Journal of Nanomaterials http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Analyzing How the ZrO2 Far Infrared Material Affects the Performance of Smooth Tube Heat Exchangers Mon, 27 Apr 2015 14:24:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/124632/ The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 100 nm ZrO2 far infrared material on the heat exchange efficiency of smooth tube heat exchangers. In the experiments designed for this purpose, the ZrO2 powder and water based acrylic paint were mixed separately using a two-step mixing method and the mixture samples were sprayed, respectively, onto heat exchangers for testing their heat exchange efficiency under stable ambient conditions. Results from the experiments showed 31.8% and 21.5% increases in heat transfer in the heat exchanger sprayed with 7.5 wt.% ZrO2 powder and with inlet water temperatures at 45°C and 55°C relative to the heat exchanger sprayed with 0 wt.% acrylic paint and 26.4% and 18.9% increases in heat transfer relative to the heat exchanger not sprayed with acrylic paint. The experiments also verified that heat could be transferred through radiation. The additive ZrO2 nanopowder in these experiments is proven to be able to improve the efficiency of heat exchangers through radiation, thereby increasing the feasibility of its application in practice. T. Y. Chen, H. P. Cho, C. S. Jwo, M. H. Hung, and W. S. Lee Copyright © 2015 T. Y. Chen et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Nano-TiO2 Codoped with Iron III and Lanthanum III Mon, 27 Apr 2015 12:50:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/869821/ Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) was modified via metal doping to improve its photocatalytic activity and utilization of visible light. Nano-TiO2 doped with iron III (Fe3+) only, lanthanum III (La3+) only, and both Fe3+/La3+ was prepared using the sol-gel method. The photocatalytic activities of the three forms of doped nano-TiO2 were evaluated. Metal codoping limited crystal growth of crystal, and the sol-gel method was shown to be an effective technique for doping the lattice of TiO2 with Fe3+ and La3+. Codoping of nano-TiO2 with the tombarthite metal mixture had a synergistic effect of the photocatalytic performance, with the codoped nano-TiO2 exhibiting a performance greater than the sum of those of the single-doped nano-TiO2 samples. Kinetic studies showed that the photodegradation reaction of methyl orange by nano-TiO2 follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood first order mechanism. Wei Guan, Fangying Ji, Zhigang Xie, Rongan Li, and Nan Mei Copyright © 2015 Wei Guan et al. All rights reserved. Measuring the Electrical Properties of MWNT-PA6 Reinforced Nanocomposites Mon, 27 Apr 2015 12:49:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/514501/ The paper studies the electrical properties of polyamide 6- (PA6-) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanowebs, obtained through electrospinning. Three different treatments (chemical, mechanical, and mixed) were applied to the CNT in order to prepare the electrospinning solutions. For each treatment, the CNT content was different: 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%. The electrical volume and surface conductivity of the obtained samples were studied by measuring their electrical volume and surface resistance. Homemade plate electrodes were used. The samples were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). Defects were found on the extremities: solvent traces, flat fibers, and beads. The mixed treatment seems too aggressive and it is not recommended. The AFM analysis gave values for roughness and profile height (Ra and Rz): extreme values were obtained for the chemically and mechanically treated samples. Next, a pristine PA6 sample was used to compare the influence of the CNT content on the electric behavior of the samples. By increasing the pressure on the specimens, the volume resistivity decreased exponentially, while the surface resistivity showed no significant changes, independently of the CNT content. The obtained behavior proves a great potential of the MWNT-PA6 reinforced nanocomposites for sensor applications. Monica Alina Călin, Liliana Rozemarie Manea, Laurence Schacher, Dominique Adolphe, Ana Lăcrămioara Leon, Georgeta Lidia Potop, and Maricel Agop Copyright © 2015 Monica Alina Călin et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate/Montmorillonite Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning Mon, 27 Apr 2015 11:45:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/275230/ Nanofibers composed of cellulose acetate (CA) and montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared by electrospinning method. MMT was first dispersed in water and mixed with an acetic acid solution of CA. The viscosity and conductivity of the CA/MMT solutions with different MMT contents were measured to compare with those of the CA solution. The CA/MMT solutions were electrospun to fabricate the CA/MMT composite nanofibers. The morphology, thermal stability, and crystalline and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and tensile test. The average diameters of the CA/MMT composite nanofibers obtained by electrospinning 18 wt% CA/MMT solutions in a mixed acetic acid/water (75/25, w/w) solvent ranged from 150~350 nm. The nanofiber diameter decreased with increasing MMT content. TEM indicated the coexistence of CA nanofibers. The CA/MMT composite nanofibers showed improved tensile strength compared to the CA nanofiber due to the physical protective barriers of the silicate clay layers. MMT could be incorporated into the CA nanofibers resulting in about 400% improvement in tensile strength for the CA sample containing 5 wt% MMT. Se Wook Kim, Seong Ok Han, I Na Sim, Ja Young Cheon, and Won Ho Park Copyright © 2015 Se Wook Kim et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Salts on Electrospinning of Aqueous and Nonaqueous Polymer Solutions Mon, 27 Apr 2015 11:30:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/134251/ A roller electrospinning system was used to produce nanofibres by using different solution systems. Although the process of electrospinning has been known for over half a century, knowledge about spinning behaviour is still lacking. In this work, we investigated the effects of salt for two solution systems on spinning performance, fibre diameter, and web structure. Polyurethane (PU) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were used as polymer, and tetraethylammonium bromide and lithium chloride were used as salt. Both polymer and salt concentrations had a noteworthy influence on the spinning performance, morphology, and diameter of the nanofibres. Results indicated that adding salt increased the spinnability of PU. Salt created complex bonding with dimethylformamide solvent and PU polymer. Salt added to PEO solution decreased the spinning performance of fibres while creating thin nanofibres, as explained by the leaky dielectric model. Fatma Yalcinkaya, Baturalp Yalcinkaya, and Oldrich Jirsak Copyright © 2015 Fatma Yalcinkaya et al. All rights reserved. Solution-Grown Zn/Al Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets onto Al Thin Films: Fine Control of Position and Lateral Thickness Mon, 27 Apr 2015 07:50:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/809486/ We have grown nanostructured films of Zn/Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) on different substrates by combining the deposition of an aluminum micropatterned thin layer with a successive one-step room-temperature wet-chemistry process. The resulting LDH film is made of lamellar-like nanoplatelets mainly oriented perpendicular to the substrate. Since the aluminum layer acts as both reactant and seed for the synthesis of the LDH, the growth can be easily confined with submicrometric-level resolution (about ±0.5 μm) by prepatterning the aluminum layer with conventional photolithographic techniques. Moreover, we demonstrate real-time monitoring of the LDH growth process by simply measuring the resistance of the residual aluminum film. If the aluminum layer is thinner than 250 nm, the morphology of LDH nanoplatelets is less regular and their final thickness linearly depends on the initial amount of aluminum. This peculiarity allows accurately controlling the LDH nanoplatelet thickness (with uncertainty of about ±10%) by varying the thickness of the predeposited aluminum film. Since the proposed growth procedure is fully compatible with MEMS/CMOS technology, our results may be useful for the fabrication of micro-/nanodevices. D. Scarpellini, C. Leonardi, A. Mattoccia, L. Di Giamberardino, P. G. Medaglia, G. Mantini, F. Gatta, E. Giovine, V. Foglietti, C. Falconi, A. Orsini, and R. Pizzoferrato Copyright © 2015 D. Scarpellini et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Dynamics Study on the Effect of Temperature on the Tensile Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Ni-Coating Mon, 27 Apr 2015 07:17:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/767182/ The effect of temperature on the tensile behavior of the armchair (6, 6) single-walled carbon nanotubes with a Ni-coating (SWCNT-Ni) was investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The mechanical properties of SWCNT-Ni and SWCNT were calculated and analyzed at different temperatures in the range from 220 K to 1200 K. From the MD results, temperature was determined to be the crucial factor affecting the mechanical properties of SWCNT-Ni and SWCNT. After coating nickel atoms onto the surface of a SWCNT, the Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and tensile failure strain of SWCNT were greatly reduced with temperature rising, indicating that the nickel atoms on the surface of SWCNT degrade its mechanical properties. However, at high temperature, the Young’s modulus of both the SWCNT and the SWCNT-Ni exhibited significantly greater temperature sensitivity than at low temperatures, as the mechanical properties of SWCNT-Ni were primarily dominated by temperature and C-Ni interactions. During these stretching processes at different temperatures, the nickel atoms on the surface of SWCNT-Ni could obtain the amount of energy sufficient to break the C-C bonds as the temperature increases. Fulong Zhu, Hengyou Liao, Kai Tang, Youkai Chen, and Sheng Liu Copyright © 2015 Fulong Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement in Mode II Interlaminar Fracture Toughness at Cryogenic Temperature of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Composites through Matrix Modification by Carbon Nanotubes and n-Butyl Glycidyl Ether Mon, 27 Apr 2015 07:14:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/812061/ A typical diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-F (DGEBF)/diethyl toluene diamine (DETD) epoxy system modified by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a reactive aliphatic diluent named n-butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) was used as the matrix for glass fiber composites. The glass fiber (GF) reinforced composites based on the unmodified and modified epoxy matrices were prepared by the hand lay-up hot-press process. Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness at both room temperature (RT) and cryogenic temperature (77 K) of the GF reinforced epoxy composites was investigated to examine the effect of the matrix modification. The result showed that the introduction of MWCNTs and BGE at their previously reported optimal contents led to the remarkable enhancement in mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of the composites. Namely, the 22.9% enhancement at RT and the 31.4% enhancement at 77 K were observed for mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of the fiber composite based on the optimally modified epoxy matrix by MWCNTs and BGE compared to the unmodified case. Yu Liu, Cheng-Bing Qu, Qing-Ping Feng, Hong-Mei Xiao, and Shao-Yun Fu Copyright © 2015 Yu Liu et al. All rights reserved. Atomic Structure and Energy Distribution of Collapsed Carbon Nanotubes of Different Chiralities Mon, 27 Apr 2015 06:50:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/186231/ For carbon nanotubes of sufficiently large diameter at sufficiently low temperature, due to the action of the van der Waals forces, the ground state is a bilayer graphene with closed edges, the so-called collapsed configuration. Molecular dynamics simulation of collapsed carbon nanotubes is performed. The effect of length, diameter, and chirality of the nanotubes on their properties is investigated. It is shown that collapsed nanotubes after relaxation have rippled structure which is strongly dependent on the nanotube chirality. The structural properties are studied by calculating the radial distribution function and energy distribution along various regions in the collapsed carbon nanotubes. Julia A. Baimova, Qin Fan, Liangcai Zeng, Zhigang Wang, Sergey V. Dmitriev, Xiqiao Feng, and Kun Zhou Copyright © 2015 Julia A. Baimova et al. All rights reserved. Micromechanical Behavior of Single-Crystal Superalloy with Different Crystal Orientations by Microindentation Mon, 27 Apr 2015 06:47:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/759753/ In order to investigate the anisotropic micromechanical properties of single-crystal nickel-based superalloy DD99 of four crystallographic orientations, (001), (215), (405), and (605), microindentation test (MIT) was conducted with different loads and loading velocities by a sharp Berkovich indenter. Some material parameters reflecting the micromechanical behavior of DD99, such as microhardness , Young’s modulus , yield stress , strain hardening component , and tensile strength , can be obtained from load-displacement relations. and of four different crystal planes evidently decrease with the increase of . The reduction of is due to dislocation hardening while is related to interplanar spacing and crystal variable. of (215) is the largest among four crystal planes, followed by (605), and (001) has the lowest value. of (215) is the lowest, followed by (605), and that of (001) is the largest. Subsequently, a simplified elastic-plastic material model was employed for 3D microindentation simulation of DD99 with various crystal orientations. The simulation results agreed well with experimental, which confirmed the accuracy of the simplified material model. Jinghui Li, Fuguo Li, Junzhe Dong, Zhanwei Yuan, and Shuo Zhang Copyright © 2015 Jinghui Li et al. All rights reserved. Mechanisms of Hydrogen Transport in Flexible-Wall Narrow Carbon Nanotubes Thu, 23 Apr 2015 14:29:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/959402/ Understanding the interaction between hydrogen and carbon nanotubes is crucial to enhancing the performance of hydrogen storage and nanofluidic carbon-adsorbent systems. Accordingly, this study performs a series of molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the transport properties of hydrogen molecules confined within a flexible narrow carbon nanotube. The tube’s diameter is 10.8 Å at temperatures in the range of 100~800 K. The particle loadings inside carbon nanotubes are ranging from 0.01∼1 No/Å. The results show that the hydrogen molecules exhibit three distinct diffusion regimes, namely, single-file, Fickian, and ballistic, depending on the value of the Knudsen number. In addition, it is shown that with the Knudsen number of less than 1, the tube-wall long wavelength acoustic phonons induced Rayleigh traveling wave prompts a longitudinal wave slip and compression-expansion of the hydrogen molecule crowds within the CNT, which leads to a significant increase in the mean square displacement of the molecules. Bin-Hao Chen, Chieh Kung, and I-Peng Chu Copyright © 2015 Bin-Hao Chen et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of Novel Electrospinnable PBT/POSS Hybrid Systems Starting from c-PBT Thu, 23 Apr 2015 13:42:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/101674/ Novel hybrid systems based on poly(butyleneterephthalate) (PBT) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) have been prepared by applying the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic poly(butyleneterephthalate) oligomers. Two types of POSS have been used: one characterized by hydroxyl functionalities (named POSS-OH) and another without specific reactive groups (named oib-POSS). It was demonstrated that POSS-OH acts as an initiator for the polymerization reaction, leading to the direct insertion of the silsesquioxane into the polymer backbone. Among the possible applications of the PBT/POSS hybrid system, the possibility to obtain nanofibers has been assessed in this work. Lorenza Gardella, Alberto Fina, and Orietta Monticelli Copyright © 2015 Lorenza Gardella et al. All rights reserved. Temperature Dependent Variations of Phonon Interactions in Nanocrystalline Cerium Oxide Thu, 23 Apr 2015 12:56:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/492967/ The temperature dependent anharmonic behavior of the phonon modes of nanocrystalline CeO2 was investigated in the temperature range of 80–440 K. The anharmonic constants have been derived from the shift in phonon modes fitted to account for the anharmonic contributions as well as the thermal expansion contribution using the high pressure parameters derived from our own high pressure experimental data reported previously. The total anharmonicity has also been estimated from the true anharmonicity as well as quasiharmonic component. In the line-width variation analysis, the cubic anharmonic term was found to dominate the quartic term. Finally, the phonon lifetime also reflected the trend so observed. Sugandha Dogra Pandey, Jasveer Singh, K. Samanta, Nita Dilawar Sharma, and A. K. Bandyopadhyay Copyright © 2015 Sugandha Dogra Pandey et al. All rights reserved. Dioscorea bulbifera Mediated Synthesis of Novel AucoreAgshell Nanoparticles with Potent Antibiofilm and Antileishmanial Activity Wed, 22 Apr 2015 14:27:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/562938/ Dioscorea bulbifera is a potent medicinal plant used in both Indian and Chinese traditional medicine owing to its rich phytochemical diversity. Herein, we report the rapid synthesis of novel nanoparticles by D. bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). NPs synthesis was completed within 5 h showing a prominent peak at 540 nm. HRTEM analysis revealed 9 nm inner core of elemental gold covered by a silver shell giving a total particle diameter upto 15 nm. NPs were comprised of % gold and % silver of the total mass. NPs showed highest biofilm inhibition upto % against A. baumannii. Biofilms of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus were inhibited up to %, %, and %, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed unregulated cellular efflux through pore formation leading to cell death. Potent antileishmanial activity of NPs ( µg/mL) was confirmed by MTT assay. Further SEM micrographs showed pronounced deformity in the spindle shaped cellular morphology changing to spherical. This is the first report of synthesis, characterization, antibiofilm, and antileishmanial activity of NPs synthesized by D. bulbifera. Sougata Ghosh, Soham Jagtap, Piyush More, Usha J. Shete, Neeraj O. Maheshwari, Shilpa J. Rao, Rohini Kitture, Sangeeta Kale, Jayesh Bellare, Shivprasad Patil, Jayanta K. Pal, and Balu A. Chopade Copyright © 2015 Sougata Ghosh et al. All rights reserved. Investigation on Nano-Self-Lubricant Coating Synthesized by Laser Cladding and Ion Sulfurization Wed, 22 Apr 2015 09:52:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/814038/ The composite processing between laser cladding and low temperature (300°C) ion sulfurization was applied to prepare wear resistant and self-lubricating coating. The microstructure, morphology, phase composition, valence states, and wear resistance of the composite coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), and friction and wear apparatus. The results indicate that the laser cladding Ni-based coatings and the maximum hardness of 46.5 HRC were obtained when the percent of pure W powder was 10%, composed of columnar dendrites crystals and ultrafine dendritic structure. After ion sulfurization at 300°C for 4 h, the loose and porous composite coating is formed with nanograins and the granularity of all grains is less than 100 nm, which consists of γ-(Fe, Ni), M23C6 carbides, FeS, FeS2, and WS2. Furthermore, the wear resistance of the composite coating is better than the laser cladding Ni55 + 10%W coating, and the friction coefficient and mass losses under the conditions of dry and oil lubrication are lower than those of laser cladding Ni55 + 10%W coating. Meiyan Li, Bin Han, Conghua Qi, Yong Wang, and Lixin Song Copyright © 2015 Meiyan Li et al. All rights reserved. Fibers and Conductive Films Using Silver Nanoparticles and Nanowires by Near-Field Electrospinning Process Wed, 22 Apr 2015 09:06:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/494052/ The silver nanowires (AgNWs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized. With near-field electrospinning (NFES) process, fibers and thin films with AgNPs and AgNWs were fabricated. In the NFES process, 10 k voltage was applied and the AgNPs and AgNWs fibers can be directly orderly collected without breaking and bending. Then, the characteristics of the fibers were analyzed by four-point probe and EDS. The conductive film was analyzed. When the thickness of films with AgNWs and AgNPs was 1.6 µm, the sheet resistance of films was 0.032 Ω/sq which was superior to that of the commercial ITO. The transmissivity of films was analyzed. The transmissivity was inversely proportional to sheet resistance of the films. In the future, the fibers and films can be used as transparent conductive electrodes. Cheng-Tang Pan, Tsung-Lin Yang, Yi-Chian Chen, Cherng-Yuh Su, Shin-Pon Ju, Kun-Hao Hung, I-Chou Wu, Ci-Chang Hsieh, and Sheng-Chih Shen Copyright © 2015 Cheng-Tang Pan et al. All rights reserved. High Performance Electrocatalysts Based on Pt Nanoarchitecture for Fuel Cell Applications Tue, 21 Apr 2015 13:09:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/273720/ Fuel cells, converting chemical energy from fuels into electricity directly without the need for combustion, are promising energy conversion devices for their potential applications as environmentally friendly, energy efficient power sources. However, to take fuel cell technology forward towards commercialization, we need to achieve further improvements in electrocatalyst technology, which can play an extremely important role in essentially determining cost-effectiveness, performance, and durability. In particular, platinum- (Pt-) based electrocatalyst approaches have been extensively investigated and actively pursued to meet those demands as an ideal fuel cell catalyst due to their most outstanding activity for both cathode oxygen reduction reactions and anode fuel oxidation reactions. In this review, we will address important issues and recent progress in the development of Pt-based catalysts, their synthesis, and characterization. We will also review snapshots of research that are focused on essential dynamics aspects of electrocatalytic reactions, such as the shape effects on the catalytic activity of Pt-based nanostructures, the relationships between structural morphology of Pt-based nanostructures and electrochemical reactions on both cathode and anode electrodes, and the effects of composition and electronic structure of Pt-based catalysts on electrochemical reaction properties of fuel cells. Young-Woo Lee, SeungNam Cha, Kyung-Won Park, Jung Inn Sohn, and Jong Min Kim Copyright © 2015 Young-Woo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Palladium-Gold Nanoalloy Surface Modified LiMn2O4 Cathode for Enhanced Li-Ion Battery Mon, 20 Apr 2015 12:55:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/613124/ Au with Pd nanoparticles were synthesized and coated onto the spinel LiMn2O4 via a coprecipitation calcination method with the objective to improve the microstructure, conductivity, and electrochemical activities of pristine LiMn2O4. The novel composite cathode had high phase purity, well crystallized particles, and more regular morphological structures with narrow size distributions. At enlarged cycling potential ranges the sample delivered 90 mAh g−1 discharge capacity compared to LiMn2O4 (45 mAh g−1). It was concluded that even a small amount of the Pd and Au enhanced both the lithium diffusivity and electrochemical conductivity of the host sample due to the beneficial properties of their synergy. Natasha Ross, Myra Nzaba, Wonderboy Ntuthuko, Chinwe Ikpo, Priscilla Baker, and Emmanuel Iwuoha Copyright © 2015 Natasha Ross et al. All rights reserved. Design and Performance Analysis of 1-Bit FinFET Full Adder Cells for Subthreshold Region at 16 nm Process Technology Mon, 20 Apr 2015 12:12:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/726175/ The scaling process of the conventional 2D-planar metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is now approaching its limit as technology has reached below 20 nm process technology. A new nonplanar device architecture called FinFET was invented to overcome the problem by allowing transistors to be scaled down into sub-20 nm region. In this work, the FinFET structure is implemented in 1-bit full adder transistors to investigate its performance and energy efficiency in the subthreshold region for cell designs of Complementary MOS (CMOS), Complementary Pass-Transistor Logic (CPL), Transmission Gate (TG), and Hybrid CMOS (HCMOS). The performance of 1-bit FinFET-based full adder in 16-nm technology is benchmarked against conventional MOSFET-based full adder. The Predictive Technology Model (PTM) and Berkeley Shortchannel IGFET Model-Common Multi-Gate (BSIM-CMG) 16 nm low power libraries are used. Propagation delay, average power dissipation, power-delay-product (PDP), and energy-delay-product (EDP) are analysed based on all four types of full adder cell designs of both FETs. The 1-bit FinFET-based full adder shows a great reduction in all four metric performances. A reduction in propagation delay, PDP, and EDP is evident in the 1-bit FinFET-based full adder of CPL, giving the best overall performance due to its high-speed performance and good current driving capabilities. ‘Aqilah binti Abdul Tahrim, Huei Chaeng Chin, Cheng Siong Lim, and Michael Loong Peng Tan Copyright © 2015 ‘Aqilah binti Abdul Tahrim et al. All rights reserved. The Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Porous Anodic 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy Oxide Film Sun, 19 Apr 2015 09:48:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/371405/ The properties of the growth of the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy oxide were studied using sulfuric acid anodization. The parameters for the manufacturing process include electrolyte categories, electrolyte concentration, and operating voltages. The results showed that the aluminum oxides obtained by anodization process are mainly amorphous structure and the anodic current density is an important factor affecting the rate of response for oxygen and aluminum ions in barrier. In this experiment, polish process is very important to stable the anodic aluminum oxide film and then it will get the better properties of anodic film. Besides, when using sulfuric acid as the electrolyte, the increase of anodic voltage also increases the rate of reaction which increases the mechanical and electrical properties of anodic oxide film, but too large applied anodic voltage will reduce the mechanical and electrical properties of film because of the crack of the anodic oxide film. Tsung-Chieh Cheng and Chu-Chiang Chou Copyright © 2015 Tsung-Chieh Cheng and Chu-Chiang Chou. All rights reserved. Nanomaterial Synthesis, Characterization, and Application Thu, 16 Apr 2015 14:11:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/892542/ Mahmood Ghoranneviss, Ajay Soni, Alireza Talebitaher, and Necdet Aslan Copyright © 2015 Mahmood Ghoranneviss et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Interfacial Transition Zone Properties on the Elastic Properties of Cementitious Nanocomposite Materials Thu, 16 Apr 2015 09:54:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/258384/ A parametric study was conducted to explore the effect of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ or interphase) on the overall elastic modulus of the CNT-reinforced cement. The effect of the ITZ properties on the elastic modulus of the CNT-reinforced cement was investigated using a four-phase axisymmetric model consisting of a single CNT aligned at the center of composite unit cell, an interface, an ITZ (or interphase), and a cement matrix. The CNT and cement matrix were assumed fully elastic while the interface was modeled using a cohesive surface framework. The width and mechanical properties of the ITZ and the interface were found to affect significantly the elastic modulus and the behavior of the composite material. Ala G. Abu Taqa, Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub, Ahmed Senouci, Nasser Al-Nuaimi, and Khaldoon A. Bani-Hani Copyright © 2015 Ala G. Abu Taqa et al. All rights reserved. Preparation, Characterization, and Dissolution Rate In Vitro Evaluation of Total Panax Notoginsenoside Nanoparticles, Typical Multicomponent Extracts from Traditional Chinese Medicine, Using Supercritical Antisolvent Process Tue, 14 Apr 2015 14:27:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/439540/ Total Panax notoginsenosides nanoparticles, typical multicomponent extracts from traditional Chinese medicine, were prepared with a supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process using ethanol as solvent and carbon dioxide as antisolvent. The optimum conditions were determined to be as follows: TPNS solution concentration of 2.5 mg/mL, TPNS solution flow rate of 6.6 mL/min, precipitation temperature of 40°C, and precipitation pressure of 20 MPa. Under the optimum conditions, TPNS nanoparticles with a MPS of 141.5 ± 18.2 nm and total saponins amounts (TSA) of 78.9% were obtained. The TPNS nanoparticles obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeters (DSC), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the chemical and crystal structure of the obtained TPNS nanoparticles has not changed. Dissolution in vitro studies showed that the solubility and dissolution rate of notoginsenosides R1 and ginsenoside Rb1 in TPNS nanoparticles are higher than these in raw TPNS, with no obvious difference in Rg1. These results suggest that TPNS nanoparticles can be helpful to the improvement of its bioavailability for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Ying Zhang, Xiuhua Zhao, Wengang Li, Yuangang Zu, Yong Li, and Kunlun Wang Copyright © 2015 Ying Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Formation and Photocatalytic Activity of BaTiO3 Nanocubes via Hydrothermal Process Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:58:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/692182/ We reported a facile hydrothermal approach to synthesize BaTiO3 nanocubes with controlled sizes for degradation of methylene blue (MB). The nanocubes with reaction time of 48 hours exhibited the highest photocatalytic efficiency, owing to their narrower size distribution and better crystallinity compared to those of 24 hours and, at the meantime, smaller particle size than those of 72 hours. This work also demonstrated the degradation of methylene orange (MO) using BaTiO3 nanocubes synthesized for 48 hours. Compared with the removal of MB, BaTiO3 had lower photocatalytic activity on MO, mainly due to the poorer absorption behavior of MO on the surface of BaTiO3 nanocubes. The degradation efficiency for each photocatalytic reaction was calculated. The possible mechanism of the photocatalytic decomposition on MB has been addressed as well. Xinrun Xiong, Ruoming Tian, Xi Lin, Dewei Chu, and Sean Li Copyright © 2015 Xinrun Xiong et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Power Efficiency and Stability of P3HT-Based Organic Solar Cells under Elevated Operating-Temperatures by Using a Nanocomposite Photoactive Layer Tue, 14 Apr 2015 08:41:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/463565/ With the aim to find out an enhanced operating-temperature range for photovoltaic device parameters, two types of the photoactive layer were prepared: poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and P3HT+nc-TiO2 (PTC) thin films. The enhancement obtained for the photoelectrical conversion efficiency of the composite based OSCs is attributed to the presence of nanoheterojunctions of TiO2/P3HT. For the temperature range of 30–70°C, the decrease of the open-circuit potential was compensated by an increase of the fill factor; and the increase in the short-circuit current resulted in an overall increase of the energy conversion efficiency. At elevated temperatures of 60–80°C the efficiency of the P3HT- and PTC-based cells reached a maximum value of 1.6% and 2.1%, respectively. Over this temperature range the efficiency of P3HT-based OSC decreased strongly to zero, whereas for the PTC cells it maintained a value as large as 1.2% at the temperature range of 110–140°C. The improved thermal stability of the composite-based device was attributed to the lowered thermal expansion coefficient of the nanocomposite photoactive layer. Tran Thi Thao, Tran Quang Trung, Vo-Van Truong, and Nguyen Nang Dinh Copyright © 2015 Tran Thi Thao et al. All rights reserved. Ferroelectric Polymer Thin Films for Organic Electronics Sun, 12 Apr 2015 09:00:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/812538/ The considerable investigations of ferroelectric polymer thin films have explored new functional devices for flexible electronics industry. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymer with trifluoroethylene (TrFE) are the most commonly used polymer ferroelectric due to their well-defined ferroelectric properties and ease of fabrication into thin films. In this study, we review the recent advances of thin ferroelectric polymer films for organic electronic applications. Initially the properties of ferroelectric polymer and fabrication methods of thin films are briefly described. Then the theoretical polarization switching models for ferroelectric polymer films are summarized and the switching mechanisms are discussed. Lastly the emerging ferroelectric devices based on P(VDF-TrFE) films are addressed. Conclusions are drawn regarding future work on materials and devices. Manfang Mai, Shanming Ke, Peng Lin, and Xierong Zeng Copyright © 2015 Manfang Mai et al. All rights reserved. Effect of MXene (Nano-Ti3C2) on Early-Age Hydration of Cement Paste Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:11:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/430578/ As a new two-dimensional material, MXene (nano-Ti3C2) has been widely applied in many fields, especially for reinforced composite materials. In this paper, mechanical testing, X-ray diffraction (XRD), hydration heat, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and EDS analysis were used to analyze the impact of MXene on cement hydration properties. The obtained results revealed that (a) MXene could greatly improve the early compressive strength of cement paste with 0.04 wt% concentration, (b) the phase type of early-age hydration products has not been changed after the addition of MXene, (c) hydration exothermic rate within 72 h has small difference at different amount of MXene, and (d) morphologies of hydration products were varied with the dosage of MXene, a lot of tufted ettringites appeared in 3 d hydration products when the content of MXene was 0.04 wt%, which will have a positive effect on improving the early mechanical properties of cement paste. MXene has inhibited the Portland cement hydration process; the main role of MXene in the cement hydration process is to promote the messy ettringite becoming regular distribution at a node and form network connection structure in the crystals growth process, making the mechanics performance of cement paste significantly improved. Haibin Yin, Jianping Zhu, Xuemao Guan, Zhengpeng Yang, Yu Zhu, Hongyi Zhao, Zhanying Zhang, Aiguo Zhou, Xing Zhang, Chunhua Feng, and Dongxu Li Copyright © 2015 Haibin Yin et al. All rights reserved. Induction of Heat Shock Protein-72 by Magnetic Nanofluid Hyperthermia in Cultured Retinal Ganglion Cells for Neuroprotective Treatment in Glaucoma Wed, 08 Apr 2015 14:57:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/142387/ Background. Magnetic hyperthermia using superparamagnetic nanoparticle (SPNP) agents is considered a promising biotechnological approach to induce heat shock proteins (HSPs) in a target tissue because it can generate accurately controllable localized heating. Objectives. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate induction of HSPs in cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by using engineered Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 SPNP agents coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 500. Methods. The Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized using a high temperature thermal decomposition method. The AC heating characteristics of PEG 500-coated Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated using an AC solenoid coil-capacitor system. Results. PEG 500-coated SPNPs efficiently penetrated into the cytoplasm of RGCs without causing obvious cytological changes and showed stable and well-saturated self-heating temperature rise characteristics. Immunofluorescent staining images showed that AC magnetic hyperthermia successfully induced HSP72 in RGCs incubated with Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles. In Western blot analysis, a significant increase in immunoreactivity was observed for RGCs incubated with SPNPs in a fixed AC magnetic field ( kHz and  Oe). Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that the induction of HSP72 with a magnetic nanofluid hyperthermia could potentially be used as a neuroprotective treatment modality by way of enhancing a natural cytoprotective response. Jin Wook Jeoung, Minhong Jeun, Joo Hyun Park, Yu Jeong Kim, Seongtae Bae, and Ki Ho Park Copyright © 2015 Jin Wook Jeoung et al. All rights reserved. Catalytic Reductive Degradation of Methyl Orange Using Air Resilient Copper Nanostructures Wed, 08 Apr 2015 09:23:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/136164/ The study describes the application of oxidation resistant copper nanostructures as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the treatment of organic dye containing waste waters. Copper nanostructures were synthesized in an aqueous environment using modified surfactant assisted chemical reduction route. The synthesized nanostructures have been characterized by UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). These surfactant capped Cu nanostructures have been used as a heterogeneous catalyst for the comparative reductive degradation of methyl orange (MO) in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) used as a potential reductant. Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) were found to be more efficient compared to copper nanorods (Cu NRds) with the degradation reaction obeying pseudofirst order reaction kinetics. Shape dependent catalytic efficiency was further evaluated from activation energy () of reductive degradation reaction. The more efficient Cu NPs were further employed for reductive degradation of real waste water samples containing dyes collected from the drain of different local textile industries situated in Hyderabad region, Pakistan. Razium Ali Soomro, Ayman Nafady, Sirajuddin, Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Nazar Hussain Kalwar, Mohammad Raza Shah, and Keith Richard Hallam Copyright © 2015 Razium Ali Soomro et al. All rights reserved. Lipoamino Acid Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Concentration and Time Dependently Enhanced Growth of Human Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line (Hep-G2) Wed, 08 Apr 2015 09:00:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/451405/ Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have been widely used in medicine for magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermia, and drug delivery applications. The effect of SPION on animal cells has been a controversial issue on which there are many contradictions. This study focused on preparation of SPION with novel biocompatible coatings, their characterization, and cytotoxicity evaluation. An amino acid (glycine) and two novel lipo-amino acids (2 amino-hexanoic acid and 2 amino-hexadecanoic acid) coated magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by various physicochemical means such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The cytotoxicity profile of the synthesized nanoparticles on Hep-G2 cells as measured by MTT assay showed the nanoparticles are nontoxic and the cell growth is promoted by SPION. Moreover, lipoamino acid coating SPION appear more beneficial than the other ones. By increasing concentration of SPION, growth enhancing impact will attenuate and toxicity will appear. Although the aggregation of SPION can affect the results, the gradual delivery of ferric/ferrous ions into cells is the main cause of this growth promotion effect. Conclusively, this study shows that lipoamino acid coating SPION can be used for various biomedical purposes. Ahmad Gholami, Sara Rasoul-amini, Alireza Ebrahiminezhad, Seyed Hassan Seradj, and Younes Ghasemi Copyright © 2015 Ahmad Gholami et al. All rights reserved.