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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 843647, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/843647
Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Hippurate Nanocomposite and Its Cytotoxicity Effect in Combination with Cytarabine against HL-60

1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3Materials Synhesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 27 August 2012; Revised 27 November 2012; Accepted 28 November 2012

Academic Editor: Xiliang Luo

Copyright © 2013 Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hippuric acid (HA) was intercalated into a zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH) by direct reaction of an aqueous suspension of zinc oxide with an aqueous solution of hippuric acid to obtain hippurate nanocomposite (HAN). Various concentrations of hippuric acid (0.05, 0.2, and 0.4 molar) were used for the synthesis of the nanocomposite. The as-synthesized HAN using 0.2 molar was found to give a well-ordered layered nanocomposite material with an increase in the basal spacing to 21.3 Å which indicated the insertion of hippurate organic moiety into the ZLH interlayers. The cytotoxicity of HAN in combination with cytarabine against human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) was tested using MTT cell viability assay and trypan blue dye exclusion assay. The combination of cytarabine with HAN showed higher tumor suppression efficiency as compared to that of cytarabine alone. The IC50 values of HAN/cytarabine combination and cytarabine alone were μg/mL and μg/mL, respectively. DNA fragmentation was also studied, and the exposure of HL-60 cells to cytarabine produced % DNA fragmentation compared to % when cells were exposed to combination of cytarabine with HAN. The antimicrobial activity of hippuric acid and HAN nanocomposite was carried out against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts. It was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were more sensitive to HAN compared to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella choleraesuis.