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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 859563, 12 pages
Research Article

The Effect of Nanofluid Volume Concentration on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor inside a Horizontal Tube

1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia
2Al-Haweeja Institute, Foundation of Technical Education, Iraq

Received 11 April 2013; Accepted 18 June 2013

Academic Editor: Yun Suk Huh

Copyright © 2013 Adnan M. Hussein et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The additives of solid nanoparticles to liquids are significant enhancement of heat transfer and hydrodynamic flow. In this study, the thermal properties of three types of nanoparticles (Al2O3, TiO2, and SiO2) dispersed in water as a base fluid were measured experimentally. Forced convection heat transfer turbulent flow inside heated flat tube was numerically simulated. The heat flux around flat tube is 5000 W/m2 and Reynolds number is in the range of to . CFD model by finite volume method used commercial software to find hydrodynamic and heat transfer coefficient. Simulation study concluded that the thermal properties measured and Reynolds number as input and friction factor and Nusselt number as output parameters. Data measured showed that thermal conductivity and viscosity increase with increasing the volume concentration of nanofluids with maximum deviation 19% and 6%, respectively. Simulation results concluded that the friction factor and Nusselt number increase with increasing the volume concentration. On the other hand, the flat tube enhances heat transfer and decreases pressure drop by 6% and −4%, respectively, as compared with circular tube. Comparison of numerical analysis with experimental data available showed good agreement with deviation not more than 2%.