Table 1: Overview of hybrid solar cells prepared using nanocomposites comprising organic and inorganic materials.

Hybrid systemAim of the workStrategy approachPCE (%)Summary of findingsReference

ITO/PEDOT : PSS/CdSe : PCPDTBT (9 : 1 wt ratio)/LiF/AlCharacterize the properties of an HPV prepared using CdSe tetrapods and a low bandgap polymer.Ligand exchange3.19Low bandgap polymers played an important role in improving the solar harvesting efficiency and the contribution of the NCs towards the PCE.Dayal et al. (2010) [13]

ITO/PEDOT : PSS/CdSe : PCPDTBT/Ca/AgDemonstrating charge transport enhancement using CdSe nanorods (NRs) and quantum dots (QDs).Ligand exchange3.6A NR network in combination with small QDs produced highly interconnected pathways for electron transport within the polymer matrix. This structure enhanced charge transport and reduced recombination.Jeltsch et al. (2012) [20]

ITO/PEDOT : PSS/TiO2 : MEH-PPV/AlCharacterize the properties of an HPV prepared using MEH-PPV : TiO2 in combination with the ligands oleic acid (OA), n-octyl-phosphonic acid (OPA), or thiophene (TP).Ligand exchange0.157TiO2 capped with thiophenol yielded a higher PCE and proved to be one of the best ligands for fabricating HPVs.Liu et al. (2008) [50]

ITO/PEDOT : PSS/CdS : P3HT/AlCarrier mobility enhancements could be accomplished by improving the blend interface without the use of a surfactant.In situ growth2.9P3HT acts as a molecular template for CdS NC growth. The aspect ratios of CdS NRs were controlled according to the cosolvent (dichlorobenzene (DCB) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)), which induced conformational variations into the P3HT chains. Enhanced charge separation at the interface suggested electronic coupling between the P3HT and CdS components. The highly interpenetrating network increased charge transport. Liao et al. (2009) [51]

ITO/PEDOT : PSS/ZnO : P3HT/AlCharacterize the nanoscale P3HT : ZnO bulk heterojunction 3D morphologies using electron tomography.In situ growth2The 3D exciton diffusion equation was solved, photophysical data were collected, and the 3D morphology was characterized as a function of film thickness. Charge generation and charge transport were identified as limiting the device performance.Oosterhout et al. (2009) [52]

FTO/PEDOT : PSS/P3HT : CdSe/P3HT/AlA P3HT : CdSe composite was prepared using the P3HT ligand as a CdSe surface cap. The quantity of P3HT in the precursor solution was found to affect the optical properties.In situ growth1.32The quantity of P3HT in the reaction did not affect the shape or phase of the CdSe superstructure samples, although it did affect the photoabsorption and photoluminescence emission intensities. Peng et al. (2013) [53]

ITO/PEDOT : PSS/CdSe : P3HT/AlHPVs were fabricated by grafting P3HT onto the CdSe nanoparticles (NPs).Grafting1.1The end functional P3HT enhanced the performance of the P3HT : CdSe HPV by increasing the dispersion of CdSe without the need for a surfactant.Liu et al. (2004) [54]

A device was fabricated using pristine ZnO, ZnO : P3HT composites and ZnO : didodecyl-quaterthiophene (QT) composites.HPVs were prepared using P3HT and single ZnO nanowires (NWs) grafted QTGrafting0.036Oligothiophene and polythiophene were grafted onto the ZnO NWs to produce p-n heterojunctions. The efficiencies of the ZnO : P3HT composites were high (0.036%) compared with the efficiencies of other devices. Briseno et al. (2010) [55]

ITO/PEDOT : PSS/CdS : P3HT/BCP/Mg/Ag where BCP is bathocuproine Solvent-assisted chemical grafting and ligand exchange were used to control the P3HT/CdS interface and the CdS QD interparticle distances.Grafting4.1P3HT/CdS-grafted NW structures prepared by solvent assistance (dichlorobenzene and octane) can increase the electronic interactions between the CdS QDs and the P3HT NWs. Ligand exchange reduces the distances among CdS QDs, leading to efficiently separated charge transfer. Ren et al. (2011) [56]