About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 627215, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/627215
Review Article

Carbon Nanotubes for Thin Film Transistor: Fabrication, Properties, and Applications

School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China

Received 5 April 2013; Accepted 25 May 2013

Academic Editor: Yang Chai

Copyright © 2013 Yucui Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Iijima, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon,” Nature, vol. 354, no. 6348, pp. 56–58, 1991. View at Scopus
  2. Z. Yao, C. L. Kane, and C. Dekker, “High-field electrical transport in single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 84, pp. 2941–2944, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. S. Berber, Y.-K. Kwon, and D. Tománek, “Unusually high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 84, no. 20, pp. 4613–4616, 2000. View at Scopus
  4. C. T. White and T. N. Todorov, “Carbon nanotubes as long ballistic conductors,” Nature, vol. 393, no. 6682, pp. 240–241, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Kong, E. Yenilmez, T. W. Tombler et al., “Quantum interference and ballistic transmission in nanotube electron waveguides,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 87, no. 10, Article ID 106801, 3 pages, 2001. View at Scopus
  6. P. M. Ajayan, L. S. Schadler, C. Giannaris, and A. Rubio, “Single-walled carbon nanotube-polymer composites: strength and weakness,” Advanced Materials, vol. 12, pp. 750–753, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. Z. Wu, Z. Chen, X. Du et al., “Transparent, conductive carbon nanotube films,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5688, pp. 1273–1276, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Zhang, S. Fang, A. A. Zakhidov et al., “Materials science: strong, transparent, multifunctional, carbon nanotube sheets,” Science, vol. 309, no. 5738, pp. 1215–1219, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Awano, S. Sato, M. Nihei, T. Sakai, Y. Ohno, and T. Mizutani, “Carbon nanotubes for VLSI: interconnect and transistor applications,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 2015–2031, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Zhang, P. C. H. Chan, Y. Chai, Q. Liang, and Z. K. Tang, “Novel local silicon-gate carbon nanotube transistors combining silicon-on-insulator technology for integration,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 260–268, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. X. Liu, C. Wang, B. Cai et al., “Rational design of amorphous indium zinc oxide/carbon nanotubes hybrid film for unique performance transistors,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, pp. 3596–3601, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C. Wang, J.-C. Chien, K. Takei et al., “Extremely bendable, high-performance integrated circuits using semiconducting carbon nanotube networks for digital, analog, and radio-frequency applications,” Nano Letters, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1527–1533, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Nathan, A. Kumar, K. Sakariya, P. Servati, S. Sambandan, and D. Striakhilev, “Amorphous silicon thin film transistor circuit integration for organic LED displays on glass and plastic,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1477–1486, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. M. C. Fortunato, P. M. C. Barquinha, A. C. M. B. G. Pimentel et al., “Fully transparent ZnO thin-film transistor produced at room temperature,” Advanced Materials, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 590–594, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Y. Kwon, J. S. Jung, K. S. Son et al., “GaInZnO TFT for active matrix display,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD '08), pp. 287–290, 2008.
  16. T.-C. Chen, T.-C. Chang, T.-Y. Hsieh et al., “Investigating the degradation behavior caused by charge trapping effect under DC and AC gate-bias stress for InGaZnO thin film transistor,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, no. 2, Article ID 022104, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Ryu, H.-K. Noh, E.-A. Choi, and K. J. Chang, “O-vacancy as the origin of negative bias illumination stress instability in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film transistors,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 97, no. 2, Article ID 022108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Chai, M. Sun, Z. Xiao, Y. Li, M. Zhang, and P. C. H. Chan, “Towards future VLSI interconnects using aligned carbon nanotubes,” in Proceedings of IEEE/IFIP 19th International Conference on VLSI and System-on-Chip (VLSI-SoC '11), pp. 248–253, October 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Guo, P. Nikolaev, A. Thess, D. T. Colbert, and R. E. Smalley, “Catalytic growth of single-walled manotubes by laser vaporization,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 243, no. 1-2, pp. 49–54, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. W. Ebbesen and P. M. Ajayan, “Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes,” Nature, vol. 358, no. 6383, pp. 220–222, 1992. View at Scopus
  21. Y. Chai, X. L. Zhou, P. J. Li, W. J. Zhang, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “Nanodiode based on a multiwall CNx/carbon nanotube intramolecular junction,” Nanotechnology, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2134–2137, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Chai, Q. F. Zhang, and J. L. Wu, “A simple way to CNx/carbon nanotube intramolecular junctions and branches,” Carbon, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 687–691, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Huczko, “Synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes,” Applied Physics A, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 617–638, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. C. Maganas and A. L. Harrington, “Intermittent film deposition method and system,” U.S. Patent 5,143,745, September 1992.
  25. Y. Li, D. Mann, M. Rolandi et al., “Preferential growth of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes by a plasma enhanced CVD method,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 317–321, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Liu, Y. Zhang, D. Arato, R. Li, P. Mérel, and X. Sun, “Aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes on different substrates by floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition: critical effects of buffer layer,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 202, no. 17, pp. 4114–4120, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Moisala, A. G. Nasibulin, D. P. Brown, H. Jiang, L. Khriachtchev, and E. I. Kauppinen, “Single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis using ferrocene and iron pentacarbonyl in a laminar flow reactor,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 61, no. 13, pp. 4393–4402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Patil, A. Lin, J. Zhang et al., “VMR: VLSI-compatible metallic carbon nanotube removal for imperfection-immune cascaded multi-stage digital logic circuits using carbon nanotube FETs,” in Proceedings of the International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM '09), pp. 23.4.1–23.4.4, December 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nature nanotechnology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 60–65, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Tanaka, H. Jin, Y. Miyata et al., “Simple and scalable gel-based separation of metallic and semiconducting carbon nanotubes,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1497–1500, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. Krupke, F. Hennrich, H. V. Löhneysen, and M. M. Kappes, “Separation of metallic from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5631, pp. 344–347, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. X. Tu, S. Manohar, A. Jagota, and M. Zheng, “DNA sequence motifs for structure-specific recognition and separation of carbon nanotubes,” Nature, vol. 460, no. 7252, pp. 250–253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Y. Feng, Y. Miyata, K. Matsuishi, and H. Kataura, “High-efficiency separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes by self-generated density gradient ultracentrifugation,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 1752–1756, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Hu, D. S. Hecht, and G. Gruner, “Percolation in transparent and conducting carbon nanotube networks,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 2513–2517, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. S. Liyanage, H. Lee, N. Patil et al., “Wafer-scale fabrication and characterization of thin-film transistors with polythiophene-sorted semiconducting carbon nanotube networks,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 451–458, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. X. Xiong, C.-L. Chen, P. Ryan, A. A. Busnaina, Y. J. Jung, and M. R. Dokmeci, “Directed assembly of high density single-walled carbon nanotube patterns on flexible polymer substrates,” Nanotechnology, vol. 20, no. 29, Article ID 295302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. A. Meitl, Y. Zhou, A. Gaur et al., “Solution casting and transfer printing single-walled carbon nanotube films,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1643–1647, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Q. Cao, H.-S. Kim, N. Pimparkar et al., “Medium-scale carbon nanotube thin-film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7203, pp. 495–500, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Im, I.-H. Lee, B. Y. Lee et al., “Direct printing of aligned carbon nanotube patterns for high-performance thin film devices,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 94, no. 5, Article ID 053109, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Okimoto, T. Takenobu, K. Yanagi et al., “Tunable carbon nanotube thin-film transistors produced exclusively via inkjet printing,” Advanced Materials, vol. 22, no. 36, pp. 3981–3986, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Ha, Y. Xia, A. A. Green et al., “Printed, sub-3V digital circuits on plastic from aqueous carbon nanotube inks,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 4388–4395, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. E. Artukovic, M. Kaempgen, D. S. Hecht, S. Roth, and G. Grüner, “Transparent and flexible carbon nanotube transistors,” Nano Letters, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 757–760, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Z. Li, H. R. Kandel, E. Dervishi et al., “Does the wall number of carbon nanotubes matter as conductive transparent material?” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 5, Article ID 053115, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Abdellah, A. Yaqub, C. Ferrari, B. Fabel, P. Lugli, and G. Scarpa, “Spray deposition of highly uniform CNT films and their application in gas sensing,” in Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology (NANO '11), pp. 1118–1123, Portland, Ore, USA, August 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. H. Tseng and N. H. Tai, “Fabrication of a transparent and flexible thin film transistor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes using the direct transfer method,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 95, no. 20, Article ID 204104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Y. Jang, T. J. Kang, H. W. Im, D. W. Kim, and Y. H. Kim, “Single-walled carbon-nanotube networks on large-area glass substrate by the dip-coating method,” Small, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 2255–2261, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 519–521, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. Beecher, P. Servati, A. Rozhin et al., “Ink-jet printing of carbon nanotube thin film transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 102, no. 4, Article ID 043710, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. Ma, L. Song, R. Yang et al., “Directly synthesized strong, highly conducting, transparent single-walled carbon nanotube films,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 2307–2311, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. Zhu and B. Wei, “Direct fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotube macro-films on flexible substrates,” Chemical Communications, no. 29, pp. 3042–3044, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Y. Ono, S. Kishimoto, Y. Ohno, and T. Mizutani, “Thin film transistors using PECVD-grown carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 20, Article ID 205202, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. Chandra, H. Park, A. Maarouf, G. J. Martyna, and G. S. Tulevski, “Carbon nanotube thin film transistors on flexible substrates,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, no. 7, Article ID 072110, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. Chen, Y. Fu, R. Aminirad et al., “Fully printed separated carbon nanotube thin film transistor circuits and its application in organic light emitting diode control,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 5301–5308, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. Wang, J. Zhang, K. Ryu, A. Badmaev, L. G. De Arco, and C. Zhou, “Wafer-scale fabrication of separated carbon nanotube thin-film transistors for display applications,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 4285–4291, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D.-M. Sun, M. Y. Timmermans, Y. Tian et al., “Flexible high-performance carbon nanotube integrated circuits,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 156–161, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. Wang, J. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Macroelectronic integrated circuits using high-performance separated carbon nanotube thin-film transistors,” ACS Nano, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 7123–7132, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Q. Cao, S. Han, G. S. Tulevski, Y. Zhu, D. D. Lu, and W. Haensch, “Arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes with full surface coverage for high-performance electronics,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 8, pp. 180–186, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. F. N. Ishikawa, H.-K. Chang, K. Ryu et al., “Transparent electronics based on transfer printed aligned carbon nanotubes on rigid and flexible substrates,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Engel, J. P. Small, M. Steiner et al., “Thin film nanotube transistors based on self-assembled, aligned, semiconducting carbon nanotube arrays,” ACS Nano, vol. 2, no. 12, pp. 2445–2452, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. Zhang, C. Wang, and C. Zhou, “Rigid/flexible transparent electronics based on separated carbon nanotube thin-film transistors and their application in display electronics,” ACS Nano, vol. 6, pp. 7412–7419, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. J. Park, J. Yoon, S. J. Kang, G.-T. Kim, and J. S. Ha, “High yield production of semiconducting p-type single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on a flexible polyimide substrate by tuning the density of ferritin catalysts,” Carbon, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 2492–2498, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. T. Pham, H. Subbaraman, M. Y. Chen, X. Xu, and R. T. Chen, “Self-aligned carbon nanotube thin-film transistors on flexible substrates with novel source-drain contact and multilayer metal interconnection,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. H. Chae, W. J. Yu, J. J. Bae et al., “Transferred wrinkled Al2O3 for highly stretchable and transparent graphene-carbon nanotube transistors,” Nature Materials, vol. 12, pp. 403–409, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. M. C. LeMieux, S. Sok, M. E. Roberts et al., “Solution assembly of organized carbon nanotube networks for thin-film transistors,” ACS Nano, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 4089–4097, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Zhang, X. Huo, P. C. H. Chan, Q. Liang, and Z. K. Tang, “Radio-frequency transmission properties of carbon nanotubes in a field-effect transistor configuration,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 668–670, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, and H. Hosono, “Present status of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, vol. 11, Article ID 044305, 2010.
  67. S. Kim, S. Ju, J. H. Back et al., “Aligned single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistor arrays for transparent electronics,” in Proceedings of the 66th DRC Device Research Conference Digest (DRC '08), pp. 113–114, June 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. Ding, D. Yuan, and J. Liu, “Growth of high-density parallel arrays of long single-walled carbon nanotubes on quartz substrates,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 16, pp. 5428–5429, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. H. Xu, L. Chen, L. Hu, and N. Zhitenev, “Contact resistance of flexible, transparent carbon nanotube films with metals,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 97, no. 14, Article ID 143116, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Y. Chai, A. Hazeghi, K. Takei et al., “Low-resistance electrical contact to carbon nanotubes with graphitic interfacial layer,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 12–19, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. P. G. Collins, K. Bradley, M. Ishigami, and A. Zettl, “Extreme oxygen sensitivity of electronic properties of carbon nanotubes,” Science, vol. 287, no. 5459, pp. 1801–1804, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Shim, A. Javey, N. W. S. Kam, and H. Dai, “Polymer functionalization for air-stable n-type carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 123, no. 46, pp. 11512–11513, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H. Wei, H.-Y. Chen, L. Liyanage, H.-S. P. Wong, and S. Mitra, “Air-stable technique for fabricating n-type carbon nanotube FETs,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM '11), pp. 505–508, December 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Y. Nosho, Y. Ohno, S. Kishimoto, and T. Mizutani, “N-type carbon nanotube field-effect transistors fabricated by using Ca contact electrodes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 86, no. 7, Article ID 073105, pp. 1–3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. Z. Zhang, X. Liang, S. Wang et al., “Doping-free fabrication of carbon nanotube based ballistic CMOS devices and circuits,” Nano Letters, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 3603–3607, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Wang, K. Ryu, A. Badmaev, J. Zhang, and C. Zhou, “Metal contact engineering and registration-free fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuits using aligned carbon nanotubes,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1147–1153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Radosavljević, J. Appenzeller, P. Avouris, and J. Knoch, “High performance of potassium n-doped carbon nanotube field-effect transistors,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 84, no. 18, pp. 3693–3695, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. J. Chen, C. Klinke, A. Afzali, K. Chan, and P. Avouris, “Self-aligned carbon nanotube transistors with novel chemical doping,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM '04), pp. 695–698, December 2004. View at Scopus
  79. Y. Zhou, A. Gaur, S.-H. Hur et al., “p-channel, n-channel thin film transistors and p-n diodes based on single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Nano Letters, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 2031–2035, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus