Y. Zhang, Q. Xu, J. J. Lamson, and R. Zhao, “Photocatalytic purification of volatile organic compounds in indoor air: a literature review,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 14, pp. 2229–2246, 2009.
- Z. Lockman, S. Sreekantan, S. Ismail, L. Schmidt-Mende, and J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, “Influence of anodisation voltage on the dimension of titania nanotubes,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 503, no. 2, pp. 359–364, 2010.
- H. J. Oh, I. K. Kim, K. W. Jang, J. H. Lee, S. Lee, and C. S. Chi, “Influence of electrolyte and anodic potentials on morphology of titania nanotubes,” Metals and Materials International, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 673–677, 2012.