Table 1: Common adverse events associated with the incretin therapies other than hypoglycaemia: exenatide, liraglutide, sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and linagliptin, adapted from [60].

GLP-1 receptor agonistsAdverse events

ExenatideNausea, diarrhoea, vomiting, feeling jittery, dizziness, headache, and dyspepsia
LiraglutideNausea, diarrhoea, and headache

DPP-4 inhibitors

SitagliptinUpper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, and headache
SaxagliptinUpper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and headache
LinagliptinHeadache, joint pain, and sore throat
Linagliptin and metforminCough, decreased appetite, nausea, headache, sore throat, vomiting, and diarrhoea