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Journal of Nanomaterials
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 171045, 10 pages
Research Article

Behavior of Yb3+ and Er3+ during Heat Treatment in Oxyfluoride Glass Ceramics

1Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
2Ceramic Division, Department of Materials, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 1684613114, Iran
3Departamento de Física Fundamental y Experimental, Electrónica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, La Laguna, 38206 Tenerife, Spain
4MALTA Consolider Team, La Laguna, 38206 Tenerife, Spain
5Departamento de Física Fundamental II, Tenerife, Spain
6Servicio Integrado de Difracción de Rayos X, Tenerife, Spain
7Nanotechnology Department, Engineering Research Institute, Tehran 1465774111, Iran

Received 7 September 2013; Revised 2 December 2013; Accepted 6 December 2013; Published 2 January 2014

Academic Editor: Mohsen Rahmani

Copyright © 2014 M. H. Imanieh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The effects of alumina content and heat treatment on upconversion properties of codoped (ErF3-YbF3) oxyfluoride glass ceramics were investigated. Results showed that alumina content had an effect on phase separation and viscosity of the glass. Due to the high viscosity of low alumina content glass, the phase separated areas were smaller in these specimens. Increasing the heat treatment temperature led to the incorporation of Er3+ ions into CaF2 crystals and also increased the Yb3+ concentration in them. This increase improved the energy transfer and back transfer process between Er3+ and Yb3+ ions and as result upconversion intensity was increased.