Journal of Nanomaterials http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Applications of Anti/Prooxidant Fullerenes in Nanomedicine along with Fullerenes Influence on the Immune System Tue, 04 Aug 2015 13:43:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/565638/ Fullerenes are molecules that, due to their unique structure, have very specific chemical properties which offer them very wide array of applications in nanomedicine. The most prominent are protection from radiation-induced injury, neuroprotection, drug and gene delivery, anticancer therapy, adjuvant within different treatments, photosensitizing, sonosensitizing, bone reparation, and biosensing. However, it is of crucial importance to be elucidated how fullerenes immunomodulate human system of defense. In addition, the most current research, merging immunology and nanomedicine, results in development of nanovaccines, which may represent the milestone of future treatment of diseases. Danijela Petrovic, Mariana Seke, Branislava Srdjenovic, and Aleksandar Djordjevic Copyright © 2015 Danijela Petrovic et al. All rights reserved. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Ni81Fe19 Thin Film Grown on Si(001) Substrate via Single Graphene Layer Tue, 04 Aug 2015 11:18:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/575401/ We prepared magnetic thin films Ni81Fe19 on single-crystal Si(001) substrates via single graphene layer through magnetron sputtering for Ni81Fe19 and chemical vapor deposition for graphene. Structural investigation showed that crystal quality of Ni81Fe19 thin films was significantly improved with insertion of graphene layer compared with that directly grown on Si(001) substrate. Furthermore, saturation magnetization of Ni81Fe19/graphene/Si(001) heterostructure increased to 477 emu/cm3 with annealing temperature °C, which is much higher than values of Ni81Fe19/Si(001) heterostructures with ranging from 200°C to 400°C. Gui-fang Li, Shibin Liu, Shanglin Yang, and Yongqian Du Copyright © 2015 Gui-fang Li et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption of Organic Dyes by TiO2@Yeast-Carbon Composite Microspheres and Their In Situ Regeneration Evaluation Tue, 04 Aug 2015 10:41:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/498304/ TiO2@yeast-carbon microspheres with raspberry-like morphology were fabricated based on the pyrolysis method. The obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Effects of initial dye concentration and contact time on adsorption capacity of TiO2@yeast-carbon for cationic dye methylene blue (MB) and anionic dye congo red (CR) were investigated. Experimental data were described by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models, respectively. It was found that the equilibrium data of MB adsorption were best represented by Koble-Corrigan, and CR adsorption was best described by both Freundlich and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models. The kinetic data of MB and CR adsorption fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The results demonstrated that TiO2@yeast-carbon microspheres achieved favorable removal for the cationic MB in comparison with that for the anionic CR. In addition, regeneration experimental results showed that TiO2@yeast-carbon exhibited good recycling stability, reusability, and in situ renewability, suggesting that the as-prepared TiO2@yeast-carbon might be used as the potential low cost alternative for recalcitrant dye removal from industrial wastewater. One possible mechanism for regenerating dye-loaded TiO2@yeast in situ was also proposed. Zheng Pei, Zhang Kaiqiang, Dang Yu, Bai Bo, Guan Weisheng, and Suo Yourui Copyright © 2015 Zheng Pei et al. All rights reserved. Growth of Semimetals Bismuth and Antimony Films on Reactive Substrate Tue, 04 Aug 2015 10:36:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/581486/ Semimetal Bi and Sb thin films with novel hierarchical structures were synthesized on zinc substrate via a hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of pure semimetals Bi and Sb. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Bi films constructed with microtube arrays and hierarchical microspheres can be obtained selectively by altering the concentration of Bi3+ ions. The synthesized Sb films were constructed with bowl-shaped particles. The growth process of these semimetal architectures was briefly discussed. Xiao Wang, Xiaoxing Wei, and Caixia Song Copyright © 2015 Xiao Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Low-Stress, Elastic, and Improved Hardness Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Film Tue, 04 Aug 2015 10:34:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/543631/ The evolution of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films with fullerene-like microstructure was investigated with a different proportion of hydrogen supply in deposition. The results showed at hydrogen flow rate of 50 sccm, the deposited films showed a lower compressive stress (lower 48.6%), higher elastic recovery (higher 19.6%, near elastic recovery rate 90%), and higher hardness (higher 7.4%) compared with the films deposited without hydrogen introduction. Structural analysis showed that the films with relatively high sp2 content and low bonded hydrogen content possessed high hardness, elastic recovery rate, and low compressive stress. It was attributed to the curved graphite microstructure, which can form three-dimensional covalently bonded network. Qi Wang, Deyan He, and Junyan Zhang Copyright © 2015 Qi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Glaze Icing on Superhydrophobic Coating Prepared by Nanoparticles Filling Combined with Etching Method for Insulators Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:30:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/404071/ Icing on insulators may cause flashover or even blackout accidents in the power transmission system. However, there are few anti-icing techniques for insulators which consume energy or manpower. Considering the water repelling property, the superhydrophobic surface is introduced for anti-icing of insulators. Among the icing forms, the glaze icing owns the highest density, strongest adhesion, and greatest risk to the power transmission system but lacks researches on superhydrophobic surface. In this paper, superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle of 166.4°, contact angle hysteresis of 0.9°, and sliding angle of less than 1° are prepared by nanoparticle filling combined with etching method. The coated glass slide and glass insulator showed excellent anti-icing performance in the glaze icing test at −5°C. The superhydrophobicity and anti-icing property of the coatings benefit from the low surface energy and hierarchical rough structure containing micron scale pits and nanoscale coralloid bulges supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization. Chao Guo, Ruijin Liao, Yuan Yuan, Zhiping Zuo, and Aoyun Zhuang Copyright © 2015 Chao Guo et al. All rights reserved. Study of Magnetization Reversal Process in FeCo/Ru/FeCo Exchange Coupled Synthetic Antiferromagnetic Multilayers Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:26:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/452851/ FeCo/Ru/FeCo exchange coupled synthetic antiferromagnetic multilayers were prepared with two sputtering modes. One is continuous sputtering mode, and the other mode is layer-by-layer sputtering mode. The former mode implies that substrate faced the target and film growth process was continuous when FeCo layers were sputtering, whereas the latter implies that substrate was rotating with the mask at a speed of 5 rpm when FeCo layers were sputtering. It was found that the exchange coupling field of sample sputtered by layer-by-layer mode was higher than the one sputtered by continuous mode. Domain structures were measured with applying varied in-plane magnetic fields along the easy axis in order to study the magnetization reversal process. We found it is a domain wall move process. When the applied field is smaller than , both the two magnetic layers have domain structure and the domain structure of the two layers is reversed correspondingly. When the applied field is varying in the range of to , the domain wall of the two layers moves correspondingly at the same time. Xi Liu, Shunji Ishio, and Hailin Ma Copyright © 2015 Xi Liu et al. All rights reserved. The Photoluminescence Behaviors of a Novel Reddish Orange Emitting Phosphor CaIn2O4:Sm3+ Codoped with Zn2+ or Al3+ Ions Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:16:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/969724/ A novel reddish orange phosphor CaIn2O4:Sm3+ codoped with Zn2+ or Al3+ ions was prepared by solid state reaction and their luminescence properties were investigated under near ultraviolet excitation. The strategy of Zn2+ or Al3+ ions codoping was used with the aim to improve the luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:Sm3+, but the concrete effects of the two ions is different. The introduction of Zn2+ ions can produce defects that favor charge balance in CaIn2O4:Sm3+ to facilitate its photoluminescence. The effect of Al3+ ions codoping can effectively transfer energy from charge-transfer absorption band to characteristic transition of Sm3+ ions, utilizing more energy from host absorption for the photoluminescence of Sm3+ ions. Based on these mechanisms, the luminescence intensity of CaIn2O4:0.6%Sm3+ was enhanced to 1.59 times and 1.51 times when codoping amount of Zn2+ and Al3+ ions reached 0.6%. However, the chromaticity coordinates of CaIn2O4:0.6%Sm3+ almost did not have any changes after Zn2+ ions or Al3+ ions codoping; those are still located at reddish orange region. The excellent luminescence properties of CaIn2O4:0.6%Sm3+,0.6%Zn2+ and CaIn2O4:0.6%Sm3+,0.6%Al3+ demonstrate that they both have potential application value as new-style reddish orange phosphors on light-emitting diode. Jing Gou, Dongyang Zhang, Binxun Yu, Jing Wang, and Shengzhong Liu Copyright © 2015 Jing Gou et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Graphene Wrapped SnxTi1−xO2 Nanoparticles as an Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:15:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/965061/ Ever-growing development of Li-ion battery has urged the exploitation of new materials as electrodes. Here, solid-solution nanomaterials were prepared by aqueous solution method. The morphology, structures, and electrochemical performance of nanoparticles were systematically investigated. The results indicate that Ti atom can replace the Sn atom to enter the lattice of SnO2 to form substitutional solid-solution compounds. The capacity of the solid solution decreases while the stability is improved with the increasing of the Ti content. Solid solution with x of 0.7 exhibits the optimal electrochemical performance. The Sn0.7Ti0.3O2 was further modified by highly conductive graphene to enhance its relatively low electrical conductivity. The Sn0.7Ti0.3O2/graphene composite exhibits much improved rate performance, indicating that the solid solution can be used as a potential anode material for Li-ion batteries. Xing Xin, Xufeng Zhou, Tao Shen, and Zhaoping Liu Copyright © 2015 Xing Xin et al. All rights reserved. Superhydrophobic Polyimide via Ultraviolet Photooxidation: The Evolution of Surface Morphology and Hydrophobicity under Different Ultraviolet Intensities Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:08:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/546384/ Ultraviolet (UV) photooxidation has recently been developed to fabricate superhydrophobic polyimide (PI) films in combination with fluoroalkylsilane modification. However, it remains unclear whether the surface morphology and hydrophobicity are sensitive to technical parameters such as UV intensity and radiation environment. Herein, we focus on the effects of UV intensity on PI surface structure and wettability to gain comprehensive understanding and more effective control of this technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed that UV intensity governed the evolutionary pattern of surface morphology: lower UV intensity (5 mW/cm2) facilitated in-plane expansion of dendritic protrusions while stronger UV (10 and 15 mW/cm2) encouraged localized growth of protrusions in a piling-up manner. Surface roughness and hydrophobicity maximized at the intensity of 10 mW/cm2, as a consequence of the slowed horizontal expansion and preferred vertical growth of the protrusions when UV intensity increased. Based on these results, the mechanism that surface micro/nanostructures developed in distinct ways when exposed to different UV intensities was proposed. Though superhydrophobicity (water contact angle larger than 150°) can be achieved at UV intensity not less than 10 mW/cm2, higher intensity decreased the effectiveness. Therefore, the UV photooxidation under 10 mW/cm2 for 72 h is recommended to fabricate superhydrophobic PI films. Hongyu Gu, Lixin Song, Jinlin Zhang, and Zhenyi Qi Copyright © 2015 Hongyu Gu et al. All rights reserved. Surface Morphology and Growth of Anodic Titania Nanotubes Films: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Studies Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:54:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/820764/ Design and development of one-dimensional nanoarchitecture titania (TiO) assemblies have gained significant scientific interest, which have become the most studied material as they exhibit promising functional properties. In the present study, anodic TiO2 films with different surface morphologies can be synthesized in an organic electrolyte of ethylene glycol (EG) by controlling an optimum content of ammonium fluoride (NH4F) using electrochemical anodization technique. Based on the results obtained, well-aligned and bundle-free TiO2 nanotube arrays with diameter of 100 nm and length of 8 µm were successfully synthesized in EG electrolyte containing ≈5 wt% of NH4F for 1 h at 60 V. However, formation of nanoporous structure and compact oxide layer would be favored if the content of NH4F was less than 5 wt%. In the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting studies, well-aligned TiO2 nanotubular structure exhibited higher photocurrent density of ≈1 mA/cm2 with photoconversion efficiency of ≈2% as compared to the nanoporous and compact oxide layer due to the higher active surface area for the photon absorption to generate more photo-induced electrons during photoexcitation stage. Chin Wei Lai Copyright © 2015 Chin Wei Lai. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Mechanical Durable Polysiloxane Superhydrophobic Materials Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:44:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/284685/ A mechanical durable polysiloxane superhydrophobic surface was successfully prepared by means of polymerization of silanes blending with particles. The as-prepared polysiloxane surface showed stable superhydrophobicity even after the surface underwent a long distance friction. The superhydrophobicity of the polysiloxane materials can be even slightly enhanced by the surface abrasion. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the micro- and nanometer structures distributed through the whole materials thickness are responsible for the mechanical durable superhydrophobicity. Mengnan Qu, Jinmei He, Sun Zhe, Kanshe Li, Xiangrong Liu, and Chunxia Yu Copyright © 2015 Mengnan Qu et al. All rights reserved. Electrodeposition and Characterization of CuTe and Cu2Te Thin Films Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:33:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/240525/ An electrodeposition method for fabrication of CuTe and Cu2Te thin films is presented. The films’ growth is based on the epitaxial electrodeposition of Cu and Te alternately with different electrochemical parameter, respectively. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer, and FTIR studies. The results suggest that the epitaxial electrodeposition is an ideal method for deposition of compound semiconductor films for photoelectric applications. Wenya He, Hanzhi Zhang, Ye Zhang, Mengdi Liu, Xin Zhang, and Fengchun Yang Copyright © 2015 Wenya He et al. All rights reserved. A Facile Strategy for the Functionalization of Boron Nitride Nanotubes with Pd Nanoparticles Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:29:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/310214/ A facile in situ fabrication of palladium nanoparticles decorated boron nitride nanotubes (Pd-BNNTs) is described. The decoration of BNNTs was carried out by the self-regulated reduction of palladium chloride (PdCl2) with the aid of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). During the preparation process, the surfactant SDS plays a dual role: it aids the dispersibility of BNNTs and produces the reductant of CH3(CH2)10CH2OH. Then the CH3(CH2)10CH2OH can reduce Pd2+ to form Pd nanoparticles on the surface of BNNSs. The as-prepared Pd-BNNTs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the Pd nanocrystalline particles can be deposited onto the BNNTs surface via this simple route. This approach constitutes a basis for the assembly and integration of nanoscale materials onto BNNTs and puts a light on the potential application of the BNNTs in electronic, catalysis, and hydrogen storage fields. Yuanlie Yu, Hua Chen, and Yun Liu Copyright © 2015 Yuanlie Yu et al. All rights reserved. Configuration Transitions of Free Circular DNA System Induced by Nicks Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:09:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/546851/ Nicks have important functions in the biological functions of DNA-mediated systems. However, the configuration transitions of DNA molecules induced by the presence of nicks have not been quantitatively investigated. This study aims to analyze the configuration transitions of free circular DNA system induced by nicks. Using atomic force microscopy, two configuration states were observed in the free circular DNA system with different nick numbers. To understand the transmission of torsional energy among DNA base pairs, we defined the effective length and nicking angle. In the free DNA system, a torsional energy of 233 bp can be completely released by nicks. Based on the experimental and quantitative results, we propose a physical mechanism to explain the configuration transitions of the free circular DNA system induced by nicks. This study and the presented method are very useful in understanding the physical mechanism of nicks in DNA-mediated systems. Chao Ji, Lingyun Zhang, and Pengye Wang Copyright © 2015 Chao Ji et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication and Evaluation of Polycaprolactone/Gelatin-Based Electrospun Nanofibers with Antibacterial Properties Mon, 03 Aug 2015 12:50:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/970542/ Nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated through blending of a synthetic polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), and a natural polymer, gelatin (GE), using an electrospinning technique. Processing and solution parameters were optimized to determine the suitable properties of PCL/GE-based nanofibers. Several characterizations were conducted to determine surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wettability using water contact angle measurement, and chemical bonding analysis using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) of PCL/GE-based nanofibers. Experimental results showed that 14% (w/v) PCL/GE with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/h and 18 kV demonstrated suitable properties. This nanofiber was then further investigated for its in vitro degradation, drug loading (using a model drug, tetracycline hydrochloride), and antibacterial testing (using zone inhibition method). Lor Huai Chong, Mim Mim Lim, and Naznin Sultana Copyright © 2015 Lor Huai Chong et al. All rights reserved. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition Mon, 03 Aug 2015 10:44:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/151740/ The addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. The effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox (, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. The coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (). The maximum energy product increases with increasing from 0.5 MGOe for to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe for . The smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shift value of 0.66° are observed for the . The optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample. Lanping Yue, Yunlong Jin, Wenyong Zhang, and David J. Sellmyer Copyright © 2015 Lanping Yue et al. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Properties of Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings Grown Using CVD with E/H Field Glow Discharge Stabilization Sun, 02 Aug 2015 13:35:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/703897/ The nanocrystalline diamond films (coatings) were prepared using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. In this method, direct current (DC) glow discharge in the crossed E/H fields was used to activate the gas phase. The diamond coatings were deposited from the working gas mixture CH4/H2 with addition of nitrogen in various concentrations. It was ascertained that addition of N2 to the working gas mixture leads to reduction in the sizes of diamond grains as well as to the substantial decrease in the resistivity of the studied films. The electrophysical data are in good agreement with the changes induced by varying the N2 content in the Raman scattering spectra. The increase in the N2 concentration causes significant lowering of the crystalline diamond related peak and increase in the intensity of the peaks related to the sp2-bonded carbon. These changes in the spectra indicate significant disordering of the structure of prepared films and its uniformity in the nanodiamond film volume. With the great possibility, it is associated with a decrease in the sizes of diamond crystalline grains and tendency of NCD film to amorphization. Iu. Nasieka, V. Strelchuk, Yu. Stubrov, M. Boyko, S. Dudnik, K. Koshevoy, and V. Strel’nitskij Copyright © 2015 Iu. Nasieka et al. All rights reserved. AuNPs-Based Colorimetric Assay for Identification of Chicken Tissues in Meat and Meat Products Sun, 02 Aug 2015 12:12:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/469267/ A simple colorimetric assay was developed to identify chicken tissues in meat and meat products by utilizing thiol-labeled primers and unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Primers were designed based on the chicken-specific mitochondrial D-loop gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is applied to amplify the target gene, and the PCR products labeled with thiol at one end were obtained. Following the mixing of AuNPs with the PCR products, the thiol binds to the surface of AuNPs, resulting in the formation of GNP-PCR products. The resultant PCR products had abundant negative charges, which made AuNPs maintain dispersion under the role of electrostatic repulsion. As a result, in the presence of PCR products, AuNPs remained red in the presence of salt. In the absence of PCR products, the color of AuNPs changed from red to blue; therefore, the method described here could be exploited for the verification of chicken tissues with high accuracy. Hejing Han, Wen Yi, Dongjun Hou, Tingting Huang, and Zhihui Hao Copyright © 2015 Hejing Han et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Codopant Aluminum Ions (Al3+) on the Optical Characteristics of YBO3:Sm3+ Phosphors Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:10:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/615863/ The yttrium borate (YBO3) phosphors with codopants Al3+ and Sm3+ ions were prepared via the chemical coprecipitation method with one-hour thermal treatment at 1200°C. From the XRD patterns, the codopant Al3+ does not change the crystal structures of YBO3:Sm3+ and these patterns indicate that the phosphors crystallize as the hexagonal structure. Besides, the codopant Al3+ does not affect the wavelengths of emission bands but enhances the PL intensities of emission bands. Under the wavelength 406 nm excitation source, the emission peaks locating at wavelengths 571 nm, 611 nm, and 657 nm are assigned to the electronic transitions 4G5/2→6H5/2, 4G5/2→6H7/2, and 4G5/2→6H9/2, respectively. The PL intensities of phosphors Sm0.01AlxY0.99−xBO3 increase with the Al3+ ion concentration. As the concentration of Al3+ ions increases to 3%, the PL intensity of Sm0.01AlxY0.99−xBO3 phosphor reaches its maximum intensity. When the concentration of Al3+ ions is above 3%, the PL intensity of phosphor Sm0.01AlxY0.99−xBO3 decreases. Comparing with the Sm0.01Y0.99BO3 phosphor, the PL intensity locating at wavelength 571 nm of Sm0.01Al0.03Y0.96BO3 phosphor is about 1.8 times stronger than the Sm0.01Y0.99BO3 phosphor. It is believed that the codopant Al3+ can improve the luminescent characteristics of YBO3:Sm3+ phosphors. Hao-Ying Lu and Yi-Shao Chen Copyright © 2015 Hao-Ying Lu and Yi-Shao Chen. All rights reserved. Influence of WS2 Nanopowder Addition on Friction Characteristics of ta-C Coating by FCVA Method Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:54:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/983505/ The influence of nano-size powders on the tribological behavior of ta-C coatings by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) method under boundary lubrication conditions has been investigated. In order to characterize and understand tribological behaviors of nano-size powders added to the synthetic oil (poly-alpha-olefin 6), lubricants with different mixture ratios, ranging from 2 to 8 wt%, have been prepared. ta-C coatings fabricated by FCVA method showed that the G-peak in the obtained Raman spectrum was shifted from 1520 to 1586 cm−1, indicating the sp3 content increased for samples with the thickness of 156 nm. The average friction coefficient decreased proportionally as the nano-size compositions increased up to 4 wt% in PAO6. After the friction test, structures and particle sizes of phases were also precisely characterized by using XRD and SEM. Si-Geun Choi, Yong-Joong Lee, Young-Jun Jang, Dawit Zenebe Segu, Seock-Sam Kim, Ji-Hyun Sung, Jae-Wook Lee, and Jong-Hyoung Kim Copyright © 2015 Si-Geun Choi et al. All rights reserved. Schiff Base Ligand Coated Gold Nanoparticles for the Chemical Sensing of Fe(III) Ions Wed, 29 Jul 2015 12:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/101694/ New Schiff base-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of type AuNP@L (where L: thiolated Schiff base ligand) have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. The AuNPs and AuNP@L were imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and were confirmed to be well-dispersed, uniformly distributed, spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8–10 nm. Their potential applications for chemosensing were investigated in UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The AuNP@L exhibited selectivity for Fe3+ in an ethanol/water mixture (ratio 9 : 1 v/v). The absorption and emission spectral studies revealed a 1 : 1 binding mode for Fe3+, with binding constants of and  M−1, respectively. Abiola Azeez Jimoh, Aasif Helal, M. Nasiruzzaman Shaikh, Md. Abdul Aziz, Zain H. Yamani, Amir Al-Ahmed, and Jong-Pil Kim Copyright © 2015 Abiola Azeez Jimoh et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of High Activity Ga and Cu Doped ZnS by Hydrothermal Method for Hydrogen Production under Visible Light Irradiation Wed, 29 Jul 2015 11:30:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/195024/ Ga(0.1),Cu()-ZnS (, 0.03, 0.05) photocatalysts were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. The synthesized Ga and Cu codoped ZnS photocatalysts showed photocatalytic property effective for hydrogen production from aqueous solution containing Na2SO3 and Na2S as sacrificial reagent under visible light irradiation. The rate of hydrogen production was found to be strongly dependent on Cu doping content. The highest photocatalytic activity is observed for Ga(0.1),Cu(0.01)-ZnS with hydrogen production rate of 114 µmol/h. The addition of Ga as codoped increased the photocatalytic activity to 58 times as compared to single doped Cu-ZnS. The Ga and Cu codoped ZnS photocatalysts are also stable under long irradiation. The enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of Ga and Cu codoped photocatalyst can be attributed to the synergistic effect between Ga and Cu. The photocatalytic activity was greatly enhanced with the addition of 0.5 wt% Ru as cocatalyst with a hydrogen production rate of 744 µmol/h. Melody Kimi, Leny Yuliati, and Mustaffa Shamsuddin Copyright © 2015 Melody Kimi et al. All rights reserved. Application of MD Simulations to Predict Membrane Properties of MOFs Wed, 29 Jul 2015 09:14:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/136867/ Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new group of nanomaterials that have been widely examined for various chemical applications. Gas separation using MOF membranes has become an increasingly important research field in the last years. Several experimental studies have shown that thin-film MOF membranes can outperform well known polymer and zeolite membranes due to their higher gas permeances and selectivities. Given the very large number of available MOF materials, it is impractical to fabricate and test the performance of every single MOF membrane using purely experimental techniques. In this study, we used molecular simulations, Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics, to estimate both single-gas and mixture permeances of MOF membranes. Predictions of molecular simulations were compared with the experimental gas permeance data of MOF membranes in order to validate the accuracy of our computational approach. Results show that computational methodology that we described in this work can be used to accurately estimate membrane properties of MOFs prior to extensive experimental efforts. Elda Adatoz and Seda Keskin Copyright © 2015 Elda Adatoz and Seda Keskin. All rights reserved. Research on Multinozzle Near-Field Electrospinning Patterned Deposition Wed, 29 Jul 2015 08:07:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/529138/ Multinozzle electrospinning systems are designed to increase productivity, while near-field electrospinning (NFES) systems are designed to deposit solid nanofibers in a direct, continuous, and controllable manner. In this paper, several multinozzle NFES setups are tested. The experiment reveals that the deposition distance becomes larger when working distance and needle spacing increase, and the influence of voltage is relatively weaker. The deposition of double nozzle NFES has been studied with Coulomb’s law and theoretical derivation has been verified by the experimental conclusion. The experiment result and theoretical derivation are helpful to get different distance of direct-written fibers by adjusting working distance or needle spacing to change distance of fibers largely and adjusting voltage to change distance slowly. Through these efforts, it is convenient to adjust the distance of straight fibers in multinozzle system. Han Wang, Shenneng Huang, Feng Liang, Peixuan Wu, Minhao Li, Sen Lin, and Xindu Chen Copyright © 2015 Han Wang et al. All rights reserved. Au-Ag Core-Shell Nanospheres for Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection of Sudan I and Sudan II in Chili Powder Mon, 27 Jul 2015 08:21:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/430925/ Au-Ag core-shell (Au@Ag) bimetallic nanospheres synthesized by a facile seed-growth method are proposed as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect azo-group dyes including Sudan I and Sudan II. Au@Ag nanospheres with a series of particle sizes (diameter: 30–120 nm) and silver shell thicknesses (6–51 nm) were synthesized and compared for their morphological and optical properties to obtain optimum enhancement effect. Normal Raman, SERS, infrared, and ultraviolet-visible were used to investigate the optical absorption properties of Sudan I and Sudan II as well as the enhancement mechanism of Au@Ag substrates. The nanospheres with particle size of 73 ± 6 nm in diameter and silver layer of 27 ± 2 nm resulted in the highest enhancement effect and could be used to detect Sudan I and Sudan II standard solutions at levels as low as 0.4 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, Sudan I and Sudan II in chili powder could be detected at 0.6 and 0.4 mg/kg, respectively. Sudan I and Sudan II with similar structures in complicated food matrices could be distinguished through applying principal component analysis, indicating good selectivity of the SERS method for detection of banned additives in food stuffs at trace levels. Lu Pei, Yiming Ou, Wansong Yu, Yuxia Fan, Yiqun Huang, and Keqiang Lai Copyright © 2015 Lu Pei et al. All rights reserved. Finite Element Analysis and Simulation about Microgrinding of SiC Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:22:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/575398/ The application of silicon carbide (SiC) is often limited due to its low machining efficiency and unpredictability about the results of the grinding process. The aim of this paper is to set up finite element analysis models (FEM) about microgrinding process of SiC, to study the change processes about tangential and normal grinding force which can lead to stress and strain inside SiC material under different grinding parameters, and to predict the results before the grinding process. Adaptive remeshing technique is used to minimize the computational time without sacrificing the accuracy of the results in the simulation of SiC grinding process. The research results can be used to choose reasonable grinding parameters based on the required surface quality. Shijun Ji, Leilei Liu, Ji Zhao, and Changrui Sun Copyright © 2015 Shijun Ji et al. All rights reserved. Ih Symmetrical (4,6)-Fullerenes and Their Local Ring Aromaticity: A First Principle Study Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:18:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/867497/ As the natural extension of carbon fullerene, a series of Ih symmetrical (4,6)-fullerenes were constructed and investigated using first principle methods. These Ih (4,6)-fullerenes consist of many four- and six-membered rings and are classified into two types: (1) those with isolated four- and six-membered rings and (2) those with connected four- and/or six-membered rings. Though these (4,6)-fullerenes are less stable than Ih C60 and C240 (5,6)-fullerene, it is possible to synthesize them from their elemental unit, antikekulene, which was nearly synthesized experimentally. Though the (4,6)-fullerenes are mainly spherical and antiaromatic compounds, the local aromatic indexes indicate that all of the planar π-conjugated rings have local aromaticity in fullerenes, which provides reasonable delocalization, which is consistent with our chemical intuition. Because of the huge cavities and suitable pore sizes present in the (4,6)-fullerenes, they can be taken as potential nanocontainers for the storage of small molecules. Jing Wang, Haigang Lu, Yingfang Fan, and Si-Dian Li Copyright © 2015 Jing Wang et al. All rights reserved. Nanomaterials-Based Approaches for the Modulation of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters Wed, 22 Jul 2015 12:32:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/121748/ and fluid secretion are major functions of all epithelia, and alterations in secretion by sodium bicarbonate cotransporters are associated with many epithelial diseases, such as renal, ocular, and dental abnormalities. Electrolyte and fluid exits are synergistically mediated by the intracellular second messengers, cAMP and Ca2+, and this raises the possibility that ion transporters are involved in simple secretion and more complicated forms of regulation. Evidence indicates that transport is regulated by the assemblage of Na+- cotransporters (NBCs) into complexes by multiple regulatory factors. Recently the specific regulatory functions of factors that interact with NBCe1, especially NBCe1-B, have been elucidated. In this review, I focus on the structural characteristics of electrogenic NBCe1, pathophysiology of NBCe1, and molecular mechanisms responsible for transporter regulation. Moreover I propose the possibility to apply nanomaterials combined with regulatory factors for modulating the activity of NBC transporters as a potential development of therapeutic drug. Jeong Hee Hong Copyright © 2015 Jeong Hee Hong. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on the Components in Polyvalent “Ghost” Salmonella Vaccine for Veterinary Use Wed, 22 Jul 2015 11:55:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/101464/ Development of “ghost” Salmonella vaccines, inactivated by using a hybrid nanomaterial based on silver nanoparticles (AgNps) stabilized via polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), is an innovative approach in vaccine production. For this purpose, a series of attempts to establish the components of the polyvalent “ghost” Salmonella vaccine and the most suitable methods for its preparation were performed. The following strains S. Enteritidis, S. Newport-Puerto Rico, and S. Typhimurium were chosen as appropriate candidates for their incorporation in order to create polyvalent Salmonella “ghost” vaccine for veterinary use. Daniela Vasileva Pencheva, Elena Ilieva Velichkova, Denis Zdravkov Sandarov, Adrian Draganov Cardoso, Maria Hristova Mileva, Petia Dinkova Genova-Kalou, and Rayna Bryaskova Copyright © 2015 Daniela Vasileva Pencheva et al. All rights reserved.