Table 1: Effect of synthesis parameters on the ion exchange capacity (IEC) of zirconium tungstovanadate.

( ) Molar ratio of the reactants
SampleZirconium oxychloride (M)Sodium tungstate (M)Ammonium metavanadate (M)Volume ratio (v/v)IEC (meq/g)Yield (g)

S10.10.10.11.5 : 1 : 11.24.66
S20.10.20.11.5 : 1 : 11.12.1
S30.10.10.21.5 : 1 : 11.152.15
S40.20.10.21.5 : 1 : 11.96.2
S50.20.20.11.5 : 1 : 11.55.5

( ) HCl concentration
SampleHCL conc. (M)IEC (meq/g)Yield (g)

S401.96.2
S60.012.59.6
S70.052. 52.7
S80.12. 31.6
S90.221.5
S100.41.91
S110.5No precipitate

( ) Gelation temperature
Sample Temperature (°C)IEC (meq/g)Yield (g)

S625°C2.59.6
S1240°C2.358.6
S1350°C2.318.2
S1460°C2.258.6
S1580°C2.257.5