- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 592464, 8 pages
Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Effects of Active Metals, Catalyst Supports, and Metal Loading Percentage
1Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Malaysia
2School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seberang Perai Selatan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
3School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia
4School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seberang Perai Selatan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Received 12 April 2013; Revised 5 June 2013; Accepted 13 June 2013
Academic Editor: Shiren Wang
Copyright © 2013 Wei-Wen Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. Andrews, D. Jacques, D. Qian, and T. Rantell, “Multiwall carbon nanotubes: synthesis and application,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1008–1017, 2002.
- F. Danafar, A. Fakhru'l-Razi, M. A. M. Salleh, and D. R. A. Biak, “Fluidized bed catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes-A review,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 155, no. 1-2, pp. 37–48, 2009.
- P. Zarabadi-Poor, A. Badiei, A. A. Yousefi, B. D. Fahlman, and A. Abbasi, “Catalytic chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotubes using Fe-doped alumina catalysts,” Catalysis Today, vol. 150, no. 1-2, pp. 100–106, 2010.
- W. Zhou, Z. Han, J. Wang et al., “Copper catalyzing growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on substrates,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 2987–2990, 2006.
- S. Bhaviripudi, E. Mile, S. A. Steiner III et al., “CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from gold nanoparticle catalysts,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 1516–1517, 2007.
- D. Takagi, Y. Homma, H. Hibino, S. Suzuki, and Y. Kobayashi, “Single-walled carbon nanotube growth from highly activated metal nanoparticles,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 2642–2645, 2006.
- D. Yuan, L. Ding, H. Chu, Y. Feng, T. P. McNicholas, and J. Liu, “Horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotube on quartz from a large variety of metal catalysts,” Nano Letters, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 2576–2579, 2008.
- L. Bilu, R. Wencai, G. Libo et al., “Manganese-catalyzed surface growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes with high efficiency,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 112, no. 49, pp. 19231–19235, 2008.
- S.-Y. Lee, M. Yamada, and M. Miyake, “Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over gold nanoparticle supported catalysts,” Carbon, vol. 43, no. 13, pp. 2654–2663, 2005.
- T. Tsoufis, L. Jankovic, D. Gournis, P. N. Trikalitis, and T. Bakas, “Evaluation of first-row transition metal oxides supported on clay minerals for catalytic growth of carbon nanostructures,” Materials Science and Engineering B, vol. 152, no. 1–3, pp. 44–49, 2008.
- Y. Qian, C. Wang, G. Ren, and B. Huang, “Surface growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes from ruthenium nanoparticles,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 256, no. 12, pp. 4038–4041, 2010.
- M. Kumar and Y. Ando, “Chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes: a review on growth mechanism and mass production,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 3739–3758, 2010.
- S. Hofmann, R. Blume, C. T. Wirth et al., “State of transition metal catalysts during carbon nanotube growth,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 1648–1656, 2009.
- J. D. Núñez, W. K. Maser, M. Carmen Mayoral, J. M. Andrés, and A. M. Benito, “Platelet-like catalyst design for high yield production of multi-walled carbon nanotubes by catalytic chemical vapor deposition,” Carbon, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 2483–2491, 2011.
- H. Igarashi, H. Murakami, Y. Murakami, S. Maruyama, and N. Nakashima, “Purification and characterization of zeolite-supported single-walled carbon nanotubes catalytically synthesized from ethanol,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 392, no. 4–6, pp. 529–532, 2004.
- I. Schmidt, A. Boisen, E. Gustavsson et al., “Carbon nanotube templated growth of mesoporous zeolite single crystals,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 4416–4418, 2001.
- J. M. Cao, “Selective growth of carbon nantoubes on SiO2/Si substrate,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 5, pp. 2460–2464, 2006.
- H. Ohno, D. Takagi, K. Yamada, S. Chiashi, A. Tokura, and Y. Homma, “Growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes on alumina and sapphire substrates,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1956–1960, 2008.
- C.-T. Hsieh, Y.-T. Lin, J.-Y. Lin, and J.-L. Wei, “Synthesis of carbon nanotubes over Ni- and Co-supported CaCO3 catalysts using catalytic chemical vapor deposition,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 114, no. 2-3, pp. 702–708, 2009.
- G.-Y. Xiong, D. Z. Wang, and Z. F. Ren, “Aligned millimeter-long carbon nanotube arrays grown on single crystal magnesia,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 969–973, 2006.
- M. Picher, E. Anglaret, R. Arenal, and V. Jourdain, “Processes controlling the diameter distribution of single-walled carbon nanotubes during catalytic chemical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 2118–2125, 2011.
- Y. Tian, M. Y. Timmermans, M. Partanen et al., “Growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes with controlled diameters and lengths by an aerosol method,” Carbon, vol. 49, no. 14, pp. 4636–4643, 2011.
- L. Vanyorek, D. Loche, H. Katona et al., “Optimization of the catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotubes on FeCo(Ni)/SiO2 aerogel catalysts by statistical design of experiments,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 13, pp. 5894–5902, 2011.
- H. S. Yang, L. Zhang, X. H. Dong et al., “Precise control of the number of walls formed during carbon nanotube growth using chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology, vol. 23, no. 6, Article ID 065604, 2012.
- O. C. Carneiro, P. E. Anderson, N. M. Rodriguez, and R. T. K. Baker, “Synthesis of high purity narrow-width carbon nanotubes,” Carbon, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 3200–3209, 2012.
- W.-W. Liu, A. Aziz, S.-P. Chai, C.-T. Tye, and A. R. Mohamed, “Broad bundles of single-walled carbon nanotube synthesized over Fe2O3/MgO via chemical vapor deposition of methane,” Nano, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 77–81, 2009.
- W.-W. Liu, A. Aziz, S.-P. Chai, A. R. Mohamed, and C.-T. Tye, “Optimisation of reaction conditions for the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes using response surface methodology,” Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 489–505, 2012.
- W.-W. Liu, A. Azizan, S.-P. Chai, R. M. Abdul, and C.-T. Tye, “Preparation of iron oxide nanoparticles supported on magnesium oxide for producing high-quality single-walled carbon nanotubes,” New Carbon Materials, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 255–261, 2011.
- W.-W. Liu, A. Aziz, S.-P. Chai, A. R. Mohamed, and C.-T. Tye, “The effect of carbon precursors (methane, benzene and camphor) on the quality of carbon nanotubes synthesised by the chemical vapour decomposition,” Physica E, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1535–1542, 2011.
- M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, R. Saito, and A. Jorio, “Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes,” Physics Reports, vol. 409, no. 2, pp. 47–99, 2005.
- A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, and E. I. Kauppinen, “The role of metal nanoparticles in the catalytic production of single-walled carbon nanotubes: a review,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 15, no. 42, pp. S3011–S3035, 2003.
- K. J. MacKenzie, O. M. Dunens, and A. T. Harris, “An updated review of synthesis parameters and growth mechanisms for carbon nanotubes in fluidized beds,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 5323–5338, 2010.
- V. L. Kuznetsov, A. N. Usol'tseva, and Y. V. Butenko, “Mechanism of coking on metal catalyst surfaces: I. Thermodynamic analysis of nucleation,” Kinetics and Catalysis, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 726–734, 2003.
- M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, A. Jorio, A. G. Souza Filho, M. A. Pimenta, and R. Saito, “Single nanotube Raman spectroscopy,” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1070–1078, 2002.
- H. Ago, K. Nakamura, S. Imamura, and M. Tsuji, “Growth of double-wall carbon nanotubes with diameter-controlled iron oxide nanoparticles supported on MgO,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 391, no. 4–6, pp. 308–313, 2004.
- Y. Jin, G. W. Wang, and Y. D. Li, “Catalytic growth of high quality single-walled carbon nanotubes over a Fe/MgO catalyst derived from a precursor containing Feitknecht compound,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 445-446, pp. 121–127, 2012.
- H. Ago, K. Nakamura, N. Uehara, and M. Tsuji, “Roles of metal-support interaction in growth of single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes studied with diameter-controlled iron particles supported on MgO,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 108, no. 49, pp. 18908–18915, 2004.
- H. Ago, S. Imamura, T. Okazaki, T. Saito, M. Yumura, and M. Tsuji, “CVD growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes with narrow diameter distribution over Fe/MgO catalyst and their fluorescence spectroscopy,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 20, pp. 10035–10041, 2005.
- A.-C. Dupuis, “The catalyst in the CCVD of carbon nanotubes-a review,” Progress in Materials Science, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 929–961, 2005.
- C. Sun and J. C. Berg, “A review of the different techniques for solid surface acid-base characterization,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 105, no. 1–3, pp. 151–175, 2003.
- J. Kong, A. M. Cassell, and H. Dai, “Chemical vapor deposition of methane for single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 292, no. 4–6, pp. 567–574, 1998.
- A. M. Cassell, J. A. Raymakers, J. Kong, and H. Dai, “Large scale CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 103, no. 31, pp. 6484–6492, 1999.
- J. E. Herrera, L. Balzano, A. Borgna, W. E. Alvarez, and D. E. Resasco, “Relationship between the structure/composition of Co-Mo catalysts and their ability to produce single-walled carbon nanotubes by CO disproportionation,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 204, no. 1, pp. 129–145, 2001.
- X. Z. Liao, A. Serquis, Q. X. Jia, D. E. Peterson, Y. T. Zhu, and H. F. Xu, “Effect of catalyst composition on carbon nanotube growth,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 82, no. 16, pp. 2694–2696, 2003.
- Y. Yao, L. K. L. Falk, R. E. Morjan, O. A. Nerushev, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Synthesis of carbon nanotube films by thermal CVD in the presence of supported catalyst particles. Part II: the nanotube film,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 583–594, 2004.
- K. B. Kouravelou and S. V. Sotirchos, “Dynamic study of carbon nanotubes production by chemical vapor deposition of alcohols,” Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 243–248, 2005.
- L. Zheng, X. Liao, and Y. T. Zhu, “Parametric study of carbon nanotube growth via cobalt-catalyzed ethanol decomposition,” Materials Letters, vol. 60, no. 16, pp. 1968–1972, 2006.
- M. Su, Y. Li, B. Maynor, A. Buldum, J. P. Lu, and J. Liu, “Lattice-oriented growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 104, no. 28, pp. 6507–6508, 2000.
- Y. Li, J. Liu, Y. Wang, and Z. L. Wang, “Preparation of monodispersed Fe-Mo nanoparticles as the catalyst for CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1008–1014, 2001.
- Y. Zhang, Y. Li, W. Kim, D. Wang, and H. Dai, “Imaging as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes originated from isolated catalytic nanoparticles,” Applied Physics A, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 325–328, 2002.
- R. M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science, vol. 24, Princeton, New Jersey, NJ, USA, 1984.