Table 3: Surface Cu component of the reduced catalysts based on Cu LMM deconvolution.

CatalystsKE (eV)a (eV)bCu 2p3/2 BE (eV) XCu+/Cu0c (mol/mol)
Cu+Cu0Cu+Cu0

Cu/SiO2-AE916.3918.31848.71850.7932.41.79
Cu/SiO2-SG916.5919.11849.21851.8932.71.96

energy. bModified Auger parameter. cCu+/(Cu0) * 100%.