Table 2: Photovoltaic characteristics of DSSCs with various stacking architectures of different TiO2 nanoparticle layers.

TiO2 electrodePeak IPCE (%)   
(mA/cm2)
  (V)FFEfficiency (%)

T20 (8 μm)60.0210.280.790.685.48
T20 (12 μm)71.3711.920.750.716.32
T20 (16 μm)74.3212.710.700.676.01

T20 (12 μm) + RSP (4 μm)80.7514.850.770.718.11
T37 (12 μm)71.0511.700.770.676.07
T37 (12 μm) + RSP (4 μm)79.4114.500.760.697.59

T20 (6 μm) + T37 (6 μm) + RSP (4 μm)80.1214.810.750.697.65
T37 (6 μm) + T20 (6 μm) + RSP (4 μm)86.5415.720.770.708.47
D20 (6 μm) + T20 (6 μm) + RSP (4 μm)68.8213.060.770.686.83