About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 978568, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/978568
Review Article

Nanostructure Formations and Improvement in Corrosion Resistance of Steels by Means of Pulsed Electron Beam Surface Treatment

1School of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China
2Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Mg Materials and Applications, National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composite, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
4Laboratoire d’Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), Université de Lorraine, Ile du Saulcy, UMR 7239, 57045 Metz, France
5Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures (DAMAS), University of Lorraine, 57045 Metz, France

Received 12 December 2012; Accepted 25 January 2013

Academic Editor: Gang Ji

Copyright © 2013 K. M. Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. S. Cushman and H. A. Gardner, The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron and Steel, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1910.
  2. M. G. Fontana and N. D. Greene, Corrosion Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1967.
  3. K. R. Trethewey and J. Chamberlain, Corrosion for Students of Science and Engineering, Longman Scientific and Technical, Burnt Mill, UK, 1988.
  4. P. R. Roberge, Corrosion Basics: An Introduction, NACE Press, 2nd edition, 2006.
  5. K. H. Lo, C. H. Shek, and J. K. L. Lai, “Recent developments in stainless steels,” Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports, vol. 65, no. 4–6, pp. 39–104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. Wranglen, “Pitting and sulphide inclusions in steel,” Corrosion Science, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 331–349, 1974. View at Scopus
  7. G. S. Eklund, “Initiation of pitting at sulfide inclusions in stainless steel,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 467–473, 1974. View at Scopus
  8. M. P. Ryan, D. E. Williams, R. J. Chater, B. M. Hutton, and D. S. McPhail, “Why stainless steel corrodes,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6873, pp. 770–774, 2002. View at Scopus
  9. C. Bindal and A. H. Ucisik, “Characterization of boriding of 0.3%C, 0.02% P plain carbon steel,” Vacuum, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 90–94, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Pertek and M. Kulka, “Two-step treatment carburizing followed by boriding on medium-carbon steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 173, no. 2-3, pp. 309–314, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Selçuk, R. Ipek, M. B. Karamiş, and V. Kuzucu, “An investigation on surface properties of treated low carbon and alloyed steels (bonding and carburizing),” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 310–317, 2000. View at Scopus
  12. A. A. Novakova, I. G. Sizov, D. S. Golubok, T. Y. Kiseleva, and P. O. Revokatov, “Electron-beam boriding of low-carbon steel,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 383, no. 1-2, pp. 108–112, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. M. Yue, J. K. Yu, and H. C. Man, “The effect of excimer laser surface treatment on pitting corrosion resistance of 316LS stainless steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 65–71, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Manna, J. Dutta Majumdar, B. Ramesh Chandra, S. Nayak, and N. B. Dahotre, “Laser surface cladding of Fe-B-C, Fe-B-Si and Fe-BC-Si-Al-C on plain carbon steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 1-2, pp. 434–440, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. J. Wang and C. C. Li, “Corrosion behaviors of AISI 1025 steels with electroless nickel/aluminized coatings in NaCl-induced hot corrosion,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 177-178, pp. 37–43, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. S. Chen, J. G. Duh, and F. B. Wu, “Microhardness and corrosion behavior in CrN / electroless Ni / mild steel complex coating,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 150, no. 2-3, pp. 239–245, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. F. Chen, W. L. Pan, G. P. Yu, J. Hwang, and J. H. Huang, “On the corrosion behavior of TiN-coated AISI D2 steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 111, no. 1, pp. 16–21, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Lunarska, N. Ageeva, and J. Michalski, “Corrosion resistance of plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) TiN-coated steel in a range of aggressive environments,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 125–130, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Creus, H. Idrissi, H. Mazille, F. Sanchette, and P. Jacquot, “Improvement of the corrosion resistance of CrN coated steel by an interlayer,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 107, no. 2-3, pp. 183–190, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. A. S. Ries, D. S. Azambuja, and I. J. R. Baumvol, “Corrosion resistance of steel coated with Ti/TiN multilayers,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 89, no. 1-2, pp. 114–120, 1997. View at Scopus
  21. C. Liu, Q. Bi, and A. Matthews, “EIS comparison on corrosion performance of PVD TiN and CrN coated mild steel in 0.5 N NaCl aqueous solution,” Corrosion Science, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 1953–1961, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Cano, L. Martínez, J. Simancas, F. J. Pérez-Trujillo, C. Gómez, and J. M. Bastidas, “Influence of N, Ar and Si ion implantation on the passive layer and corrosion behaviour of AISI 304 and 430 stainless steels,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 16-17, pp. 5123–5131, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Mottu, M. Vayer, J. Dudognon, and R. Erre, “Structure and composition effects on pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel after molybdenum ion implantation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 7, pp. 2131–2136, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. J. Pérez, E. Otero, M. P. Hierro et al., “High temperature corrosion protection of austenitic AISI 304 stainless steel by Si, Mo and Ce ion implantation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 108-109, no. 1–3, pp. 127–131, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. I. Proskurovsky, V. P. Rotshtein, G. E. Ozur et al., “Pulsed electron-beam technology for surface modification of metallic materials,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2480–2488, 1998. View at Scopus
  26. D. I. Proskurovsky, V. P. Rotshtein, G. E. Ozur, Y. F. Ivanov, and A. B. Markov, “Physical foundations for surface treatment of materials with low energy, high current electron beams,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 125, no. 1–3, pp. 49–56, 2000. View at Scopus
  27. A. D. Pogrebnjak, V. S. Ladysev, N. A. Pogrebnjak et al., “Comparison of radiation damage and mechanical and tribological properties of α-Fe exposed to intense pulsed electron and ion beams,” Vacuum, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. N. Valyaev, V. S. Ladysev, A. D. Pogrebnjak, A. A. Valyaev, and S. V. Plotnikov, “Comparative analysis of radiation damages, mechanical and tribological properties of α-Fe exposed to intense-pulsed electron and ion beams,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 161, pp. 1132–1136, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. B. Gao, S. Hao, J. Zou et al., “High current pulsed electron beam treatment of AZ31 Mg alloy,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1548–1553, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. X. Zou, K. M. Zhang, C. Dong, Y. Qin, S. Hao, and T. Grosdidier, “Selective surface purification via crater eruption under pulsed electron beam irradiation,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 4, Article ID 041913, 3 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. K. M. Zhang, D. Z. Yang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, and C. Dong, “Improved in vitro corrosion resistance of a NiTi alloy by high current pulsed electron beam treatment,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 6, pp. 3096–3102, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Zhang, J. Zou, T. Grosdidier, C. Dong, and D. Yang, “Improved pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel treated by high current pulsed electron beam,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 3-4, pp. 1393–1400, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, B. Bolle, K. M. Zhang, and C. Dong, “Texture and microstructure at the surface of an AISI D2 steel treated by high current pulsed electron beam,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2061–2071, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Zou, T. Grosdidier, K. Zhang, and C. Dong, “Mechanisms of nanostructure and metastable phase formations in the surface melted layers of a HCPEB-treated D2 steel,” Acta Materialia, vol. 54, no. 20, pp. 5409–5419, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Dong, A. Wu, S. Hao et al., “Surface treatment by high current pulsed electron beam,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 163-164, pp. 620–624, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Z. Hao, B. Gao, A. M. Wu et al., “Surface modification of steels and magnesium alloy by high current pulsed electron beam,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 240, no. 3, pp. 646–651, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. R. C. Newman, “Beyond the kitchen sink,” Nature, vol. 415, no. 6873, pp. 743–744, 2002. View at Scopus
  38. S. Hao, P. Wu, J. Zou, T. Grosdidier, and C. Dong, “Microstructure evolution occurring in the modified surface of 316L stainless steel under high current pulsed electron beam treatment,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 12, pp. 5349–5354, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. M. Zhang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier et al., “Mechanisms of structural evolutions associated with the high current pulsed electron beam treatment of a NiTi shape memory alloy,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. H. Hsu and F. Mansfeld, “Concernng the conversion of the constant phase element parameter Y0 into a capacitance,” Corrosion, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 747–748, 2001. View at Scopus
  41. G. E. Cavigliasso, M. J. Esplandiu, and V. A. Macagno, “Influence of the forming electrolyte on the electrical properties of tantalum and niobium oxide films: an EIS comparative study,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1213–1219, 1998. View at Scopus
  42. K. M. Zhang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, C. Dong, and S. Weber, “Ti surface alloying of an AISI 316L stainless steel by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatment,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1407–1414, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, B. Bolle, K. M. Zhang, and C. Dong, “Texture and microstructure at the surface of an AISI D2 steel treated by high current pulsed electron beam,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2061–2071, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Q. F. Guan, H. Zou, G. T. Zou et al., “Surface nanostructure and amorphous state of a low carbon steel induced by high-current pulsed electron beam,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 196, no. 1-3, pp. 145–149, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Z. Tang, F. J. Xu, G. H. Fan, X. X. Ma, and L. Q. Wang, “Mechanisms of microstructure formations in M50 steel melted layer by high current pulsed electron beam,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 288, pp. 1–5, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. K. M. Zhang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, and C. Dong, “Crater formation induced metastable structure in an AISI D2 steel treated with a pulsed electron beam,” Vacuum, vol. 86, pp. 1273–1277, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. J. X. Zou, K. M. Zhang, S. Z. Hao, C. Dong, and T. Grosdidier, “Mechanisms of hardening, wear and corrosion improvement of 316 L stainless steel by low energy high current pulsed electron beam surface treatment,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 4, pp. 1404–1415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. Hao, B. Gao, G. F. Tu, H. Cao, S. Z. Hao, and C. Dong, “Surface modification of Al-12. 6Si alloy by high current pulsed electron beam,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 6, pp. 2052–2056, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. Y. Hao, B. Gao, G. F. Tu, S. W. Li, S. Z. Hao, and C. Dong, “Surface modification of Al-20Si alloy by high current pulsed electron beam,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 9, pp. 3913–3919, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. M. Zhang and J. X. Zou, “Formation of ultrafine twinned austenite on a cold rolled 316L stainless steel induced by pulsed electron beam treatment under heating mode,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 526, pp. 28–33, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar