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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 280286, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/280286
Review Article

Dietary Ganglioside Reduces Proinflammatory Signaling in the Intestine

14-002 Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2R1
2200, 10150-102 street, Dyna LIFE Diagnostics, Edmonton, AB, Canada T5J 5E2
3Division of Gastroenterology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada N6A 5A5

Received 9 August 2011; Revised 7 October 2011; Accepted 7 October 2011

Academic Editor: Phillip B. Hylemon

Copyright © 2012 John Janez Miklavcic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gangliosides are integral to the structure and function of cell membranes. Ganglioside composition of the intestinal brush border and apical surface of the colon influences numerous cell processes including microbial attachment, cell division, differentiation, and signaling. Accelerated catabolism of ganglioside in intestinal disease results in increased proinflammatory signaling. Restoring proper structure and function to the diseased intestine can resolve inflammation, increase resistance to infection, and improve gut integrity to induce remission of conditions like necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Maintaining inactive state of disease may be achieved by reducing the rate that gangliosides are degraded or by increasing intake of dietary ganglioside. Collectively, the studies outlined in this paper indicate that the amount of gangliosides GM3 and GD3 in intestinal mucosa is decreased with inflammation, low level of GM3 is associated with higher production of proinflammatory signals, and ganglioside content of intestinal mucosa can be increased by dietary ganglioside.