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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 965864, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/965864
Research Article

Effect of RGD Peptide-Coated TiO2 Nanotubes on the Attachment, Proliferation, and Functionality of Bone-Related Cells

1Department of Dental Biomaterials and Institute of Biomaterials-Implant, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Jeonbuk, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
2Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Jeonbuk, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea

Received 4 June 2013; Revised 12 July 2013; Accepted 12 July 2013

Academic Editor: Jiamin Wu

Copyright © 2013 Seunghan Oh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to characterize an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide immobilized on TiO2 nanotubes. In addition, we investigated the effects of the RGD peptide-coated TiO2 nanotubes on the cellular response, proliferation, and functionality of osteogenic-induced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), which are osteoclasts that have been induced by bone marrow macrophages. The RGD peptide was grafted covalently onto the surface of TiO2 nanotubes based on the results of SEM, FT-IR, and XPS. Furthermore, the RGD peptide promoted the initial attachment and proliferation of the hMSCs, regardless of the size of the TiO2 nanotubes. However, the RGD peptide did not prominently affect the osteogenic functionality of the hMSCs because the peptide suppressed hMSC motility associated with osteogenic differentiation. The result of an in vitro osteoclast test showed that the RGD peptide accelerated the initial attachment of preosteoclasts and the formation of mature osteoclasts, which could resorb the bone matrix. Therefore, we believe that an RGD coating on TiO2 nanotubes synthesized on Ti implants might not offer significant acceleration of bone formation in vivo because osteoblasts and osteoclasts reside in the same compartment.