Journal of Nanomaterials The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Synergetic Effects of Mechanical Properties on Graphene Nanoplatelet and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Hybrids Reinforced Epoxy/Carbon Fiber Composites Tue, 26 May 2015 09:53:39 +0000 Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are novel nanofillers possessing attractive characteristics, including robust compatibility with most polymers, high absolute strength, and cost effectiveness. In this study, an outstanding synergetic effect on the grapheme nanoplatelets (GNPs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrids were used to reinforce epoxy composite and epoxy/carbon fiber composite laminates to enhance their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of CNTs/GNPs hybrids on a fixed weight fraction (1 wt%) with mixing different ratio reinforced epoxy nanocomposite, such as ultimate tensile strength and flexure properties, were investigated. The mechanical properties of epoxy/carbon fiber composite laminates containing different proportions of CNTs/GNPs hybrids (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 wt%) were increased over that of neat laminates. Consequently, significant improvement in the mechanical properties was attained for these epoxy resin composites and carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composite laminates. Pin-Ning Wang, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Chin-Lung Chiang, and Ming-Yuan Shen Copyright © 2015 Pin-Ning Wang et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of PANI/C-TiO2 Composite Nanotube Arrays Electrode for Supercapacitor Tue, 26 May 2015 09:33:56 +0000 Polyaniline/carbon doped TiO2 composite nanotube arrays (PANI/C-TiO2 NTAs) have been prepared successfully by electrodepositing PANI in C-TiO2 NTAs which were prepared by directly annealing the as-anodized TiO2 NTAs under Ar atmosphere. The organic residual in the TiO2 NTAs during the process of anodization acts as carbon source and is carbonized in Ar atmosphere to manufacture the C-TiO2 NTAs. The specific capacitance of the PANI/C-TiO2 electrode is 120.8 mF cm−2 at a current density of 0.1 mA cm−2 and remains 104.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with the calculated rate performance of 86.3%. After 5000 times of charge-discharge cycling at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2, the specific capacitance retains 88.7% compared to the first cycle. All these outstanding performances of the as-prepared PANI/C-TiO2 NTAs indicate it will be a promising electrode for supercapacitor. Chengcheng Zhang, Changjian Peng, Biao Gao, Xiang Peng, Xuming Zhang, Jingyuan Tao, Jinhan Kong, and Jijiang Fu Copyright © 2015 Chengcheng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by a Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition Method Tue, 26 May 2015 09:18:34 +0000 Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a preferential method to fabricate carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Several changes have been proposed to obtain improved CNTs. In this work we have fabricated nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs) by means of a CVD which has been slightly modified. Such modification consists in changing the content of the by-product trap. Instead of acetone, we have half-filled the trap with an aqueous solution of NaCl (0–26.82 wt.%). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization showed morphological changes depending upon concentration of NaCl included in the trap. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy several shape changes on the catalyst nanoparticles were also observed. According to Raman spectroscopy results N-MWCNTs fabricated using pure distillate water exhibit better crystallinity. Resistivity measurements performed on different samples by physical properties measurement Evercool system (PPMS) showed metallic to semiconducting temperature dependent transitions when high content of NaCl is used. Results of magnetic properties show a ferromagnetic response to static magnetic fields and the coercive fields were very similar for all the studied cases. However, saturation magnetization is decreased if aqueous solution of NaCl is used in the trap. María Luisa García-Betancourt, Yadira Itzel Vega-Cantu, Sofía Magdalena Vega-Díaz, Aarón Morelos-Gómez, Mauricio Terrones, and Emilio Muñoz-Sandoval Copyright © 2015 María Luisa García-Betancourt et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Ammonium Zirconium Carbonate on Properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Xylan Composite Films Tue, 26 May 2015 08:53:34 +0000 A series of composite films were prepared using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and xylan as degradable raw materials under the addition of glycerol and ammonium zirconium carbonate (AZC). The influences of AZC on the mechanical properties, water-resisting properties, thermal stability, solubility (S), and water vapor permeability of PVA/xylan composite films were comparatively discussed. The results showed that AZC had a positive impact on improving the water resistance and mechanical properties of composite films especially for elongation at break (EAB). With increasing the AZC amounts from 0% to 15%, EAB increased rapidly from 18.5% to 218.0%, and the S values decrease from 11.64% to 8.64%. When the AZC amount reached 15%, the tensile strength still performed well (22.10 MPa). The great compatibility of components in composite films was also observed. Moreover, the addition of AZC had great influences on the thermal stability of composite films and the degradation in soil. Xiao-feng Chen, Jun-li Ren, and Ling Meng Copyright © 2015 Xiao-feng Chen et al. All rights reserved. N-Type Conductive Ultrananocrystalline Diamond Films Grown by Hot Filament CVD Tue, 26 May 2015 08:25:10 +0000 We present the synthesis of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by application of hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). We furthermore studied the different morphological, structural, and electrical properties. The grown films are fine grained with grain sizes between 4 and 7 nm. The UNCD films exhibit different electrical conductivities, dependent on grain boundary structure. We present different contact metallizations exhibiting ohmic contact behavior and good adhesion to the UNCD surface. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is presented between −200 and 900°C. We furthermore present spectroscopic investigations of the films, supporting that the origin of the conductivity is the structure and volume of the grain boundary. Michael Mertens, Markus Mohr, Neda Wiora, Kai Brühne, and Hans-Jörg Fecht Copyright © 2015 Michael Mertens et al. All rights reserved. A Review of the Application and Performance of Carbon Nanotubes in Fuel Cells Tue, 26 May 2015 08:14:08 +0000 The fuel cell has the nature of high energy conversion efficiency and low pollutant emission. Carbon nanotubes used for fuel cells can decrease the needs of noble metals which are used for catalyst and improve the performance of fuel cells. The application of carbon nanotubes in fuel cells is summarized and discussed. The following aspects are described in this paper: the method used to reduce the platinum, the effect of carbon nanotubes on the fuel cell, improving the performance of fuel cell catalysts, the interaction between catalyst and carbon nanotube support, and the synthetic conditions of carbon nanotube supported catalyst. We summarize some of the results of previous studies and raise expectations for the microscopic state study of carbon nanotubes in the future. Chong Luo, Hui Xie, Qin Wang, Geng Luo, and Chao Liu Copyright © 2015 Chong Luo et al. All rights reserved. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art Tue, 26 May 2015 08:09:55 +0000 The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions. Shu-Nan Lu, Ning Xie, Li-Chao Feng, and Jing Zhong Copyright © 2015 Shu-Nan Lu et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Deposition of Nanocopper Film on the β-SiCp Surface by Magnetron Sputtering Mon, 25 May 2015 12:57:08 +0000 The uniform nanocopper film was deposited on the surface of micron β-SiC particle by magnetron sputtering technology successfully. The surface morphology and phase constitution of the β-SiC particle with nanocopper film were analyzed and dynamic deposition behavior was investigated in detail. The concept of dynamic deposition was put forward to interpret formation mechanism of copper nanofilm on the surface of β-SiC particles. Hu Ming, Zhang Yunlong, Shan Lin, Tang Lili, Gao Jing, Ren Xiaoxue, and Ding Peiling Copyright © 2015 Hu Ming et al. All rights reserved. A Potential Solution to Minimally Invasive Device for Oral Surgery: Evaluation of Surgical Outcomes in Rat Mon, 25 May 2015 06:37:02 +0000 The objective of the present research was to investigate the thermal injury in the brain after minimally invasive electrosurgery using instruments with copper-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC-Cu) surface coating. The surface morphologies of DLC-Cu thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Three-dimensional brain models were reconstructed using magnetic resonance imaging to simulate the electrosurgical operation. In adult rats, a monopolar electrosurgical instrument coated with the DLC-Cu thin film was used to generate lesions in the brain. Animals were sacrificed for evaluations on postoperative days 0, 2, 7, and 28. Data indicated that the temperature decreased significantly when minimally invasive electrosurgical instruments with nanostructure DLC-Cu thin films were used and continued to decrease with increasing film thickness. On the other hand, the DLC-Cu-treated device created a relatively small thermal injury area and lateral thermal effect in the brain tissues. These results indicated that the DLC-Cu thin film minimized excessive thermal injury and uniformly distributed the temperature in the brain. Taken together, our study results suggest that the DLC-Cu film on copper electrode substrates is an effective means for improving the performance of electrosurgical instruments. Keng-Liang Ou, Li-Hsiang Lin, Hsi-Jen Chiang, Han-Yi Cheng, Shyuan-Yow Chen, and Chiung-Fang Huang Copyright © 2015 Keng-Liang Ou et al. All rights reserved. Electrospinning of Nanofibers and Their Applications for Energy Devices Mon, 25 May 2015 06:28:10 +0000 With the depletion of fossil fuels and the increasing demand of energy for economic development, it is urgent to develop renewable energy technologies to sustain the economic growth. Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient fabrication method for one-dimensional (1D) nanostructured fibers of metals, metal oxides, hydrocarbons, composites, and so forth. The resulting nanofibers (NFs) with controllable diameters ranging from nanometer to micrometer scale possess unique properties such as a high surface-area-to-volume and aspect ratio, low density, and high pore volume. These properties make 1D nanomaterials more advantageous than conventional materials in energy harvesting, conversion, and storage devices. In this review, the key parameters for e-spinning are discussed and the properties of electrospun NFs and applications in solar cells, fuel cells, nanogenerators, hydrogen energy harvesting and storage, lithium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of electrospinning and an outlook on the possible future directions are also discussed. Xiaomin Shi, Weiping Zhou, Delong Ma, Qian Ma, Denzel Bridges, Ying Ma, and Anming Hu Copyright © 2015 Xiaomin Shi et al. All rights reserved. Nature of the Interstitials in Titanium Dioxide and Their Impact on Transmission Coefficient: Ab Initio Calculations Thu, 21 May 2015 08:33:04 +0000 The ab initio calculations about the properties of the interstitials doping in the rutile TiO2 and their impact on the transport coefficients are reported. As the doping of the Zr or Ti interstitials in the TiO2, the lattice Ti4+ ions acquire the excess electrons so reduced to the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. However, the Cu interstitials could not lose enough electrons to reduce the lattice Ti4+ ions. Furthermore, the Ti or Cu interstitials in the ZrO2 also are unable to promote the lattice Zr4+ ions to form the lattice Zr3+ or Zr2+ ions. The high transport coefficients are observed in the defected TiO2 with the Ti or Zr interstitials as the high concentration of the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. So, the Zr interstitials are the favorable choice for the extra-doping to improve the transport properties in the TiO2-based resistive random access memory. Lei Li, Changfu Xia, Wenshi Li, Aimin Ji, Canyan Zhu, Lijun Zhang, Ziou Wang, Jianfeng Yang, and Ling-Feng Mao Copyright © 2015 Lei Li et al. All rights reserved. Semiconductor Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Storage Thu, 21 May 2015 07:45:46 +0000 Xiang Wu, Xijin Xu, Chuanfei Guo, and Chee Kiang Ivan Tan Copyright © 2015 Xiang Wu et al. All rights reserved. Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of β-Ga2O3 Nanorods under Simulated Solar Irradiation Wed, 20 May 2015 09:34:53 +0000 β-Ga2O3 nanorods are prepared by hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra. The results reveal that high crystallinity, monoclinic phase of β-Ga2O3 nanorods were prepared with a diameter of about 60 nm and length of 500 nm. Photoluminescence study indicates that the β-Ga2O3 nanorods exhibit a broad blue light emission at room temperature. The β-Ga2O3 nanorods displayed high photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation; after 2 h irradiation, over 95% of methylene blue solution and over 90% of methyl orange solution were decolorized. Since this process does not require additional hydrogen peroxide and uses solar light, it can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to treat dye effluent. Yinzhen Wang, Ning Li, Pingping Duan, Xuwei Sun, Benli Chu, and Qinyu He Copyright © 2015 Yinzhen Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Surface Properties of Nanostructured Bone Repair Materials on Their Performances Wed, 20 May 2015 08:09:04 +0000 Nanotechnology has been expected to be an extraordinarily promising method for bone repair. Meanwhile, the promise of nanobiomaterials for therapeutic applications has been widely reported, and a lot of studies have been made in terms of repairing bone using nanomaterials accompanied by rapid development of nanotechnology. Compared with conventional biomaterials, nanostructured implants have been shown to possess positive effects on cellular functions because of their unique surface properties, such as nanotopography, increased wettability, larger surface area, and microenvironment similar to extracellular matrix. Moreover, many positive cellular responses have been found to take place at the interface between nanostructured implants and host bone. In this paper, we will give a review about the effects of surface properties of nanostructured bone repair materials on their performances in terms of several aspects and a detailed interpretation or introduction on the specific cellular recognitions at the interface between nanostructured implants and host bone. Feng Zhao, Jian Wang, Hongjuan Guo, Shaojun Liu, and Wei He Copyright © 2015 Feng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Nano- and Biomaterials for Sustainable Development Wed, 20 May 2015 07:55:56 +0000 An-Ya Lo, Chuan Wang, Wei Hsuan Hung, Anmin Zheng, and Biswarup Sen Copyright © 2015 An-Ya Lo et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Carboxylated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Function of Macrophages Wed, 20 May 2015 07:10:22 +0000 Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have tremendous potential in many areas of research and applications. Modification of MWCNTs with carboxyl group is one of the widely used strategies to increase their water dispersibility. However, the effect of carboxylation of MWCNTs on their interaction with macrophages remains unclear. The current study compared the impact of pristine MWCNTs (p-MWCNTs) and carboxylic acid functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH) on RAW264.7 cells by looking at the cell viability, phagocytic activity, production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was revealed that exposure to either p-MWCNTs or MWCNTs-COOH induced decreased viability of murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and moderately elevated phagocytic activity of murine peritoneal macrophages, but no statistical significance was found between the two groups. Increased production of ROS in macrophages was induced after exposure to either p-MWCNTs or MWCNTs-COOH. However, no significantly elevated production of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α) was observed from RAW 264.7 cells after exposure to the CNTs. Those data suggested that modification with carboxyl group did not exert obvious impact on the interaction of MWCNTs with macrophages. Xia Dong, Lanxia Liu, Dunwan Zhu, Hailing Zhang, Yingxin Li, and Xigang Leng Copyright © 2015 Xia Dong et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Luminescent Ag Nanoclusters with Antibacterial Activity Wed, 20 May 2015 07:08:31 +0000 This paper focuses on the synthesis of novel Ag nanoclusters (NCs) using DHLA as capping reagents in aqueous solution by a photoreduction method. Luminescence studies indicated that the DHLA-Ag NCs exhibited strong blue emission with maximum peak at 480 nm. The maximum emission of the NCs can be greatly improved with irradiating time by around 15-fold from 3 h to 67 h. By means of mycelium growth rate, the results showed that the Ag NCs with smaller sizes had a good antimicrobial effect. Ying-Fan Liu, Lei Wang, Chun-Po Bu, Guo-Qing Wang, Yan-Hui Zhang, Shao-Ming Fang, and Wan-Zhen Shi Copyright © 2015 Ying-Fan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Targeted In Vivo Imaging of Mouse Hindlimb Ischemia Using Fluorescent Gelatin Nanoparticles Wed, 20 May 2015 06:53:15 +0000 Critical limb ischemia is one of the most advanced forms of peripheral artery disease, which seriously threat the human health and even cause amputation. In this study, we developed a fluorescent gelatin nanoparticle (FGNP) by covalent conjugation of the nanoparticles with two fluorogens, Cy7 and rhodamine B. The FGNPs have a volume average hydrodynamic diameter of about 168 nm, which also show low cytotoxicity against NIH/3T3 normal cells. The in vivo ischemia bioimaging studies in live mice and in ischemic limb slices demonstrate that the FGNPs can be preferentially accumulated to the ischemic site, which can thus serve as a safe and effective probe for targeted visualization of ischemia in the limb. Ju Zhang, Gang Wang, Duo Mao, Aitian Han, Nannan Xiao, Xin Qi, Dan Ding, and Deling Kong Copyright © 2015 Ju Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications Wed, 20 May 2015 06:44:22 +0000 Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented. Nguyen Duc Hoa, Nguyen Van Duy, Sherif A. El-Safty, and Nguyen Van Hieu Copyright © 2015 Nguyen Duc Hoa et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Use of the Nanohydroxyapatite/Polyamide Mesh Cage in Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Surgery Tue, 19 May 2015 14:10:32 +0000 Purpose. This study was to report the clinical use of biomimetic nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA 66) mesh cages in anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) surgery. Method. 95 patients who underwent single level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion for cervical spondylosis myelopathy (CSM) in our hospital were reviewed and divided into 2 groups according to using nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide mesh cage and titanium mesh cage (TMC). Demographic data of patients and surgical, clinical, and radiological data before operation and at last follow-up were collected and compared. Result. The operation time, surgical blood loss, complications, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores (JOA scores) of two groups were similar. At the last follow-up both the two groups obtained 100% solid bone fusion, but the TMC group had higher rate of severe cage subsidence than the n-HA/PA 66 group (27% versus 2%). Conclusion. Nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 mesh cage is safe and effective in ACCF and can be a substitution to titanium mesh cage. Hui Xu, Xiaofeng Ren, Dawei Wang, Yongfei Zhao, Yan Wang, Geng Cui, Songhua Xiao, and Xuesong Zhang Copyright © 2015 Hui Xu et al. All rights reserved. The Preparation and In Vitro Evaluations of a Nanoscaled Injectable Bone Repair Material Tue, 19 May 2015 13:43:06 +0000 There are usually two forms of bone repair materials, block and granular, for common clinical use. This paper describes a novel injectable material, nano-HA/collagen/alginate (nHAC/Alg) composite biomaterial, including its preparation and evaluations in vitro. Based on the idea of bionics and the study of collagen/calcium phosphate salt composite materials, the injectable bone repair material was developed. Then, human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) were cultured on the nHAC/Alg material. The cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation were evaluated with inverted microscope, scanning electron microscope, laser scanning confocal microscope, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test. The results showed that nHAC/Alg not only had no negative effect on cellular functions but also promotes cell proliferation and differentiation into osteogenic cells, which suggests that the nanoscaled injectable bone repair material has good clinical application prospects for bone repair. Xinhui Liu, Chao Zhu, Yijiong Li, Yueling Yan, Chuanyong Hou, Hua Wang, Yelin Yang, Guoping Guan, and Qingling Feng Copyright © 2015 Xinhui Liu et al. All rights reserved. Current Development of Silver Nanoparticle Preparation, Investigation, and Application in the Field of Medicine Tue, 19 May 2015 13:08:30 +0000 The invited review covers different research areas of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), including the synthesis strategies of AgNPs, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of AgNPs, osteoconductive and osteoinductive activities of AgNP-based materials, and potential toxicity of AgNPs. The potential mechanisms of AgNP’s biological efficacy as well as its potential toxicity are discussed as well. In addition, the current development of AgNP applications, especially in the area of therapeutics, is also summarized. Maxwell Murphy, Kang Ting, Xinli Zhang, Chia Soo, and Zhong Zheng Copyright © 2015 Maxwell Murphy et al. All rights reserved. Investigations into the Biocompatibility of Nanohydroxyapatite Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Magnetic Situation Tue, 19 May 2015 12:46:25 +0000 Regenerative medicine consisting of cells and materials offers a new approach for repairing and regenerating the organs and tissues. More and more researches focused on the magnetic nanobiomaterials due to its superior advantages to traditional materials. However, the toxicity of nanosized magnetic particles cannot be ignored, especially under the magnetic situation. This study aims to study the biocompatibility of nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA-) coated magnetic nanoparticles under the magnetic situation. n-HA-coated magnetic nanoparticles were fabricated through an ultrasound-assisted coprecipitation method. Subsequently, these materials were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and then were cultured with mesenchyme stem cells derived from human bone marrow (hMSC-BM). In vitro experiment proved the satisfactory biocompatibility of n-HA-coated magnetic nanoparticles. These important factors (ALP, OCN, and OPN) influence the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC-BM. It was found that the hMSC-BM with combination of n-HA/Fe3O4 and magnetic stimulation presented higher degree of osteoblast-related markers than that in each alone. This research demonstrated that a novel nanohydroxyapatite coated magnetic nanoparticle is safe under the magnetic situation. Therefore, these n-HA-coated magnetic nanoparticles are promising biomagnetic materials for future applications. Qing Li, Gang Zhou, Tong Wang, Yongzhao Hou, Xuliang Deng, and Yan Wei Copyright © 2015 Qing Li et al. All rights reserved. Recent Applications of Nanomaterials in Prosthodontics Tue, 19 May 2015 12:46:03 +0000 In recent years, lots of researches have been launched on nanomaterials for biomedical applications. It has been shown that the performances of many biomaterials used in prosthodontics have been significantly enhanced after their scales were reduced by nanotechnology, from micron-size into nanosize. On the other hand, many nanocomposites composed of nanomaterials and traditional metals, ceramics, resin, or other matrix materials have been widely used in prosthodontics because their properties, such as modulus elasticity, surface hardness, polymerization shrinkage, and filler loading, were significantly increased after the addition of the nanomaterials. In this paper, the latest research progress on the applications of nanometals, nanoceramic materials, nanoresin materials, and other nanomaterials in prosthodontics was reviewed, which not only gives a detailed description of the new related investigations, but also hopefully provides important elicitation for future researches in this field. Wei Wang, Susan Liao, Yuhe Zhu, Ming Liu, Qian Zhao, and Yating Fu Copyright © 2015 Wei Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Transport and Deposition of Nanoparticles in Respiratory System by Inhalation Tue, 19 May 2015 12:40:02 +0000 The inhaled nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention, since they are more easily to enter the deep part of respiratory system. Some nanoparticles were reported to cause pulmonary inflammation. The toxicity of nanoparticles depends not only on its chemical component but also on the quantity and position of the deposition. The deposition of nanoparticles is not uniform and is influenced by airflow transport. The high deposition mainly occurs at the carinal ridges and the inside walls around the carinal ridges. Many factors could affect the transport and deposition of nanoparticles, such as particle size, flow rate, structure of airway, pulmonary function, and age. In this review, we discussed the methods and technique involved in particle transport and deposition studies. The features of particles deposition could be observed in clinic experiments and animal experiments. The mechanism of transport could be studied by numerical simulation. Numerical model and experiment study supplement each other. Some techniques such as medical imaging may support the study of nanoparticles transport and deposition. The knowledge of particles transport and deposition may be helpful both to defend the toxicity of inhaled particles and to direct inhaled drug delivery. Huiting Qiao, Wenyong Liu, Hongyu Gu, Daifa Wang, and Yu Wang Copyright © 2015 Huiting Qiao et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Effects of Novel Nanoscaled Core Decompression Rods Combined with Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Treatment of Early Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head Tue, 19 May 2015 12:16:32 +0000 Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is one of the most common diseases in orthopedics. In this study, we investigated the clinical effects of novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with mesenchymal stem cells on the treatment of the ONFH. 12 adult patients with early ONFH (at the stage of Ficat II) received the treatment using the implantation of novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. The grade of the patients’ hip was scored by Harris marking system before and after the surgery, and then paired t-test was done. We assessed the curative efficiency based on the change of the patients before and after the surgery. In particular, the survival rate of femoral head was assessed at 12 months after the surgery. The results demonstrated that according to the standard of Harris Scoring, the average grade of hip joint before the surgery was points while average grade of hip joint at 12 months after the surgery was points. So, the implantation of the novel nanoscaled core decompression rods combined with mesenchymal stem cells had satisfactory clinical effects, suggesting that this implantation should be effective to treat early ONFH. Hongyang Gao, Guoping Zhang, Jian Wang, Feng Zhao, Yuchen Zhang, Wei Wang, and Yang You Copyright © 2015 Hongyang Gao et al. All rights reserved. Partial Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene over Ru-Zn/MCM-41 Tue, 19 May 2015 11:29:53 +0000 Ru-Zn/MCM-41 catalysts for the partial hydrogenation of benzene with differing Zn contents were prepared by the incipient-wetness impregnation method. The evaluation results indicate that Zn simultaneously depresses the catalysts activity and cyclohexene selectivity. This can be attributed to the change in the amount of the different hydrogenation sites affected by Zn. The weak hydrogenation sites can promote benzene conversion, and the strong hydrogenation sites, a novel kind of hydrogenation site found on the surface of the catalysts under the influence of Zn, are beneficial for cyclohexene hydrogenation. Tongtong Zhang, Zhimiao Wang, Qingqing Zhao, Fang Li, and Wei Xue Copyright © 2015 Tongtong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Size Controlled Synthesis of Germanium Nanocrystals: Effect of Ge Precursor and Hydride Reducing Agent Tue, 19 May 2015 09:08:25 +0000 Germanium nanocrystals (Ge NCs) have attracted increasing attention as a promising alternative to II–VI and IV–VI semiconductor materials as they are cheap, “green,” electrochemically stable, and compatible with existing CMOS processing methods. Germanium is a particularly attractive material for optoelectronic applications as it combines a narrow band gap with high carrier mobilities and a large exciton Bohr radius. Solution-phase synthesis and characterisation of size monodisperse alkyl-terminated Ge NCs are demonstrated. Ge NCs were synthesised under inert atmospheric conditions via the reduction of Ge halide salts (GeX4) by hydride reducing agents within inverse micelles. Regulation of NC size is achieved by variation of germanium precursor and the strength of hydride reducing agents used. UV-Visible absorbance and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed strong significant quantum confinement effects, with moderate absorption in the UV spectral range, and strong emission in the violet with a marked dependence on excitation wavelength. Darragh Carolan and Hugh Doyle Copyright © 2015 Darragh Carolan and Hugh Doyle. All rights reserved. The Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Electron Tuned Fe-Doped SnO2 Materials Tue, 19 May 2015 08:18:07 +0000 By means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method (FP-LAPW), the electronic structures and optical properties of Sn15FeO32 with electron-injection are studied. The results show that Fe-doped SnO2 materials are all direct transition semiconductors. The Fermi level goes into conduction band gradually and the band gap decreases with the increase of electron injection. The peaks of optical properties, such as the imaginary part of dielectric function and absorption spectra, change greatly at low energy. The absorption spectra exhibit blue shift, and the optical absorption edge increases, which are consistent with the change of the band gaps. Zhe Wang, Bao-Jun Huang, Chang-Wen Zhang, Xi-Jin Xu, and Pei-Ji Wang Copyright © 2015 Zhe Wang et al. All rights reserved. Porous PCL/Chitosan and nHA/PCL/Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications: Fabrication and Evaluation Mon, 18 May 2015 14:16:20 +0000 Two semicrystalline polymers were blended to fabricate porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Scaffolds containing polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) incorporated nHA/PCL/chitosan were produced using the freeze-drying technique. A model drug, tetracycline hydrochloride (tetracycline HCL), was incorporated into the scaffolds. The scaffolds were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDX, and water contact angle. The antibacterial properties of the nHA/PCL/chitosan/tetracycline HCL scaffold were tested and the scaffolds showed positive results on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The cell biocompatibility using human skin fibroblast cells (HSF 1184) was examined. The scaffold materials were found to be nontoxic to human skin fibroblast cells (HSF 1184) and showed positive proliferation activities. The nHA/PCL/chitosan/tetracycline HCL scaffold has potential for controlling implant-associated bacterial infections during operative procedures and can potentially be used as a scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Rashid Mad Jin, Naznin Sultana, Sayang Baba, Salehhuddin Hamdan, and Ahmad Fauzi Ismail Copyright © 2015 Rashid Mad Jin et al. All rights reserved.