Table 4: Cross-sectional studies: characteristics and results of data abstraction.

Author/yr/countryDesignDietary assessmentSubjectsDietary component of interest Measurements Quality rating
CRPIL-6TNF

Åsgård et al., (2007), Sweden [14]Crosssectional3-day dietary survey; precoded
F = 53%
M = 47%
age = 62.6
Fruit and vegetable intake
(positive correlation with -tocopherol) 

(negative correlation with plasma carotenoids)
α-carotenoids:
β-carotenoids:
NA7

Qi et al. (2006),
U.S. [15]
Crosssection of a cohort in prospective longitudinal studySemiquant FFQ

Females, no men in study
age ~ 58.5
Whole grains, germ, and bran
( for negative trend of CRP w/increasing quintiles of cereal fiber intake)
NA
( for negative trend of TNF w/increasing quintiles of cereal fiber intake)
8

Note: CRP: C-reactive protein; IL-6: interleukin-6; TNF: tumor necrosis factor-alpha; F: females; M: males; age: mean age; Semiquant: semiquantitative; FFQ: food frequency questionnaire; BMI: body mass index.