Table 2: Rates of Vitamin D deficiency and iron deficiency in MENA countries from different studies.

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD)

IranPrevalence (%), [girls], [adolescent]Up to 70Moussavi et al. [143]

JordanPrevalence (%),
 [adult females]37.3Batieha et al. [144]
 [adult males]5.1

LebanonPrevalence (%),
 [girls]32El-Hajj Fuleihan et al. [145, 146]
 [boys]9–12

Morocco (Rabat)Prevalence (%), [women]91Arabi et al. [147]
Saudi ArabiaPrevalence (%), [girls], [adolescent]Up to 80Siddiqui and Kamfar [148]
Tunisia (Ariana)Prevalence (%), [women], [Age: 20–60]47.6Arabi et al. [147]

Turkey (Ankara)Prevalence (%),
 [mothers]46Arabi et al. [147]
 [newborns]80

Iron deficiency

Arab Gulf countriesPrevalence (%),
 [children], [preschool age]20–67Musaiger [149]
 [children], [school age]12.6–50
 [pregnant women]22.7–54

BahrainPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]48 Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]37.3

EgyptPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]25Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]11

IranPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]15–30Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]33.4

JordanPrevalence (%),[children], [school age]20Bagchi [150]
Prevalence (%), [women], [Age: 15–49]28

LebanonPrevalence (%), [children], [Age: 6–59 months]23Bagchi [150]

MoroccoPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]35Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]30.1

OmanPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 5–14]41Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]40

PakistanPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]60Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]30

PalestinePrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]53Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]36.2

Saudi ArabiaPrevalence (%), [children], [preschool age]17Bagchi [150]

SyriaPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]23Bagchi [150]
 [women], [Age: 15–49]40.8

UAEPrevalence (%),
 [children], [Age: 6–59 months]34Bagchi [150]
 [pregnant women]14

YemenPrevalence (%), [children], [preschool age]70Bagchi [150]

Different limits of blood levels define VDD, ranging from insufficiency to severe deficiency, similar for Iron deficiency. UAE: United Arab Emirates [147, 150].