- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 712361, 7 pages
Self-Catalytic Growth of Tin Oxide Nanowires by Chemical Vapor Deposition Process
1DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Centre, National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535, South Africa
Received 20 February 2013; Accepted 10 June 2013
Academic Editor: Rakesh Joshi
Copyright © 2013 Bongani S. Thabethe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- S. Y. Li, C. Y. Lee, and T. Y. Tseng, “Copper-catalyzed ZnO nanowires on silicon (1 0 0) grown by vapor-liquid-solid process,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 247, no. 3-4, pp. 357–362, 2003.
- J. X. Wang, D. F. Liu, X. Q. Yan et al., “Growth of SnO2 nanowires with uniform branched structures,” Solid State Communications, vol. 130, no. 1-2, pp. 89–94, 2004.
- Z. W. Pan, Z. R. Dai, L. Xu, S. T. Lee, and Z. L. Wang, “Temperature-controlled growth of silicon-based nanostructures by thermal evaporation of SiO powders,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 105, no. 13, pp. 2507–2514, 2001.
- K. D. Schierbaum, U. Weimar, and W. Gopel, “Schottky-barrier and conductivity gas sensors based upon Pd/SnO2 and Pt/TiO2,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 87–94, 1992.
- D. E. Williams, “Semiconducting oxides as gas-sensitive resistors,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 57, no. 1–3, pp. 1–16, 1999.
- W. Fliegel, G. Behr, J. Werner, and G. Krabbes, “Preparation, development of microstructure, electrical and gas-sensitive properties of pure and doped SnO2 powders,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 19, no. 1–3, pp. 474–477, 1994.
- G. Korotcenkov, “Metal oxides for solid-state gas sensors: what determines our choice?” Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2007.
- G. Korotcenkov, V. Brynzari, and S. Dmitriev, “SnO2 films for thin film gas sensor design,” Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 195–204, 1999.
- N. Yamazoe, Y. Kurokawa, and T. Seiyama, “Effects of additives on semiconductor gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators, vol. 4, pp. 283–289, 1983.
- G. Zhang and M. Liu, “Effect of particle size and dopant on properties of SnO2-based gas sensors,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 144–152, 2000.
- K. J. Albert, N. S. Lewis, C. L. Schauer et al., “Cross-reactive chemical sensor arrays,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 2595–2626, 2000.
- M. Meyyappan and M. S. Sunkara, Inorganic Nanowires, CRC, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2009.
- Z. Ying, Q. Wan, Z. T. Song, and S. L. Feng, “SnO2 nanowhiskers and their ethanol sensing characteristics,” Nanotechnology, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1682–1684, 2004.
- V. V. Sysoev, B. K. Button, K. Wepsiec, S. Dmitriev, and A. Kolmakov, “Toward the nanoscopic “electronic nose”: hydrogen vs carbon monoxide discrimination with an array of individual metal oxide nano- and mesowire sensors,” Nano Letters, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1584–1588, 2006.
- J. G. Lu, P. Chang, and Z. Fan, “Quasi-one-dimensional metal oxide materials—synthesis, properties and applications,” Materials Science and Engineering: R, vol. 52, no. 1–3, pp. 49–91, 2006.
- N.-L. Wu, S.-Y. Wang, and I. A. Rusakova, “Inhibition of crystallite growth in the sol-gel synthesis of nanocrystalline metal oxides,” Science, vol. 285, no. 5432, pp. 1375–1377, 1999.
- Y. Wang, X. Jiang, and Y. Xia, “A solution-phase, precursor route to polycrystalline SnO2 nanowires that can be used for gas sensing under ambient conditions,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 52, pp. 16176–16177, 2003.
- M. Yuasa, T. Masaki, T. Kida, K. Shimanoe, and N. Yamazoe, “Nano-sized PdO loaded SnO2 nanoparticles by reverse micelle method for highly sensitive CO gas sensor,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 99–104, 2009.
- M. H. Huang, Y. Wu, H. Feick, N. Tran, E. Weber, and P. Yang, “Catalytic growth of zinc oxide nanowires by vapor transport,” Advanced Materials, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 113–116, 2001.
- J. D. Holmes, K. P. Johnston, R. C. Doty, and B. A. Korgel, “Control of thickness and orientation of solution-grown silicon nanowires,” Science, vol. 287, no. 5457, pp. 1471–1473, 2000.
- J. S. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, C. J. Lee, S. J. An, and G. C. Yi, “Synthesis and characterization of high-quality In2O3 nanobelts via catalyst-free growth using a simple physical vapor deposition at low temperature,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 384, no. 4–6, pp. 246–250, 2004.
- M. J. Zheng, L. D. Zhang, G. H. Li, X. Y. Zhang, and X. F. Wang, “Ordered indium-oxide nanowire arrays and their photoluminescence properties,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 79, p. 839, 2001.
- N. G. Patel, K. K. Makhija, C. J. Panchal, D. B. Dave, and V. S. Vaishnav, “Fabrication of carbon tetrachloride gas sensors using indium tin oxide thin films,” Sensors and Actuators B, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 49–53, 1995.
- D. Frohlich and R. Kenklies, “Band-gap assignment in SnO2 by two-photon spectroscopy,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 41, no. 25, pp. 1750–1751, 1978.
- G. Mill, Z. G. Li, and D. Merisel, “Photochemistry and spectroscopy of colloidal arsenic sesquisulfide,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 822–828, 1988.
- S. Luo, P. K. Chu, W. Liu, M. Zhang, and C. Lin, “Origin of low-temperature photoluminescence from SnO2 nanowires fabricated by thermal evaporation and annealed in different ambients,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, Article ID 183112, 3 pages, 2006.
- A. L. Efros and A. L. Efros, “Interband absorption of light in a semiconductor sphere,” Soviet Physics: Semiconductors, vol. 16, pp. 772–775, 1982.
- L. Brus, “A simple model for the ionization potential, electron affinity, and aqueous redox potentials of small semiconductor crystallites,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 79, no. 11, p. 5566, 1983.
- B. Wang, Y. H. Yang, C. X. Wang, and G. W. Yang, “Nanostructures and self-catalyzed growth of SnO2,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 98, no. 7, Article ID 073520, 5 pages, 2005.
- R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 89, 1964.
- G. Gundiah, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Nanowires, nanobelts and related nanostructures of Ga2O3,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 351, no. 3-4, pp. 189–194, 2002.
- A. Kolmakov, Y. Zhang, G. Cheng, and M. Moskovits, “Detection of CO and O2 using tin oxide nanowire sensors,” Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 997–1000, 2003.