Table 4: Prerequisites of immobilization supports and advantages of cell immobilization.
Prerequisites of immobilization supports
Advantages of cell immobilization
Adequately large surface of the immobilization support Easy handling and regeneration of the immobilization support Availability of the immobilization support Cost-effectiveness of the support and immobilization process Acceptance of immobilization support by the consumers and avoidance of negative effects on the final food product (e.g., off-flavour formations) Retention of immobilized cell viability Avoidance of negative effects of cell immobilization on biological and metabolic activity of immobilized cells Food-grade purity of the immobilization support
Prolonged activity and stability of the immobilized cells, since the immobilization support may act as a protective agent against physicochemical changes (pH, temperature, bile salts, etc.) Higher cell densities which lead to higher productivities and increased substrate uptake and yield Increased tolerance to high substrate concentration and final product inhibition Reduction of risk of microbial contamination due to high cell densities and enhanced fermentation activity Ability for low-temperature fermentation and/or maturation for certain food products Reduction of fermentation and maturation times in certain circumstances