Journal of Nanomaterials http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Electrodeposition-Based Fabrication and Characteristics of Tungsten Trioxide Thin Film Sat, 30 Apr 2016 14:35:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3623547/ In this study, tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films were electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass to form WO3-coated glass. The electrodeposition (ED) time () and ED current () were varied to control the film thickness and morphology. Furthermore, the crystallization of the thin films was controlled by annealing them at 250°C, 500°C, and 700°C. The results showed that the thickness of the WO3 thin films increased with and . The as-deposited thin films and those annealed at 250°C were amorphous, whereas the WO3 thin films annealed at 500 and 700°C were in the anorthic phase. Moreover, the amorphous WO3-coated glass exhibited high transmittance in visible light and low transmittance in near-infrared light, whereas the anorthic WO3-coated glass had high transmittance in near-infrared light. An empirical formula for determining the thickness of WO3 thin films was derived through multiple regressions of the ED process parameters. Li Lin, Chin-Pao Cheng, and Tun-Ping Teng Copyright © 2016 Li Lin et al. All rights reserved. Influence of the Total Gas Flow at Different Reaction Times for CVD-Graphene Synthesis on Polycrystalline Nickel Sat, 30 Apr 2016 11:22:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7083284/ Optimization of the total gas flow (CH4+H2) during the reaction step for different reaction times for CVD-graphene synthesis on polycrystalline nickel foil using an atmospheric pressure set-up is reported. A thickness value related to number of graphene layers in each of the synthesized samples was determined using an Excel-VBA application. This method assigned a thickness value between 1 and 1000 and provided information on the percentage of each type of graphene (monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer) deposited onto the polycrystalline nickel sheet. The influence of the total gas flow during the reaction step and the reaction time was studied in detail. Optical microscopy showed that samples were covered with different types of graphene, such as multilayer, few-layer, bilayer, and monolayer graphene. The synthesis variables were optimized according to the thickness value and the results were verified by Raman spectroscopy. The best conditions were obtained with a reaction temperature of 980°C, a CH4/H2 flow rate ratio of 0.07 v/v, a reaction time of 1 minute, and a total gas flow of 80 NmL/min. In the sample obtained under the optimized conditions, 80% of the area was covered with monolayer graphene and less than 1% with multilayer graphene. M. P. Lavin-Lopez, J. L. Valverde, L. Sanchez-Silva, and A. Romero Copyright © 2016 M. P. Lavin-Lopez et al. All rights reserved. One-Dimensional TiO2-B Crystals Synthesised by Hydrothermal Process and Their Antibacterial Behaviour on Escherichia coli Sat, 30 Apr 2016 08:47:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7213672/ We have successfully synthesised one-dimensional single crystals of monoclinic phase titanium dioxide nanostructures (TiO2-B), prepared by a hydrothermal process. Morphological characterization was carried out by atomic force and scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. In order to study the crystalline structure, samples were calcined at 500°C in an air-filled chamber. X-ray diffraction results indicated that as-prepared samples presented diffraction patterns of hydrate hydrogen titanate and those calcined at 500°C exhibited the TiO2-B and anatase phases, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the one-dimensional nanostructures had high contrast and uniform widths for those synthesised and calcined, indicating the formation of a phase of monocrystals. Besides, a proof of the antibacterial effect was carried out of the monoclinic phase of TiO2-B on Escherichia coli pure cultures, where the viability of the bacterium decreases in presence of TiO2-B nanostructures plus UV illumination. Monocrystals did not change after photocatalytic tests, suggesting a possible application as long-term antibacterial protection. Sergio León-Ríos, Rodrigo Espinoza González, Sandra Fuentes, Emigdio Chávez Ángel, Alex Echeverría, Antonio E. Serrano, Cecilia S. Demergasso, and R. Antonio Zárate Copyright © 2016 Sergio León-Ríos et al. All rights reserved. Sprayed Pyrolyzed ZnO Films with Nanoflake and Nanorod Morphologies and Their Photocatalytic Activity Sat, 30 Apr 2016 08:08:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5981562/ There is an increasing interest on the application of ZnO nanorods in photocatalysis and many growth methods have been applied, in particular the spray pyrolysis technique which is attractive for large scale production. However it is interesting to know if the nanorod morphology is the best considering its photocatalytic activity, stability, and cost effectiveness compared to a nonoriented growth. In this work we present a systematic study of the effect of the precursor solution (type of salt, solvent, and concentration) on the morphology of sprayed ZnO films to obtain nanoflakes and nanorods without the use of surfactants or catalysts. The surface properties and structural characteristics of these types of films were investigated to elucidate which morphology is more favorable for photocatalytic applications. Wettability and photocatalytic experiments were carried out in the same conditions. After UV irradiation both morphologies became hydrophilic and achieved a dye discoloration efficiency higher than 90%; however, the nanoflake morphology provided the highest photocatalytic performance (99% dye discoloration) and stability and the lowest energy consumption during the synthesis process. The surface-to-volume ratio revealed that the nanoflake morphology is more adequate for photocatalytic water treatment applications and that the thin nanorods should be preferred over the large ones. Nora S. Portillo-Vélez and Monserrat Bizarro Copyright © 2016 Nora S. Portillo-Vélez and Monserrat Bizarro. All rights reserved. Thermal Transport of Flexural and In-Plane Phonons Modulated by Bended Graphene Nanoribbons Thu, 28 Apr 2016 09:53:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/6093673/ Ballistic thermal transport properties are investigated comparatively for out-of-plane phonon modes (FPMs) and in-plane phonon modes (IPMs) in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Results show that the phonon modes transports can be modulated separately by the phonon dispersion mismatch between armchair and zigzag GNRs in considered system. The contribution of FPMs to total thermal conductance is larger than 50% in low temperature for perfect GNRs. But it becomes less than 20% in the bended GNRs. Furthermore, this contribution can be modulated by changing the structural parameters of the bended GNRs. The result is useful for the design of thermal or thermoelectric nanodevices in future. Changning Pan, Jun He, Diwu Yang, and Keqiu Chen Copyright © 2016 Changning Pan et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of NO Oxidation Properties over a Mn-Ce/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst Thu, 28 Apr 2016 09:38:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2103647/ With the purpose of studying the effect of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the NO oxidation activity, a series of Mn10Ce/-Al2O3 ( = 4, 6, 8, and 10) catalysts were synthesized by acid-aided sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Result showed that the crystalline size of MnOx and CeO2 ranges from 5 nm to 30 nm and manganese existed mainly in the catalysts in the form of manganese dioxide. Moreover, NO oxidation experiments were carried out to evaluate the activity of the catalysts; according to the results, 6Mn10Ce/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed the supreme NO oxidation activity with a NO to NO2 conversion rate of 83.5% at 300°C. Compared to 500 ppm NO inlet concentration, the NO conversion was higher than that of 750 and 1000 ppm NO over 6Mn10Ce/γ-Al2O3 catalyst in the temperature range of 150–300°C. Pan Wang, Peng Luo, Junchen Yin, and Lili Lei Copyright © 2016 Pan Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Nanodrag Reducer for Low Permeability Reservoir Water Flooding: Long-Chain Alkylamines Modified Graphene Oxide Tue, 26 Apr 2016 14:17:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/8716257/ Chemical modification of graphene oxide (GO) by grafting hydrophobic chains on the surface has drawn much attention nowadays in the academic world, and it was suggested that modified GO could lead to new functionalized materials with specific structure and different properties. In this paper, modified GO (M-GO) were synthesized by chemically grafting alkylamines with varying chain lengths on the graphene oxide surface. Successful grafting of alkylamines was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. In addition, we investigated the properties of M-GO as nanodrag reducer in low permeability reservoir water flooding. Water contact angle (CA) measurements revealed that the hydrophobic nature of GO depended on the chain length of the grafted alkylamines. And flooding experiments showed that the hexadecylamine- and octadecylamine-modified GO had an ability to reduce water injection pressure and improve water-phase permeability of the low permeability reservoirs during water flooding. So the M-GO would have potential applications in oilfield exploitation. Hong Chen, Lin Xiao, Yuan Xu, Xiang Zeng, and Zhong-Bin Ye Copyright © 2016 Hong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of C60/Cu2GeSe3 Composites Tue, 26 Apr 2016 12:55:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5923975/ Nanosized C60 powder was sufficiently incorporated with Cu2GeSe3 powder by ball milling and C60/Cu2GeSe3 composites were prepared by spark plasma sintering. C60 distributed uniformly in the form of clusters and the average size of cluster was lower than 1 μm. With the addition of C60 increasing, the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of C60/Cu2GeSe3 composites increased while the thermal conductivity decreased significantly which resulted from the phonon scattering by C60 clusters locating on the grain boundaries of Cu2GeSe3 matrix. The maximum ZT of 0.20 was achieved at 700 K for 0.9% C60/Cu2GeSe3 sample. Degang Zhao, Jiai Ning, Shuyu Li, and Min Zuo Copyright © 2016 Degang Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Silver Nanoparticle In Situ Synthesis on Porous Sericin Gel for Antibacterial Application Tue, 26 Apr 2016 12:32:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/9505704/ Sericin from Bombyx mori cocoon has good hydrophilicity, reaction activity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, which has shown great potentials for biomedical materials. Here, an ultraviolet light-assisted in situ synthesis approach is developed to immobilize silver nanoparticles on the surface of sericin gel. The amount of silver nanoparticles immobilized on the surface of sericin gel could be regulated by the irradiation time. The porous structure and property of sericin gel were not affected by the modification of AgNPs, as evidenced by the observation of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the modification of AgNPs increased the thermal stability of sericin gel. The growth curve of bacteria and inhibition zone assays suggested that the sericin gel modified with AgNPs had good antimicrobial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This novel sericin has shown a great potential for biomedical purpose. Gang Tao, Lina Liu, Yejing Wang, Huaipu Chang, Ping Zhao, Hua Zuo, and Huawei He Copyright © 2016 Gang Tao et al. All rights reserved. Nanocrystals Growth Control during Laser Annealing of Sn:(α-Si) Composites Tue, 26 Apr 2016 12:30:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7920238/ An efficient technique for low temperature metal-induced nanocrystalline silicon fabrication is presented. The technique is based on laser annealing of thin films of “amorphous silicon-tin” composites combined with in situ control and monitoring with Raman technique. Laser annealing was shown to provide the possibility of fine-tuning the nanocrystals size and concentration, which is important in photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices fabrication. V. Neimash, P. Shepelyavyi, G. Dovbeshko, A. O. Goushcha, M. Isaiev, V. Melnyk, O. Didukh, and A. Kuzmich Copyright © 2016 V. Neimash et al. All rights reserved. Functional Nanomaterials for Sustainable Energy Technologies Tue, 26 Apr 2016 07:42:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2606459/ Jun Chen, Guang Zhu, Weiqing Yang, Jin Yang, Long Lin, and Yaqing Bie Copyright © 2016 Jun Chen et al. All rights reserved. Gold Nanoplates as Cancer-Targeted Photothermal Actuators for Drug Delivery and Triggered Release Sun, 24 Apr 2016 13:55:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2036029/ The selective exposure of cancerous tissue to systemically delivered chemotherapeutic agents remains a major challenge facing cancer therapy. To address this question, a near infrared responsive oligonucleotide-coated (AS1411, hairpin, or both) gold nanoplate loaded with doxorubicin is demonstrated to be nontoxic to cells without triggered release, while being acutely toxic to cells after 5 minutes of laser exposure to trigger DOX release. Conjugation of oligonucleotides to the nanoplates is confirmed by an average increase in hydrodynamic diameter of 30.6 nm, an average blue shift of the plasmon resonance peak by 36 nm, and an average −10 mV shift in zeta potential of the particles. DOX loading through intercalation into the hairpin DNA structure is confirmed through fluorescence measurements. For both GNP-Hairpin and GNP-Hairpin-AS1411, ~60% of loaded DOX is released after the first 5 minutes of laser exposure ( nm), with complete release after two more 5-minute exposures. Preliminary proof of concept is demonstrated in vitro using A549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines as models for breast and lung cancer, respectively. Exposure of cells to untriggered DOX-loaded conjugate with no laser exposure results in little to no toxicity, while laser-triggered release of DOX causes significant cell death. Tyler Brann, Dhruvinkumar Patel, Rajat Chauhan, Kurtis T. James, Paula J. Bates, Mohammad Tariq Malik, Robert S. Keynton, and Martin G. O’Toole Copyright © 2016 Tyler Brann et al. All rights reserved. Effect of TiO2 Photoanode Porosity on Dye Diffusion Kinetics and Performance of Standard Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Sun, 24 Apr 2016 11:22:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/9324858/ Low-cost water-based P25-TiO2 pastes were formulated and used to produce porous TiO2 films in application to the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells. The structural properties of the films were characterized using a variety of techniques such as stylus profilometry, FEG-SEM imaging, BET surface area, and BJH pore size analyses. These were compared to films produced from a commercial paste, DSL 18 NR-AO (Dyesol). The major difference was in the fraction of macroporosity: 23% of the total pore volume for films produced with the commercial material and 67–73% for the P25-TiO2 films owing to the vast difference in dispersion and size distribution of the particles in the two types of pastes. The macroporosity was found to have a dramatic effect on the dye diffusion kinetics measured using in situ UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy. The sensitization of P25-based films was much faster for heavily macroporous P25-TiO2 films (>90% saturation at 15–35 mins) than for their commercial analogue (>90% saturation at 110 mins). DSC devices built with optimized P25-TiO2 photoanodes showed better performance at short dye immersion time (30 mins and 1 hr) due to faster percolation of the dye molecules through the film. Cecile Charbonneau, Theo Tanner, Matthew L. Davies, Trystan M. Watson, and David A. Worsley Copyright © 2016 Cecile Charbonneau et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Morphology, and Optical Properties of Au/CdS Hybrid Nanocomposites Stabilized by Branched Polymer Matrices Thu, 21 Apr 2016 09:19:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/1439437/ Metal/semiconductor (Au/CdS) nanocomposites were synthesized in the solution of branched D-g-PAA polymer. TEM and DLS of Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites revealed complicated nanocomposite structure consisting of the Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 6 nm in size surrounded by small CdS NPs with size of 3 nm. These nanocomposites formed the aggregates-clusters with average size of 50–800 nm. Absorption spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites consist of the bands of excitons in CdS NPs and surface plasmons in Au ones. The surface plasmon band of gold NPs is red shifted and broadened in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites comparing to the one of Au NPs in Au/D-g-PAA proving the fact of close location of CdS and Au NPs in the synthesized Au/CdS/D-g-PAA nanocomposites. The PL spectra of Au/CdS nanocomposites originate from the radiative transitions in excitons in CdS NPs. The 4-fold increase of intensity of free exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA that is due to PL enhancement by local field of surface plasmons of Au NPs. Also, the 12-fold decrease of intensity of localized exciton PL is observed for CdS NPs in Au/CdS/D-g-PAA comparing to CdS ones in CdS/D-g-PAA. Most probably, it is due to passivation of the surface of CdS NPs carried out by the Au ones. V. A. Chumachenko, A. P. Naumenko, O. A. Yeshchenko, N. V. Kutsevol, and I. S. Bondarchuk Copyright © 2016 V. A. Chumachenko et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Larvicidal Potential of Silver Nanoparticles against Culex quinquefasciatus: A Case of a Ubiquitous Weed as a Useful Bioresource Thu, 21 Apr 2016 09:14:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/4363751/ Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Cassia hirsuta aqueous leaf extract were reported in this study. The synthesis was optimized by measuring various parameters such as temperature, time, volume ratio, and concentration. The surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm for 30°C and 420 nm for both 50°C and 70°C measured using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirmed the formation of AgNPs synthesized using C. hirsuta (CAgNPs). The functional groups responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the NPs were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The morphology, size, and elemental composition of the NPs were obtained using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). X-ray diffractometer was used to identify the phases and crystallinity of CAgNPs. Crystalline spherical NPs with average diameter of 6.9 ± 0.1 nm were successfully synthesized. The thermal analysis of CAgNPs was observed from DSC-TGA. The larvicidal results against the different larva instar stage of Culex quinquefasciatus gave LC50 = 4.43 ppm and LC90 = 8.37 ppm. This is the first study on the synthesis of AgNPs using C. hirsuta and its application against lymphatic filariasis vector. Hence, it is suggested that the C. hirsuta synthesized AgNPs would be environmentally benign in biological control of mosquito. Elijah T. Adesuji, Omolara O. Oluwaniyi, Haleemat I. Adegoke, Roshila Moodley, Ayomide H. Labulo, Olusola S. Bodede, and Charles O. Oseghale Copyright © 2016 Elijah T. Adesuji et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of CL-20 Explosive Nanoparticles and Their Thermal Decomposition Property Wed, 20 Apr 2016 12:28:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5462097/ Herein, we develop a novel method for preparing nanohexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (nano-CL-20) via ultrasonic spray-assisted electrostatic adsorption (USEA) technology. Various experimental conditions which influence safety factors and the crystallization process were studied. Meanwhile, the prepared nano-CL-20 particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results show that the obtained nano-CL-20 showed a wide size distribution in the range from 150 to 600 nm with an average of 270 nm. Moreover, their thermal properties were also investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). For nano-CL-20, the exothermal peak is 232.9°C increased by 12°C compared with conventionally manufactured (CM) CL-20, and they exhibit fast energy release efficiency as well as more energy release. The simple and continuous approach presented here is expected to be an attractive potential for fabricating other organic nanoparticles. Dunju Wang, Bing Gao, Guangcheng Yang, Fude Nie, and Hui Huang Copyright © 2016 Dunju Wang et al. All rights reserved. Glycerine Treated Nanofibrillated Cellulose Composites Tue, 19 Apr 2016 14:18:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7851308/ Glycerine treated nanofibrillated cellulose (GNFC) was prepared by mixing aqueous nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) suspensions with glycerine. Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer composites with different loadings of GNFC were prepared by melt compounding followed by injection molding. The incorporation of GNFC increased tensile and flexural modulus of elasticity of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that as GNFC loading increased, the thermal stability of the composites decreased marginally. The incorporation of GNFC into the SMA copolymer matrix resulted in higher elastic modulus () and shear viscosities than the neat SMA copolymer, especially at low frequencies. The orientation of rigid GNFC particles in the composites induced a strong shear thinning behavior with an increase in GNFC loading. The decrease in the slope of elastic modulus with increasing GNFC loading suggested that the microstructural changes of the polymer matrix can be attributed to the incorporation of GNFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of fracture surfaces show areas of GNFC agglomerates in the SMA matrix. Esra Erbas Kiziltas, Alper Kiziltas, Behzad Nazari, Douglas J. Gardner, and Douglas W. Bousfield Copyright © 2016 Esra Erbas Kiziltas et al. All rights reserved. Medicated Nanofibers Fabricated Using NaCl Solutions as Shell Fluids in Modified Coaxial Electrospinning Tue, 19 Apr 2016 07:17:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/8970213/ The present study reports the fabrication of medicated nanofibers for potential colon-targeted drug delivery using modified coaxial electrospinning, in which salt (NaCl) solutions were exploited as shell fluids to facilitate the preparation processes. A homemade concentric spinneret with an indented core capillary was developed to conduct the coaxial processes. Optical observations and scanning electron microscopic results demonstrated that the shell-to-core fluid flow rate ratio was a key parameter, which exerted a significant influence on the electrospinning processes and could be exploited to control the fibers’ morphology and diameters. A scaling law of () was built, by which the nanofibers’ sizes can be predicted and manipulated easily. X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflected FTIR tests verified that the medicated nanofibers were essentially a polymeric nanocomposite and the guest drug diclofenac sodium (DS) had fine compatibility with the host polymer. All the drug was encapsulated in the filament-forming carrier. In vitro dissolution experiments demonstrated that the medicated nanofibers could free the drug in a neutral condition, suggesting potential colon-targeted drug delivery applications. Ex vivo tests demonstrated that the medicated fiber mats could enhance the transmembrane of DS. Based on coaxial electrospinning, a new strategy is successfully developed for creating medicated nanomaterials. Yong-Hui Wu, Chen Yang, Xiao-Yan Li, Jia-Ying Zhu, and Deng-Guang Yu Copyright © 2016 Yong-Hui Wu et al. All rights reserved. Surface Functionality Features of Porous Silicon Prepared and Treated in Different Conditions Tue, 19 Apr 2016 06:05:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2629582/ Hydrophilic layers of porous silicon are prepared by single- or two-step anodization and characterized by evaluating their surface hydrophilicity and contents of functional groups using IR spectroscopy and adsorption of acid-base indicators with different values. The surface functional composition of the synthesized samples is shown to be adjustable depending on the anodization current density. The surface of samples obtained at anodization current density 30 mA/cm2 is predominantly occupied with 2.5 corresponding to ≡Si–OH groups. The increase of current density to 80 mA/cm2 results in the increase of surface functional nonuniformity with the formation of versatile centers, primarily Lewis acidic sites corresponding to Si atoms, as indicated by selective indicator adsorption in agreement with the disappearance of Si–H bonds in IR spectra and overall surface disordering according to SEM and AFM data. Yu. M. Spivak, S. V. Mjakin, V. A. Moshnikov, M. F. Panov, A. O. Belorus, and A. A. Bobkov Copyright © 2016 Yu. M. Spivak et al. All rights reserved. Paramagnetic Nanoparticle-Based Targeting Theranostic Agent for C6 Rat Glioma Cell Mon, 18 Apr 2016 16:35:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7617894/ This study aimed to synthesize theranostic agent targeting C6 rat glioma cell, which was based on the dextran coated paramagnetic gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (D-PGONs) conjugated with folic acid (FA) or paclitaxel (PTX). The D-PGONs were synthesized by the in situ coprecipitation method, and the average value of the size distribution was 2.9 nm. FTIR spectroscopy was fulfilled to confirm the conjugations of FA or PTX with D-PGONs. The bioprotective effects of dextran coating and chemotherapeutic effect of PTX in the C6 glioma cell were evaluated by the MTT assay. The differences in uptakes between the synthesized theranostic agents into C6 cells were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the magnetic contrast enhancement with different concentration of the synthesized agent was compared by the -weighted MRI imaging. It was experimentally shown that the synthesized theranostic agent targets C6 cells due to the ligand-receptor-mediated endocytosis and provides enhancement in MR contrast depending on the concentration due to the paramagnetic property of gadolinium nanoparticle. In addition, it was shown by the results of MTT assay that the synthesized nanocomposites were more effective in reducing cell viability than bare gadolinium nanoparticles. In conclusion, it was shown that FA and PTX conjugated D-PGONs could be used as the theranostic agent with paramagnetism and chemotherapeutic property. Seong-Pyo Hong, Seong Hee Kang, Do Kyung Kim, and Bo Sun Kang Copyright © 2016 Seong-Pyo Hong et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Research on Heat Transfer Characteristics of CuO Nanofluid in Adiabatic Condition Mon, 18 Apr 2016 15:49:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3693249/ The laminar convective heat transfer behavior of CuO nanoparticle dispersions in glycol with the average particle sizes (about 70 nm) was investigated experimentally in a flow loop with constant heat flux. To enhance heat exchange under high temperature condition and get the more accurate data, we try to improve the traditional experimental apparatus which is used to test nanofluid heat transfer characteristics. In the experiment five different nanoparticle concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.80%, 1.20%, and 1.50%) were investigated in a flow loop with constant heat flux. The experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid becomes higher than that of pure fluid at the same Reynolds number and increased with the increasing of the mass fraction of CuO nanoparticles. Results also indicate that at very low volume concentrations nanofluid has no major impact on heat transfer parameters and the pressure of nanofluids increased by the mass fraction increase. Yu Guangbin, Gao Dejun, Chen Juhui, Dai Bing, Liu Di, Song Ye, and Chen Xi Copyright © 2016 Yu Guangbin et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Properties of Platinum Nanoparticles by Pulsed Laser Ablation in Liquid Mon, 18 Apr 2016 12:03:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/9651637/ Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) technique in different liquids (acetone, ethanol, and methanol). Ablation was performed using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with output energy of 230 mJ/pulse for 532 nm wavelength. Ablation time and laser energy fluence were varied for all the liquids. Effects of laser energy fluence, ablation time, and nature of the liquid were reported. The mean size, size distributions, shape, elemental composition, and optical properties of Pt nanoparticles synthesized by PLAL were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Maria Isabel Mendivil Palma, Bindu Krishnan, Guadalupe Alan Castillo Rodriguez, Tushar Kanti Das Roy, David Avellaneda Avellaneda, and Sadasivan Shaji Copyright © 2016 Maria Isabel Mendivil Palma et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and NIR Reflectance of Highly Dispersed NiTiO3 and NiTiO3/TiO2 Composite Pigments Sun, 17 Apr 2016 14:25:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5464978/ The highly dispersed nanostructured NiTiO3 pigments and NiTiO3/TiO2 composite pigments can be synthesized at relative low temperature. The activation energy of crystal growth of NiTiO3 during calcinations via salt-assistant combustion method is 9.35 kJ/mol. The UV-vis spectra results revealed that the absorbance decreased with the increasing of calcinations temperature due to small size effect of nanometer particles. The optical data of NiTiO3 nanocrystals were analyzed at the near-absorption edge. SEM showed that the obtained NiTiO3 nanocrystals and NiTiO3/TiO2 nanocomposite were composed of highly dispersed spherical-like and spherical particles with uniform size distribution, respectively. The chromatic properties and diffuse reflectance of samples were investigated. The obtained NiTiO3/TiO2 composite samples have higher NIR reflectance than NiTiO3 pigments. Yuping Tong, Jing Fu, and Zheng Chen Copyright © 2016 Yuping Tong et al. All rights reserved. Active Multiple Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Graphene Sheets Resonators in Mid-Infrared Frequencies Sun, 17 Apr 2016 13:51:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3678578/ A multiple plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) device operated in the mid-infrared region has been proposed. The designed model is comprised of one graphene ribbon as main waveguide and two narrow graphene sheets resonators. The phase coupling between two graphene resonators has been investigated. The multimode PIT resonances have been found in both cases and can be dynamically tuned via varying the chemical potential of graphene resonators without optimizing its geometric parameters. In addition, this structure can get multiple PIT effect by equipping extra two sheets on the symmetric positions of graphene waveguide. The simulation results based on finite element method (FEM) are in good agreement with the resonance theory. This work may pave new way for graphene-based thermal plasmonic devices applications. Jicheng Wang, Baojie Tang, Xiushan Xia, and Shutian Liu Copyright © 2016 Jicheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Nanomesoporous Catalyst from Modified Red Mud and Its Application for Methane Decomposition to Hydrogen Production Sun, 17 Apr 2016 12:19:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/6947636/ A type of nanomesoporous modified red mud (MRM) catalyst was prepared and utilized for catalytic methane decomposition (CMD) to produce hydrogen. The modification process significantly simplified the mineral composition of the red mud (RM); in the meantime, the physical and chemical structure of RM was changed. TEM images suggested that MRM was a kind of nanomesoporous material assembled by a number of uniformly nanoscale particles, BET results showed that the pore size distributions of MRM were ranged from 3 to 12 nm, and the specific surface area and total pore volumes of red mud improved from 8.00 m2/g and 0.08 cm3/g to 190.61 m2/g and 0.39 cm3/g, respectively. The catalytic performance of the catalysts has been tested at 800°C; the results showed that MRM exhibited much higher activity and stability than RM for CMD. Xiaoke Fang, Quanrun Liu, Peng Li, Haipeng Li, Fenghai Li, and Guangxu Huang Copyright © 2016 Xiaoke Fang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal CZTS Nanocrystals by a Hot-Injection Method Thu, 14 Apr 2016 06:16:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7486094/ The present study reports the synthesis of colloidal Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals (average size ~4–9 nm) by a simple and low cost hot-injection method. These nanocrystals form larger particles with sizes around 40 nm. Oleylamine (OLA) was used as both the solvent and the nanocrystal stabilizer. The effect of the synthesis time on the structural, compositional, morphological, and optical properties was studied. As revealed by XRD, Raman, and TEM measurements all the prepared samples are comprised of both kesterite and wurtzite CZTS nanocrystals. The wurtzite phase contribution reduces as the reaction time is increased. The “bandgap” of the obtained nanoparticles tends to 1.52 eV for the larger synthesis times (24 h) which is suitable for an absorber layer in thin films solar cells. A. Méndez-López, A. Morales-Acevedo, Y. J. Acosta-Silva, and M. Ortega-López Copyright © 2016 A. Méndez-López et al. All rights reserved. Oxidation Prevention Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide Mixed with 1-Octanethiol-Coated Copper Nanopowder Composites Wed, 13 Apr 2016 14:21:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/1050183/ 1-Octanethiol-coated Cu nanoparticles were mixed with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) to fabricate Cu nanoinks with enhanced oxidation prevention. Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized using modified Hummer’s method and rGO was reduced from GO using hydrazine hydrate. Copper nanoinks were fabricated with varying concentrations of rGO (Cu : rGO ratios of 100 : 1, 500 : 1, and 1000 : 1 wt.%). The coating layers on the copper nanoparticles and rGO were observed using transmission electron microscopy and characterized by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that surface roughness increased as the concentration of rGO in Cu patterns increased, and an optimized Cu : rGO weight ratio of 1,000 : 1 was established. After sintering, the electrical properties and corrosion resistance of copper patterns both with and without rGO were measured and monitored for 200 days. The copper pattern with rGO (Cu : rGO = 1,000 : 1) was found to maintain its initial resistivity (1.63 × 10−7 Ω·m) for 150 days. Corrosion tests were conducted to confirm the oxidation prohibition of rGO. The resistance polarization of the copper pattern was measured to be 1.5 times higher than that of the copper pattern without rGO. Thus, rGO was shown to prevent oxidation and improve the conductivity of copper patterns. Danee Cho, Dahyun Choi, Youngjun Pyo, Rajendra C. Pawar, Yongil Kim, Eric H. Yoon, and Caroline Sunyong Lee Copyright © 2016 Danee Cho et al. All rights reserved. Low Energy Consumption Synthesis of Nanostructured TiO2 Particles by Combining Oxidant Peroxide Method and Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Treatment Tue, 12 Apr 2016 16:07:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/4910536/ Titanium dioxide with high specific surface area in the crystalline anatase phase is a promising material for environmental applications. In this work, TiO2 with good applicability for photocatalytic processes has been obtained using the low energy consumption synthesis based on oxidant peroxide method combined with microwave-assisted low temperature hydrothermal treatment. To prepare the material, titanium propoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and isopropyl alcohol were used. The influence of time and temperature during the hydrothermal step on properties like morphology, crystallinity, phase composition, specific surface area, and photocatalytic behavior were investigated. Photoactivity was measured using the methyl orange decomposition method in UV-A light. Increasing temperature during hydrothermal step, photocatalytic properties could be improved. The nanostructured TiO2 particles synthesized at 200°C and 30 min with this method showed photocatalytic activity comparable to commercial Aeroxide® TiO2 P25. A. P. Garcia, I. C. L. Rocha, P. H. F. dos Santos, T. M. Basegio, M. B. Pereira, F. J. Clemens, A. K. Alves, and C. P. Bergmann Copyright © 2016 A. P. Garcia et al. All rights reserved. The Pore Confinement Effect of FDU-12 Mesochannels on MoS2 Active Phases and Their Hydrodesulfurization Performance Tue, 12 Apr 2016 13:59:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5208027/ FDU-12 silica with highly ordered face-centered cubic mesoporous structure is developed as support to prepare Mo/FDU-12 catalysts for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). A series of Mo/FDU-12 catalysts are synthesized by using incipient wetness impregnation method with different MoO3 loadings (6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 wt.%). The objective of this work is to explore the pore confinement effect of FDU-12 mesochannels on the MoS2 morphology with various metal loadings. It is found that, as increasing MoO3 loadings from 6 to 15 wt.%, the MoS2 nanocrystallites transform from monolayer to multilayer and the morphology changes from straight layered to curved and then to ring-like and finally to spherical-like morphology due to the restriction of cage-like pore channels of FDU-12 support. The HDS results show that the catalytic activity increases first and then decreases with the best HDS performance at the MoO3 loading of 10 wt.%. In addition, we compared the HDS activity of Mo catalyst supported on FDU-12 with that on the commercial γ-Al2O3 and SBA-15; the result exhibits that FDU-12 is superior to the other two supports due to its large pore size and ordered three-dimensional open pore channels. Cong Liu, Pei Yuan, and Chunsheng Cui Copyright © 2016 Cong Liu et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Investigation of ALBO-OS Scaffold Based on Hydroxyapatite and PLGA Tue, 12 Apr 2016 13:25:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3948768/ A synthetic bone substitute based on calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), described in this paper, was synthesized to fulfill specific requirements like biodegradability, satisfying mechanical properties, optimal porosity and nanotopology, osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties, and so forth. Structural and morphological properties of the new scaffold were analyzed by micro computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy, while its physicochemical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. In vivo biological investigations of the synthesized scaffold were conducted over the cutaneous irritation and biofunctionality assays on rabbits and the test of acute systemic toxicity on mice. The results showed that the scaffold is not irritant and that it does not exhibit any symptoms of acute toxicity. Biofunctionality assays which include evaluation of the presence of various cells of immune response, the presence of neoangiogenesis, percentage of mineralization of newly formed bone, and fibroplasia in the tissue indicated that the new scaffold is suitable for the application in maxillofacial and dental surgery as a bone substitute. Also, it showed significant advantages over commercial product Geistlich Bio-Oss® from the aspect of some parameters of immunological response. Vukoman Jokanović, Božana Čolović, Dejan Marković, Milan Petrović, Milan Jokanović, Petar Milosavljević, and Jelena Sopta Copyright © 2016 Vukoman Jokanović et al. All rights reserved.