Journal of Nanomaterials The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Morphology Effect on Enhanced Li+-Ion Storage Performance for Ni2+/3+ and/or Co2+/3+ Doped LiMnPO4 Cathode Nanoparticles Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:17:59 +0000 The electrochemical performance of Li(Mn, M)PO4 (M = Co2+/3+, Ni2+/3+) was investigated with regard to the particle morphology. Within a controlled chemical composition, Li(Mn0.92Co0.04Ni0.04)PO4, the resultant cathode exhibited somewhat spherical-shaped nanocrystalline particles and enhanced Li+-ion storage, which was even better than the undoped LiMnPO4, up to 16% in discharge capacity at 0.05 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to the well-dispersed spherical-shaped particle morphology, which allows the fast Li+-ion migration during the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation process, especially at high current density. Young Jun Yun, Mihye Wu, Jin Kyu Kim, Ji Young Ju, Sun Sook Lee, Ki Woong Kim, Woon Ik Park, Ha-Kyun Jung, Kwang Ho Kim, Jin-Seong Park, and Sungho Choi Copyright © 2015 Young Jun Yun et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires and Their Photovoltaic Application: ZnO Nanowires/AgGaSe2 Thin Film Core-Shell Solar Cell Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:48:38 +0000 In this investigation, hydrothermal technique was employed for the synthesis of well-aligned dense arrays of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on a wide range of substrates including silicon, soda-lime glass (SLG), indium tin oxide, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Results showed that ZnO NWs can be successfully grown on any substrate that can withstand the growth temperature (~90°C) and precursor solution chemicals. Results also revealed that there was a strong impact of growth time and ZnO seed layer deposition route on the orientation, density, diameter, and uniformity of the synthesized nanowires. A core-shell n-ZnO NWs/p-AgGaSe2 (AGS) thin film solar cell was fabricated as a device application of synthesized ZnO nanowires by decoration of nanowires with ~700 nm thick sputtering deposited AGS thin film layer, which demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 1.74% under 100 mW/cm2 of simulated solar illumination. Elif Peksu and Hakan Karaagac Copyright © 2015 Elif Peksu and Hakan Karaagac. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Visible Upconversion Emission in Y2O3:Er3+-Yb3+ by Addition of Thiourea and LiOH in the Phosphor Synthesis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 07:22:33 +0000 Spherical like Y2O3 nanostructures doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ ions have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The samples were prepared by using different precipitant agents in the synthesis process. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Effects of the precipitant agents on structural, morphological, and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3:Er3+-Yb3+ are studied and discussed. XRD analysis indicates that all samples, prepared with different precipitant agents, present the same cubic phase. Electron microscopy measurements show regular spherical shapes with size diameter depending on precipitant agent. Photoluminescence reveals that the samples have strong green (563 nm) and red (660 nm) emissions corresponding to 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The nanophosphors prepared with both Thiourea and Lithium Hydroxide exhibit the stronger visible upconversion luminescence under 980 nm diode laser excitation. Eder Resendiz-L, Luis Armando Diaz-Torres, Luis Octavio Meza Espinoza, Claramaria Rodríguez-González, and Pedro Salas Copyright © 2015 Eder Resendiz-L et al. All rights reserved. Plasmon-Enhanced Sensing: Current Status and Prospects Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:26:13 +0000 By combining different plasmonic nanostructures with conventional sensing configurations, chemical/biosensors with significantly enhanced device performance can be achieved. The fast development of plasmon-assisted devices benefits from the advance of nanofabrication technology. In this review, we first briefly show the experimental configurations for testing plasmon enhanced sensing signals and then summarize the classic nanogeometries which are extensively used in sensing applications. By design, dramatic increment of optical signals can be obtained and further applied to gas, refractive index and liquid sensing. Jiangtao Lv, Eunice Sok Ping Leong, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Shanshan Kou, Haitao Dai, Jiao Lin, Yan Jun Liu, and Guangyuan Si Copyright © 2015 Jiangtao Lv et al. All rights reserved. Application of Recycled Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticle to the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Nitrobenzene Wed, 25 Nov 2015 06:29:16 +0000 Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was synthesized using iron oxide, a byproduct of pickling line at a steel work. ZVI with a mean particle size of 500 nm was synthesized. The reaction activity of the synthesized ZVI was much higher than commercial ZVI. When applied to the decomposition of nitrobenzene (NB), the ZVI particles underwent corrosion and passivation oxide film formation, resulting in particle size decrease. The NB decomposition rate increased with increasing ZVI dosage level and with decreasing pH. The solution pH increased monotonously with increasing reaction duration, whereas the aniline concentration showed a maximum at 50 min. Based on the GC/MS analysis, NB is presumed to be reduced into aniline via reductive intermediates such as azobenzene and azoxybenzene. When combined with a subsequent biological process, the synthesized ZVI will be able to decompose NB in wastewater effectively. Heon Lee, Byung-Hoon Kim, Young-Kwon Park, Sun-Jae Kim, and Sang-Chul Jung Copyright © 2015 Heon Lee et al. All rights reserved. Solution-Based High-Density Arrays of Dielectric Microsphere Structures for Improved Crystal Quality of III-Nitride Layers on Si Substrates Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:41:05 +0000 The recent development of dielectric microsphere lithography has been able to open up new means of performing simple and easy patterning on the semiconductor surfaces. Here, we report uniform and high-density arrays of microspheres using a solution-based spin-coating method. The arrays of microspheres were used for etching mask to form the arrays of III-nitride microrods. By regrowing GaN layer on the microrod structures, high-quality GaN layer was achieved in terms of surface morphology as well as XRD characterization. To apply the advantages such as improved crystal quality and light extraction enhancement, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown and then fabricated. The regrown LEDs with microspheres showed much improved optical output power and forward voltage characteristics in the same current injection. Therefore, we believe that this approach is quite useful for the development of high efficiency LEDs for future lighting. Ho-Jun Lee, Kye-Jin Lee, Kwang-Yong Choi, Jung-Hyun Eum, Dong-Kun Lee, Dong-Seon Lee, and Si-Young Bae Copyright © 2015 Ho-Jun Lee et al. All rights reserved. Optimization and Characterization of Artesunate-Loaded Chitosan-Decorated Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) Acid Nanoparticles Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:16:15 +0000 The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation of artesunate-loaded chitosan- (CS-) decorated poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles as well as evaluate their characteristics. CS-to-PLGA mass ratio, pH of CS solution, and experimental temperature were optimized using response surface methodology to understand their effects on size and zeta potential of nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed the close agreement between predicted and experimental values (all bias below 5%). The presence of CS was confirmed by positive surface charge and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A spherical-like shape of particles was observed in range of small size around 190 nm. This CS layer restricted initial burst release of drug from carriers in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8. In addition, CS-coated NPs enhanced the intracellular uptake, in vitro cytotoxicity, and apoptosis-induced nuclei behaviors compared with CS-uncoated NPs as well as free drug in MCF-7 and A549 cancer cells. Hoang Nhan Ho, Tuan Hiep Tran, Trong Bien Tran, Chul Soon Yong, and Chien Ngoc Nguyen Copyright © 2015 Hoang Nhan Ho et al. All rights reserved. Nanostructured Diamond-Like Carbon Films Grown by Off-Axis Pulsed Laser Deposition Tue, 24 Nov 2015 06:20:47 +0000 Nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) films instead of the ultrasmooth film were obtained by pulsed laser ablation of pyrolytic graphite. Deposition was performed at room temperature in vacuum with substrates placed at off-axis position. The configuration utilized high density plasma plume arriving at low effective angle for the formation of nanostructured DLC. Nanostructures with maximum size of 50 nm were deposited as compared to the ultrasmooth DLC films obtained in a conventional deposition. The Raman spectra of the films confirmed that the films were diamond-like/amorphous in nature. Although grown at an angle, ion energy of >35 eV was obtained at the off-axis position. This was proposed to be responsible for subplantation growth of sp3 hybridized carbon. The condensation of energetic clusters and oblique angle deposition correspondingly gave rise to the formation of nanostructured DLC in this study. Seong Shan Yap, Chen Hon Nee, Seong Ling Yap, and Teck Yong Tou Copyright © 2015 Seong Shan Yap et al. All rights reserved. MOCVD Growth and Fabrication of High Power MUTC Photodiodes Using InGaAs-InP System Mon, 23 Nov 2015 12:37:33 +0000 We report charge-compensated modified uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes (MUTC-PDs) with high photocurrent and fast response, grown using liquid group-V precursor, in an AIXTRON MOCVD system. The liquid group-V precursors involve less toxicity with better decomposition characteristics. Device fabrication is completed with standard processing techniques with BCB passivation. DC and RF measurements are carried out using a single mode fiber at 1.55 μm. For a 24-μm-diameter device (with diode ideality factor of 1.34), the dark current is 32.5 nA and the 3-dB bandwidth is ≫20 GHz at a reverse bias of 5 V, which are comparable to the theoretical values. High photocurrent of over 150.0 mA from larger diameter (>60 μm) devices is obtained. The maximum DC responsivity at 1.55 μm wavelength is 0.51 A/W, without antireflection coating. These photodiodes play a key role in the progress of the future THz communication systems. Nandan Singh, Charles Kin Fai Ho, Guo Xin Tina, Manoj Kumar Chandra Mohan, Kenneth Eng Kian Lee, Hong Wang, and Huy Quoc Lam Copyright © 2015 Nandan Singh et al. All rights reserved. Surface Epitope Coverage Affects Binding Characteristics of Bisphenol-A Functionalized Nanoparticles in a Competitive Inhibition Assay Mon, 23 Nov 2015 09:29:52 +0000 The biomolecule interface is a key element in immunosensor fabrication, which can greatly influence the sensor performance. This paper explores the effects of surface epitope coverage of small molecule functionalized nanoparticle on the apparent affinity (avidity) of antibody in a competitive inhibition assay using bisphenol-A (BPA) as a model target. An unconventional two-antibody competitive inhibition ELISA (ci-ELISA) using thiolated BPA modified gold nanoparticles (cysBPAv-AuNP) as a competing reagent was devised for this study. It was shown that the antibody complexation with cysBPAv-AuNPs required a minimum number of surface epitopes on the nanoparticle to form a sufficiently strong interaction and reliable detection. The binding of cysBPAv-AuNP to anti-BPA antibodies, for limited antibody binding sites, was enhanced by a greater number of epitope-modified nanoparticles (cysBPAv-AuNP) as well as with higher epitope coverage. Increasing the molar concentration of epitope present in an assay enhanced the binding between anti-BPA antibodies and cysBPAv-AuNP. This implies that, to increase the limit of detection of a competitive inhibition assay, a reduced molar concentration of epitope should be applied. This could be achieved by either lowering the epitope coverage on each cysBPAv-AuNP or the assay molar concentration of cysBPAv-AuNP or both of these factors. Yang Lu, Joshua Richard Peterson, Erwann Luais, John Justin Gooding, and Nanju Alice Lee Copyright © 2015 Yang Lu et al. All rights reserved. VP6-SUMO Self-Assembly as Nanocarriers for Gastrointestinal Delivery Sun, 22 Nov 2015 07:56:59 +0000 High proteolytic degradation and poor absorption through epithelial barriers are major challenges to successful oral delivery of therapeutics. Nanoparticle platforms can enhance drug stability and extend the residence time in gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, drug delivery systems are often inactivated in acidic environment of stomach or suffer poor absorption from intestinal cells due to the mucus layer. To overcome these issues we developed a drug delivery system constituted by a protein construct made by a Rotavirus capsid protein (VP6) and the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO. This chimeric construct allows specificity towards intestinal cells, the Rotavirus natural target, combined by an enhanced stability given by the eukaryotic protein transporter SUMO. Furthermore SUMO can act as a molecular switch that facilitates import/export of its ligand to the nucleus, the hypersensitive subcellular site target of many cell killing therapies. In this paper we show that SUMO-VP6 constructs self-assembly into stable nanocarriers. SUMO-VP6 nanocarriers display ideal features for drug delivery: a small size and high monodispersity, a high stability in different pH conditions and a high uptake in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartment of intestinal cells. These features make SUMO-VP6 nanocarriers a promising novel system for oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. V. Palmieri, F. Bugli, M. Papi, G. Ciasca, G. Maulucci, S. Galgano, A. Arcovito, M. Sanguinetti, and M. De Spirito Copyright © 2015 V. Palmieri et al. All rights reserved. Controlling Surface-Induced Nanocomposites by Lipoplexes for Enhanced Gene Transfer Sun, 22 Nov 2015 07:15:19 +0000 Surface-induced biomineralization represents a flexible approach to immobilizing DNA onto biomaterial surfaces for surface-mediated DNA delivery. Immobilized naked DNA is uniformly embedded in thin films of nanocomposites, which limits the internalization of DNA to some cell types, such as neuronal cells. In this study, DNA molecules were initially complexed with liposomes to form lipoplexes. Subsequently, these lipoplexes were immobilized onto a cell culture compatible surface through surface-induced biomineralization. Under all the conditions we examined, lipoplexes were efficiently immobilized onto the surface and formed lipoplex-nanocomposites. We have shown that the size of liposomes and the composition of mineralizing solutions have significant effects on the morphology and topology of nanocomposites and thus the organization and the intracellular levels of DNA. The transgene expression mediated by lipoplex-nanocomposites was greatly enhanced in neuronal cells compared to the immobilized naked DNA. Bingbing Sun and Hong Shen Copyright © 2015 Bingbing Sun and Hong Shen. All rights reserved. Direct Interband Light Absorption in Conical Quantum Dot Sun, 22 Nov 2015 06:50:19 +0000 In the framework of the adiabatic approximation, the energy states of electron as well as the direct light absorption are investigated in conical quantum dot. Analytical expressions for particle energy spectrum are obtained. The dependence of the absorption edge on geometrical parameters of conical quantum dot is obtained. Selection rules are revealed for transitions between levels with different quantum numbers. In particular, it is shown that for the radial quantum number transitions are allowed between the levels with the same quantum numbers, and any transitions between different levels are allowed for the principal quantum number. D. B. Hayrapetyan, A. V. Chalyan, E. M. Kazaryan, and H. A. Sarkisyan Copyright © 2015 D. B. Hayrapetyan et al. All rights reserved. Morphology Effect on the Kinetic Parameters and Surface Thermodynamic Properties of Ag3PO4 Micro-/Nanocrystals Thu, 19 Nov 2015 11:48:42 +0000 Considerable effort has been exerted using theoretical calculations to determine solid surface energies. Nanomaterials with high surface energy depending on morphology and size exhibit enhanced reactivity. Thus, investigating the effects of morphology, size, and nanostructure on the surface energies and kinetics of nanomaterials is important. This study determined the surface energies of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) micro-/nanocrystals and their kinetic parameters when reacting with HNO3 by using microcalorimetry. This study also discussed rationally combined thermochemical cycle, transition state theory, basic theory of chemical thermodynamics with thermokinetic principle, morphology dependence of reaction kinetics, and surface thermodynamic properties. Results show that the molar surface enthalpy, molar surface entropy, molar surface Gibbs free energy, and molar surface energy of cubic Ag3PO4 micro-/nanocrystals are larger than those of rhombic dodecahedral Ag3PO4 micro-/nanocrystals. Compared with rhombic dodecahedral Ag3PO4, cubic Ag3PO4 with high surface energy exhibits higher reaction rate and lower activation energy, activation Gibbs free energy, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. These results indicate that cubic Ag3PO4 micro-/nanocrystals can overcome small energy barrier faster than rhombic dodecahedral Ag3PO4 micro-/nanocrystals and thus require lower activation energy. Zai-Yin Huang, Xing-Xing Li, Zuo-Jiao Liu, Liang-Ming He, and Xue-Cai Tan Copyright © 2015 Zai-Yin Huang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Au Precursor and Support on the Catalytic Activity of the Nano-Au-Catalysts for Propane Complete Oxidation Wed, 18 Nov 2015 09:56:43 +0000 Catalytic activity of nano-Au-catalyst(s) for the complete propane oxidation was investigated. The results showed that the nature of both Au precursor and support strongly influences catalytic activity of the Au-catalyst(s) for the propane oxidation. Oxidation state, size, and dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the Au-catalysts, surface area, crystallinity, phase structure, and redox property of the support are the key aspects for the complete propane oxidation. Among the studied Au-catalysts, the -Ce catalyst is found to be the most active catalyst. Arshid M. Ali, Muhammad A. Daous, Ahmed Arafat, Abdulraheem A. AlZahrani, Yahia Alhamed, Abudula Tuerdimaimaiti, and Lachezar A. Petrov Copyright © 2015 Arshid M. Ali et al. All rights reserved. Size Control of Alloyed Cu-In-Zn-S Nanoflowers Wed, 18 Nov 2015 09:33:42 +0000 Uniform, alloyed Cu-In-Zn-S nanoflowers with sizes of  nm and  nm composed of aggregated 4.1 nm and 5.6 nm primary crystallites, respectively, were obtained in a one-pot, heat-up reaction between copper, indium, and zinc acetate with tert-dodecanethiol in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide. Larger aggregates were obtained by diluting tert-dodecanethiol with oleylamine, which lowered the reactivity of the indium and zinc precursors and led to the formation of copper rich particles. The thermal decomposition of tert-dodecanethiol stabilizing the primary crystallites induced their agglomeration, while the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide on the surface of the nanoflowers provided them with colloidal stability and prevented them from further aggregation. Björn Kempken, Alexandra Erdt, Jürgen Parisi, and Joanna Kolny-Olesiak Copyright © 2015 Björn Kempken et al. All rights reserved. Supramolecular Encapsulation of Vitamin B6 by Macrocyclic Nanocontainer Cucurbit[7]uril Wed, 18 Nov 2015 07:45:00 +0000 A pharmaceutically and biologically relevant molecule, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), was encapsulated inside the cavity of a molecular container, cucurbit[]uril (CB[]), in aqueous solution. The CB[] based “nanocapsule” of vitamin B6 has been investigated for the first time, via 1H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titrations (including Job’s plot) and ab initio molecular modeling. The results have demonstrated that vitamin B6 forms stable host-guest complexes within CB[] in 1 : 1 stoichiometry, with a binding affinity of  M−1. Such a nanocapsule could potentially find application in vitamin B6 formulation for the purpose of enhancing the stability, absorption, and delivery of this important vitamin. Wanying Li, Shengke Li, Ian W. Wyman, Donal H. Macartney, Qingwen Zhang, Ying Zheng, and Ruibing Wang Copyright © 2015 Wanying Li et al. All rights reserved. Surge-Resistant Nanocomposite Enameled Wire Using Silica Nanoparticles with Binary Chemical Compositions on the Surface Wed, 18 Nov 2015 06:26:23 +0000 We developed polyesterimide (PEI) nanocomposite enameled wires using surface-modified silica nanoparticles with binary chemical compositions on the surface. The modification was done using silanes assisted by ultrasound, which facilitated high density modification. Two different trimethoxysilanes were chosen for the modification on the basis of resemblance of chemical compositions on the silica surface to PEI varnish. The surface-modified silica was well dispersed in PEI varnish, which was confirmed by optical observation and viscosity measurement. The glass transition temperature of the silica-PEI nanocomposite increased with the silica content. The silica-dispersed PEI varnish was then used for enameled wire fabrication. The silica-PEI nanocomposite enameled wire exhibited a much longer lifetime compared to that of neat PEI enameled wire in partial discharge conditions. Jeseung Yoo, Yongbeom Kim, Suyong Kwon, Joohyun Lee, and Young-Soo Seo Copyright © 2015 Jeseung Yoo et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Hemocompatibility and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Halloysite Nanotubes for Biomedical Application Tue, 17 Nov 2015 14:14:03 +0000 Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), due to their unique structures and properties, may play an important role in biomedical applications. In vitro test is usually conducted as a preliminary screening evaluation of the hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity of HNTs for its short term consuming, convenience, and less expense. In this work, HNTs were processed with anticoagulated rabbit blood to detect its blood compatibility. The result of hemolysis test shows that the hemolysis ratios are below 0.5%, indicating nonhemolysis of HNTs. Plasma recalcification time suggests that HNTs are dose-dependently contributing to blood coagulation in platelet poor plasma (PPP). The effect of platelet activation caused by HNTs was also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Meanwhile, HNTs were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to observe its intracellular distribution in A549 cells under confocal microscopy. CCK-8 test and TUNEL test of HNTs at different concentration levels were performed in vitro, respectively. Therefore, the potential usage of HNTs in medicine may be very meaningful in oral dosing, dermal application, dental uses, or medical implants. Hao-Yang Liu, Lei Du, Yan-Teng Zhao, and Wei-Qun Tian Copyright © 2015 Hao-Yang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Graphene Nanoplatelets in Epoxy System: Dispersion, Reaggregation, and Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Tue, 17 Nov 2015 12:54:58 +0000 The use of graphene nanocomposites in advanced applications has attracted much attention in recent years. However, in order to substitute traditional epoxy reinforcements with graphene, there are still some issues like dispersion, homogenization, and reaggregation. In this paper, graphene bundles dispersed in two-component epoxy system by bath sonication, dispersion state, and reaggregation behavior of graphene in this system have been studied. Light transmittance in ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy has been used to quantify the reaggregation by a series of controlled experiments. After 18 mins sonication of 0.005 wt% graphene dispersion at 20°C, the light transmittance decreased from 68.92% to 54.88% in liquid epoxy and decreased from 72.80% to 46.42% in hardener; while increasing the temperature from 20°C to 60°C, the light transmittance in liquid epoxy decreased from 65.96% to 53.21% after 6 mins sonication. With the incorporation of 0.3 wt% graphene, the tensile strength of nanocomposites increased from 57.2 MPa to 64.4 MPa and the storage modulus increased from 1.66 GPa to 2.16 GPa. The results showed that the dispersion state depends on the function of sonication time and temperature, and graphene has a significant reinforcement effect on epoxy. Jiacheng Wei, Rasheed Atif, Thuc Vo, and Fawad Inam Copyright © 2015 Jiacheng Wei et al. All rights reserved. Interface Dependent Plasmon Induced Enhancement in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Gold Nanoparticles Tue, 17 Nov 2015 12:34:37 +0000 We report a study on plasmon-induced photoelectrochemistry from gold nanoparticles incorporated in dye-sensitized solar cells, assembled in two different configurations: TiO2//Dye and TiO2/Dye/. Although the presence of the plasmonic material resulted in enhanced photocurrent and energy conversion efficiency, a decrease of fill factor was observed. Electrical modeling of the solar cells was performed and revealed a simultaneous decrease of parallel resistance and increase of series resistance, related to the presence of gold nanoparticles. The enhancement in photocurrent was related to a combination of strong plasmon-induced electric fields and light scattering, which overcome the loss in electrical properties. In addition, the overall increase in efficiency was found dependent on the interface where the plasmonic material is placed. The highest efficiency obtained from TiO2//Dye was attributed to a larger density of photoexcited electrons allowed to be transferred towards conduction band of TiO2. Matheus Costa de Oliveira, André Luis Silveira Fraga, Anderson Thesing, Rocelito Lopes de Andrade, Jacqueline Ferreira Leite Santos, and Marcos José Leite Santos Copyright © 2015 Matheus Costa de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Ferrite Multilayer Nanofilms for Microwave Absorption Tue, 17 Nov 2015 08:23:55 +0000 We demonstrate a simple method for fabricating multilayer thin films containing ferrite (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) nanoparticles, using layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly. These films have microwave absorbing properties for possible radar absorbing and stealth applications. To demonstrate incorporation of inorganic ferrite nanoparticles into an electrostatic-interaction-based LbL self-assembly, we fabricated two types of films: (1) a blended three-component LbL film consisting of a sequential poly(acrylic acid)/oleic acid-ferrite blend layer and a poly(allylamine hydrochloride) layer and (2) a tetralayer LbL film consisting of sequential poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), poly(sodium-4-sulfonate), bPEI-ferrite, and poly(sodium-4-sulfonate) layers. We compared surface morphologies, thicknesses, and packing density of the two types of ferrite multilayer film. Ferrite nanoparticles (Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) were prepared via a coprecipitation method from an aqueous precursor solution. The structure and composition of the ferrite nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction patterns of ferrite nanoparticles indicated a cubic spinel structure, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed their composition. Thickness growth and surface morphology were measured using a profilometer, atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope. Jiwoong Heo, Daheui Choi, and Jinkee Hong Copyright © 2015 Jiwoong Heo et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Cefquinome Nanoparticles by Using the Supercritical Antisolvent Process Mon, 16 Nov 2015 16:53:21 +0000 The supercritical antisolvent process was used successfully to prepare nanoparticles of cefquinome. These particles were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and their average diameter was measured by laser particle size analyzer. In the experiments, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as solvent to dissolve cefquinome sulfate. It was confirmed by orthogonal experiments that the concentration of solution was the primary factor in this process followed by feeding speed of solution, precipitation pressure, and precipitation temperature. Moreover, the optimal conditions of preparing nanoparticles of cefquinome by supercritical antisolvent process were that solution concentration was 100 mg/mL, solution flow speed was 1.5 mL/min, operating pressure was 13 Mpa, and operating temperature was 33°C. Confirmatory experiment was conducted under this condition. It was found that the appearance of particles was flakes and the average diameter of particles was 0.71 microns. Finally, influence law of individual factor on particle size was investigated by univariate analysis. Xiao Kefeng, Wang Weiqiang, Hu Dedong, Hao Zhihui, Qu Yanpeng, and Liu Yan Copyright © 2015 Xiao Kefeng et al. All rights reserved. Green Emission of Tellurite Based Glass Containing Erbium Oxide Nanoparticles Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:48:41 +0000 Investigation on green emission and spectral intensity of tellurite based glass containing erbium oxide NPs is one of the crucial issues. Tellurite based glass containing erbium oxide NPs with the composition of [(TeO2)0.70(B2O3)0.30]0.7(ZnO)0.30.95(Er2O3)0.05 has been prepared by using conventional melt-quenching method. The structural and optical properties of the glass sample were characterized by using XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis absorption, and PL spectroscopy. The amorphous structural arrangement was proved through XRD method. The formation of TeO3 and BO3 units was revealed by FTIR analysis. Five transition states of excitation were shown in UV-Vis spectra which arise from the ground state 4I15/2 to the excited states 4G11/2 + 2H9/2 + 4F5/2 + 4F7/2 + 2H11/2 + 4S3/2 + 4F9/2 + 4I9/2 + 4I11/2. The intensity parameters (, 4, 6) are calculated and follow the trend of . Broad green emission at 559 nm under 385 nm excitation was obtained. Azlan Muhammad Noorazlan, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Sharudin Omar Baki, and Daud W. Mohamad Copyright © 2015 Azlan Muhammad Noorazlan et al. All rights reserved. Elusive Pure Anapole Excitation in Homogenous Spherical Nanoparticles with Radial Anisotropy Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:08:11 +0000 For homogenous isotropic dielectric nanospheres with incident plane waves, Cartesian electric and toroidal dipoles can be tunned to cancel each other in terms of far-field scattering, leading to the effective anopole excitation. At the same time however, other multipoles such as magnetic dipoles with comparable scattered power are simultanesouly excited, mixing with the anopole and leading to a nonnegligible total scattering cross-section. Here, we show that, for homogenous dielectric nanospheres, radial anisotropy can be employed to significantly suppress the other multipole excitation, which at the same time does not compromise the property of complete scattering cancallation between Cartesian electric and toroidal dipoles. This enables an elusive pure anopole excitation within radially anisotropic dielectric nanospheres, which may shed new light on many scattering related fundamental researches and applications. Wei Liu, Bing Lei, Jianhua Shi, Haojun Hu, and Andrey E. Miroshnichenko Copyright © 2015 Wei Liu et al. All rights reserved. Morphosynthesis of Zn-Substituted Stoichiometric and Carbonate Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Their Cytotoxicity in Fibroblasts Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:05:30 +0000 Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)3(OH)2) (HAp) is crystallographically and chemically similar to the human hard tissues and has been widely researched. The naturally formed HAp has some impurities of some ions, which provides the biocompatibility as well as the nanosized morphologies in the tissues. In this study, the morphosynthesis of zinc-substituted stoichiometric and carbonate hydroxyapatite (Zn:HAp and Zn:CAp) nanoparticles was investigated from the reagents of CaCl2, ZnCl2, and K2HPO4. The initial (Ca + Zn)/P ratios of 1.67 and 2.00 were adjusted by the initial ZnCl2 amount at the Zn/(Ca + Zn) concentration of 0.0−10 mol%. The crystalline sizes of the nanoparticles decreased with increasing the Zn ion amount, suggesting that the Zn substitution significantly suppressed the crystal growth. TEM images of the nanoparticles indicated that all the crystalline sizes are less than 100 nm and the needle-like shapes were significantly changed to spherical shapes with increasing the Zn ion substitution to resultantly exhibit the higher surface areas as well as the nanoparticle aggregation states. Furthermore, all the nanoparticle films electrically plated on a silicone substrate give no cytotoxicity, and the Zn:CAp nanoparticle films significantly provided the bioactive properties for fibroblast ingrowth, suggesting the effect of Zn and carbonate ions on the cytocompatibility. Tania Guadalupe Peñaflor Galindo, Takuya Kataoka, and Motohiro Tagaya Copyright © 2015 Tania Guadalupe Peñaflor Galindo et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of CNT Dispersion Fluid by Wet-Jet Milling Method for Coating on Bipolar Plate of Fuel Cell Mon, 16 Nov 2015 09:10:51 +0000 Water based carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersion was produced by wet-jet milling method. Commercial CNT was originally agglomerated at the particle size of less than 1 mm. The wet-jet milling process exfoliated CNTs from the agglomerates and dispersed them into water. Sedimentation of the CNTs in the dispersion fluid was not observed for more than a month. The produced CNT dispersion was characterized by the SEM and the viscometer. CNT/PTFE composite film was formed with the CNT dispersion in this study. The electrical conductivity of the composite film increased to 10 times when the CNT dispersion, which was produced by the wet-jet milling method, was used as a constituent of the film. Moreover, the composite film was applied to bipolar plate of fuel cell and increased the output power of the fuel cell to 1.3 times. Anas Almowarai, Yutaro Ueno, and Yoshiyuki Show Copyright © 2015 Anas Almowarai et al. All rights reserved. Electronic Tongue Based on Nanostructured Hybrid Films of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines for Milk Analysis Mon, 16 Nov 2015 08:36:17 +0000 The use of gold nanoparticles combined with other organic and inorganic materials for designing nanostructured films has demonstrated their versatility for various applications, including optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In this study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles stabilized with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (Au@PAH NPs), as well as the capability of this material to form multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL) nanostructured films with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTsPc). Film growth was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Once LbL films have been applied as active layers in chemical sensors, Au@PAH/MTsPc and PAH/MTsPc LbL films were used in an electronic tongue system for milk analysis regarding fat content. The capacitance data were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), revealing the role played by the gold nanoparticles on the LbL films electrical properties, enabling this kind of system to be used for analyzing complex matrices such as milk without any prior pretreatment. Luiza A. Mercante, Vanessa P. Scagion, Adriana Pavinatto, Rafaela C. Sanfelice, Luiz H. C. Mattoso, and Daniel S. Correa Copyright © 2015 Luiza A. Mercante et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Zeolite Nanomolecular Sieves of Different Si/Al Ratios Mon, 16 Nov 2015 08:10:27 +0000 Nanosized zeolite molecular sieves of different Si/Al ratios have been prepared using microwave hydrothermal reactor (MHR) for their greater application in separation and catalytic science. The as-synthesized molecular sieves belong to four different type zeolite families: MFI (infinite and high silica), FAU (moderate silica), LTA (low silica and high alumina), and AFI (alumina rich and silica-free). The phase purity of molecular sieves has been assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and morphological evaluation done by electron microscopy. Broad XRD peaks reveal that each zeolite molecular sieve sample is composed of nanocrystallites. Scanning electron microscopic images feature the notion that the incorporation of aluminum to MFI zeolite synthesis results in morphological change. The crystals of pure silica MFI zeolite (silicalite-1) have hexagon lump/disk-like shape, whereas MFI zeolite particles with Si/Al molar ratios 250 and 100 have distorted hexagonal lump/disk and pseudo spherical shapes, respectively. Furthermore, phase pure zeolite nanocrystals of octahedron (FAU), cubic (LTA), and rod (AFI) shape have been synthesized. The average sizes of MFI, FAU, LTA, and AFI zeolite crystals are 250, 150, 50, and 3000 nm, respectively. Although the length of AFI zeolite rods is in micron scale, the thickness and width are of a few nanometers. Pankaj Sharma, Moon Hee Han, and Churl-Hee Cho Copyright © 2015 Pankaj Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Krypton Gas for High Quality Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis by KrF Excimer Laser Ablation Sun, 15 Nov 2015 11:40:23 +0000 We report for the first time the production of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by KrF excimer laser ablation method under the krypton gas atmosphere. For the ablation experiment 450 mJ energy and 30 Hz repetition rate KrF excimer laser was used, and the target was prepared with the following composition: 0.6% Ni, 0.6% Co, and 98.8% C (atomic percentage). The ablation product was characterized by confocal Raman microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The SWCNTs obtained are a mixture of semiconducting and metallic types with narrow diameters distribution of 1.26 to 1.49 nm, are micrometers long, and contain low amount of graphite and amorphous carbon. Jasim Al-Zanganawee, Adrian Katona, Calin Moise, Dionezie Bojin, and Marius Enachescu Copyright © 2015 Jasim Al-Zanganawee et al. All rights reserved.