Table 2: Distribution of Independent Variables and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality ( 𝑛 = 1 3 1 1 5 ).

Independent variablesNo CVD mortalityCVD mortality
frequency (%)frequency (%)

Percentage of population88.2%11.8
Race
 White84.5%15.5%
 African american90.7%9.3%
 Hispanic & other92.9%7.1
Gender
 Male87.1%12.9%
 Female89.1%10.9
Age (years)
< 6497.2%2.8%
 ≥6574.7%25.3
Poverty/income ratio
< 184.9%15.1%
 ≥190.0%10.0
Smoking status
 Never smoked88.0%12.0%
 Ever-smoker (currently nonsmoker)85.6%14.4%
 Current smoker92.0%8.0
History of CVD (stroke, MI & congestive heart failure)
 No91.3%8.7%
 Yes67.0%33.0
Metabolic syndrome (meet at criteria for 3 or ATP III criteria)
 No88.2%11.8%
 Yes88.2%11.8
Renal dysfunction (eGFR in mL/min/1.73 m 2 and proteinuria)
 0–5995.3%33.7%
 60–89 or eGFR ≥90 with proteinuria89.8%11.7%
 ≥90 with no proteinuria61.9%4.5
Renal dysfunction & metabolic syndrome
 No metabolic syndrome and no renal dysfunction96.3%3.7%
 No metabolic syndrome and early renal dysfunction89.8%10.2%
 No metabolic syndrome and late renal dysfunction61.9%38.1%
 Metabolic syndrome and no renal dysfunction93.9%6.1%
 Metabolic syndrome and early renal dysfunction86.4%13.6%
 Metabolic syndrome and late renal dysfunction69.0%31.0%