Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion by Freely Moving Rats of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and Related Polyphenols from Olive Fruits (Olea europaea) Tue, 19 Jan 2016 18:31:38 +0000 Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive fruits were newly evaluated after oral and intravenous administration in freely moving rats cannulated in the portal vein, jugular vein, and bile duct. Orally administered 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, an important bioactive compound in olive pomace, was readily absorbed and metabolized to hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol, as shown by dose-normalized 4 h area under the curve (/Dose) values of 27.7, 4.5, and 4.2 μM·min·kg/μmol, respectively, in portal plasma after oral administration. The parent compound 3,4-DHPEA-EDA was not observed in the portal plasma, urine, and bile after oral and intravenous administration. Additionally, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol in the portal plasma after oral administration of hydroxytyrosol showed 51.1, 22.8, and 7.1 μM·min·kg/μmol /Dose, respectively. When oleuropein, a polar glucoside, was injected orally, oleuropein in the portal plasma showed 0.9 μM·min·kg/μmol /Dose. However, homovanillic acid was detected from oleuropein in only a small amount in the portal plasma. Moreover, the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein for 4 hours was 13.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Because the amount of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in olive fruits is about 2-3 times greater than that of hydroxytyrosol, the metabolites of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA will influence biological activities. Shunsuke Kano, Haruna Komada, Lina Yonekura, Akihiko Sato, Hisashi Nishiwaki, and Hirotoshi Tamura Copyright © 2016 Shunsuke Kano et al. All rights reserved. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia Tue, 19 Jan 2016 09:14:28 +0000 Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones. Daniel B. Hoffmann, Markus H. Griesel, Bastian Brockhusen, Mohammad Tezval, Marina Komrakova, Bjoern Menger, Marco Wassmann, Klaus Michael Stuermer, and Stephan Sehmisch Copyright © 2016 Daniel B. Hoffmann et al. All rights reserved. Breakfast Protein Source Does Not Influence Postprandial Appetite Response and Food Intake in Normal Weight and Overweight Young Women Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:18:20 +0000 Breakfasts higher in protein lead to a greater reduction in hunger compared to breakfasts higher in carbohydrate. However, few studies have examined the impact of higher protein breakfasts with differing protein sources. Our objective was to determine if protein source (animal protein (AP) versus plant protein (PP)) influences postprandial metabolic response in participants consuming a high protein breakfast (~30% energy from protein). Normal weight (NW; ) and overweight women (OW; ) aging 18–36 were recruited to participate. Participants completed two visits in a randomized, cross-over design with one week between visits. Subjects had 15 minutes to consume each breakfast. Blood glucose and appetite were assessed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes postprandial. Participants kept a 24-hour dietary record for the duration of each test day. No difference was found between NW and OW participants or breakfasts for postprandial appetite responses. AP had a significantly lower glucose response at 30 minutes compared with PP (−11.6%; 127 ± 4 versus 112 ± 4 mg/dL; ) and a slower return to baseline. There was no difference in daily energy intake between breakfasts. These data suggest that protein source may influence postprandial glucose response without significantly impacting appetite response in breakfast consumers. Christina M. Crowder, Brianna L. Neumann, and Jamie I. Baum Copyright © 2016 Christina M. Crowder et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum sessiliflorum (Cubiu) Extract: An In Vitro Assay Tue, 15 Dec 2015 09:29:55 +0000 Cubiu is a vegetable of Solanaceae family, native to the Amazon, which is widely distributed through Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. It is used in food, medicine, and cosmetics by native populations. Research has shown that cubiu extracts have antioxidant activities with great biological relevance. We performed a phytochemical screening to identify the main chemical groups that could confer antioxidant activity to this extract. Several tests and qualitative precipitation specific staining for major classes of secondary metabolites were used. Antioxidant capacity in vitro tests (DPPH and ABTS) were also used to assess the extract’s ability to sequester free radicals of 70% hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of cubiu flour. Alkaloids, organic acids, phenols, flavonoid glycosides, and coumarins were found in the hydroethanolic extract while the aqueous extract presented anthocyanins, gums, tannins and mucilage, amino groups, and volatile and fixed acids. For in vitro tests, the value obtained in the DPPH assay was 606.3 ± 3.5 μg/mL while that for the ABTS assay was 290.3 ± 10.7 µg/mL. Although cubiu extracts present chemical compounds directly related to antioxidant activity, our results show that it has a low antioxidant activity. Additional studies will be needed to isolate and characterize specific compounds to further assess antioxidant activity. Diego Rocha de Lucena Herrera Mascato, Janice B. Monteiro, Michele M. Passarinho, Denise Morais Lopes Galeno, Rubén J. Cruz, Carmen Ortiz, Luisa Morales, Emerson Silva Lima, and Rosany Piccolotto Carvalho Copyright © 2015 Diego Rocha de Lucena Herrera Mascato et al. All rights reserved. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels Wed, 02 Dec 2015 14:22:56 +0000 Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. Shunji Oshima, Sachie Shiiya, Yoshimi Tokumaru, and Tomomasa Kanda Copyright © 2015 Shunji Oshima et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Effect of Intervention in Subjects with High Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Pakistan” Tue, 27 Oct 2015 07:37:19 +0000 Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Hydrie, Abdul Basit, A. Samad Shera, and Akhtar Hussain Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Hydrie et al. All rights reserved. Nutrition and Reproductive Health: Sperm versus Erythrocyte Lipidomic Profile and ω-3 Intake Sun, 25 Oct 2015 06:38:12 +0000 Fatty acid analyses of sperm and erythrocyte cell membrane phospholipids in idiopathic infertile patients evidenced that erythrocyte contents of EPA, DHA, omega-6–omega-3 ratio and arachidonic acid provide a mathematical correspondence for the prediction of EPA level in sperm cells. The erythrocyte lipidomic profile of patients was significantly altered, with signatures of typical Western pattern dietary habits and no fish intake. A supplementation with nutritional levels of EPA and DHA and antioxidants was then performed for 3 months, with the follow-up of both erythrocyte and sperm cell membranes composition as well as conventional sperm parameters. Some significant changes were found in the lipidomic membrane profile of erythrocyte but not in sperm cells, which correspondently did not show significant parameter ameliorations. This is the first report indicating that membrane lipids of different tissues do not equally metabolize the fatty acid elements upon supplementation. Molecular diagnostic tools are necessary to understand the cell metabolic turnover and monitor the success of nutraceuticals for personalized treatments. Gabriela Ruth Mendeluk, Mariano Isaac Cohen, Carla Ferreri, and Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu Copyright © 2015 Gabriela Ruth Mendeluk et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application” Mon, 12 Oct 2015 08:00:18 +0000 Tanis R. Fenton, Beth Armour, and Jayne Thirsk Copyright © 2015 Tanis R. Fenton et al. All rights reserved. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet, and Obesity Measures Change during Adolescence Sun, 11 Oct 2015 11:28:13 +0000 Background. Obesity in youth is highly prevalent. Physical activity and diet are influential in obesity development. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding links between activity and diet quality and their combined influence on obesity during adolescence. Objectives. We used five years of data from 2379 adolescent girls in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study to evaluate the association between physical activity and diet quality during adolescence and to assess both as correlates of obesity. Design. Diet, activity, and body composition measures were evaluated pairwise for correlation. A canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate relationships within and between variable groups. All statistics were examined for trends over time. Results. We found positive correlations between physical activity and diet quality that became stronger with age. Additionally we discovered an age-related decrease in association between obesity correlates and body composition. Conclusion. These results suggest that while health behaviors, like diet and activity, become more closely linked during growth, obesity becomes less influenced by health behaviors and other factors. This should motivate focus on juvenile obesity prevention capitalizing on the pliable framework for establishing healthy diet and physical activity patterns while impact on body composition is greatest. Janne H. Maier and Ronald Barry Copyright © 2015 Janne H. Maier and Ronald Barry. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren Wed, 19 Aug 2015 15:31:17 +0000 Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410. Imane El Menchawy, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Khalid El Kari, Naima Saeid, Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou, Nada Benajiba, Imane El Harchaoui, Mohamed El Mzibri, Noureddine El Haloui, and Hassan Aguenaou Copyright © 2015 Imane El Menchawy et al. All rights reserved. Nutrition before and during Surgery and the Inflammatory Response of the Heart: A Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 29 Jul 2015 12:12:19 +0000 Major surgery induces a long fasting time and provokes an inflammatory response which increases the risk of infections. Nutrition given before and during surgery can avoid fasting and has been shown to increase the arginine/asymmetric dimetlhylarginine ratio, a marker of nitric oxide availability, in cardiac tissue and increased concentrations of branched chain amino acids in blood plasma. However, the effect of this new nutritional strategy on organ inflammatory response is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effect of nutrition before and during cardiac surgery on myocardial inflammatory response. In this trial, 32 patients were randomised between enteral, parenteral, and no nutrition supplementation (control) from 2 days before, during, up to 2 days after coronary artery bypass grafting. Both solutions included proteins or amino acids, glucose, vitamins, and minerals. Myocardial atrial tissue was sampled before and after revascularization and was analysed immunohistochemically, subdivided into cardiomyocytic, fatty, and fibrotic areas. Inflammatory cells, especially leukocytes, were present in cardiac tissue in all study groups. No significant differences were found in the myocardial inflammatory response between the enteral, parenteral, and control groups. In conclusion, nutrition given before and during surgery neither stimulates nor diminishes the myocardial inflammatory response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The trial was registered in Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2183. Marlieke Visser, Hans W. M. Niessen, Wouter E. M. Kok, Riccardo Cocchieri, Willem Wisselink, Paul A. M. van Leeuwen, and Bas A. J. M. de Mol Copyright © 2015 Marlieke Visser et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term High Fat Intake Does Not Significantly Alter Markers of Renal Function or Inflammation in Young Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Sun, 21 Jun 2015 11:44:24 +0000 Chronic high fat feeding is correlated with diabetes and kidney disease. However, the impact of short-term high fat diets (HFD) is not well-understood. Six weeks of HFD result in indices of metabolic syndrome (increased adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation) compared to rats fed on standard chow. The hypothesis was that short-term HFD would induce early signs of renal disease. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either HFD (60% fat) or standard chow (5% fat) for six weeks. Morphology was determined by measuring changes in renal mass and microstructure. Kidney function was measured by analyzing urinary protein, creatinine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, as well as plasma cystatin C concentrations. Renal damage was measured through assessment of urinary oxDNA/RNA concentrations as well as renal lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Despite HFD significantly increasing adiposity and renal mass, there was no evidence of early stage kidney disease as measured by changes in urinary and plasma biomarkers as well as histology. These findings suggest that moderate hyperglycemia and inflammation produced by short-term HFD are not sufficient to damage kidneys or that the ketogenic HFD may have protective effects within the kidneys. Catherine Crinigan, Matthew Calhoun, and Karen L. Sweazea Copyright © 2015 Catherine Crinigan et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application Tue, 16 Jun 2015 08:16:33 +0000 Research into human biotransformation and elimination systems continues to evolve. Various clinical and in vivo studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of foods and food-derived components on the activity of detoxification pathways, including phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase II conjugation enzymes, Nrf2 signaling, and metallothionein. This review summarizes the research in this area to date, highlighting the potential for foods and nutrients to support and/or modulate detoxification functions. Clinical applications to alter detoxification pathway activity and improve patient outcomes are considered, drawing on the growing understanding of the relationship between detoxification functions and different disease states, genetic polymorphisms, and drug-nutrient interactions. Some caution is recommended, however, due to the limitations of current research as well as indications that many nutrients exert biphasic, dose-dependent effects and that genetic polymorphisms may alter outcomes. A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent. Romilly E. Hodges and Deanna M. Minich Copyright © 2015 Romilly E. Hodges and Deanna M. Minich. All rights reserved. Fructose Metabolism and Relation to Atherosclerosis, Type 2 Diabetes, and Obesity Sun, 14 Jun 2015 13:20:10 +0000 A high intake of sugars has been linked to diet-induced health problems. The fructose content in sugars consumed may also affect health, although the extent to which fructose has a particularly significant negative impact on health remains controversial. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the body’s fructose management and to discuss the role of fructose as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Despite some positive effects of fructose, such as high relative sweetness, high thermogenic effect, and low glycaemic index, a high intake of fructose, particularly when combined with glucose, can, to a larger extent than a similar glucose intake, lead to metabolic changes in the liver. Increased de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and thus altered blood lipid profile, seems to be the most prominent change. More studies with realistic consumption levels of fructose are needed, but current literature does not indicate that a normal consumption of fructose (approximately 50–60 g/day) increases the risk of atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, or obesity more than consumption of other sugars. However, a high intake of fructose, particularly if combined with a high energy intake in the form of glucose/starch, may have negative health effects via DNL. Astrid Kolderup and Birger Svihus Copyright © 2015 Astrid Kolderup and Birger Svihus. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Sun, 07 Jun 2015 13:59:49 +0000 Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world’s population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional counseling on consumption of extra meal and iron-rich foods during pregnancy are recommended to prevent anemia in the pregnant women. Abel Gebre and Afework Mulugeta Copyright © 2015 Abel Gebre and Afework Mulugeta. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of the Metabolic and Skeletal Response of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N Mice in a Diet-Induced Model of Type 2 Diabetes Wed, 03 Jun 2015 11:15:06 +0000 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a complex clinical scenario of altered energy metabolism and increased fracture incidence. The C57BL/6 mouse model of diet-induced obesity has been used to study the mechanisms by which altered glucose homeostasis affects bone mass and quality, but genetic variations in substrains of C57BL/6 may have confounded data interpretation. This study investigated the long-term metabolic and skeletal consequences of two commonly used C57BL/6 substrains to a high fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and the negative control strain, C3H/HeJ, mice were fed a control or HF diet for 24 wks. C57BL/6N mice on a HF diet demonstrated an increase in plasma insulin and blood glucose as early as 4 wk, whereas these responses were delayed in the C57BL/6J mice. The C57BL/6N mice exhibited more severe hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Only the C57BL/6N mice lost significant trabecular bone in response to the high fat diet. The C3H/HeJ mice were protected from bone loss. The data show that C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice differ in their metabolic and skeletal response when fed a HF diet. These substrain differences should be considered when designing experiments and are likely to have implications on data interpretation and reproducibility. Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Kelsey D. Hembree, Angela Sasaki, McKale R. Davis, Stan A. Lightfoot, Stephen L. Clarke, Edralin A. Lucas, and Brenda J. Smith Copyright © 2015 Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6–23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia Wed, 27 May 2015 07:09:43 +0000 Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6–23 months). Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60–5.81)), 9–11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61–25.47)), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35–7.38)), stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20–6.05)), diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63–14.59)), no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26–5.27)), early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08–30.31)), and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01–8.88)) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6–23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as appropriate infant and young child feeding practice among children under. Haile Woldie, Yigzaw Kebede, and Amare Tariku Copyright © 2015 Haile Woldie et al. All rights reserved. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Tue, 26 May 2015 06:46:16 +0000 Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin . Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, ) and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, ). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk. Christopher K. Nyirenda, Edmond K. Kabagambe, John R. Koethe, James N. Kiage, Benjamin H. Chi, Patrick Musonda, Meridith Blevins, Claire N. Bosire, Michael Y. Tsai, and Douglas C. Heimburger Copyright © 2015 Christopher K. Nyirenda et al. All rights reserved. Treatment Outcome of Severe Acute Malnutrition Cases at the Tamale Teaching Hospital Sun, 03 May 2015 16:30:59 +0000 Objective. This study investigated the treatment outcomes and determinant factors likely to be associated with recovery rate. Methods. A retrospective chart review (RCR) was performed on 348 patients who were enrolled in the outpatient care (OPC) during the study period. Results. Of the 348 cases, 33.6% recovered (having MUAC 125 mm), 49.1% defaulted, and 11.5% transferred to other OPC units to continue with treatment. There were 187 (53.7%) males and 161 (46.3%) females with severe malnutrition. The average weight gain rate was 28 g/kg/day. Controlling for other factors, patients who completed the treatment plan had 3.2 times higher probability of recovery from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) as compared to patients who defaulted (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9, 5.3, and ). The children aged 24–59 months had 5.8 times higher probability of recovery from SAM as compared to children aged 6–11 months (AOR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.5, 10.6, and ). Conclusions. Cure rate was low and the default rate was quite high. Children who were diagnosed as having marasmus on admission stayed longer before recovery than their kwashiorkor counterparts. Younger children were of greater risk of nonrecovery. Mahama Saaka, Shaibu Mohammed Osman, Anthony Amponsem, Juventus B. Ziem, Alhassan Abdul-Mumin, Prosper Akanbong, Ernestina Yirkyio, Eliasu Yakubu, and Sean Ervin Copyright © 2015 Mahama Saaka et al. All rights reserved. Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance Wed, 08 Apr 2015 11:13:32 +0000 The training regimens of modern-day athletes have evolved from the sole emphasis on a single fitness component (e.g., endurance athlete or resistance/strength athlete) to an integrative, multimode approach encompassing all four of the major fitness components: resistance (R), interval sprints (I), stretching (S), and endurance (E) training. Athletes rarely, if ever, focus their training on only one mode of exercise but instead routinely engage in a multimode training program. In addition, timed-daily protein (P) intake has become a hallmark for all athletes. Recent studies, including from our laboratory, have validated the effectiveness of this multimode paradigm (RISE) and protein-feeding regimen, which we have collectively termed PRISE. Unfortunately, sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model and therefore limit an athletes’ ability to succeed. Thus, it is the purpose of this review to provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs) with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance. Paul J. Arciero, Vincent J. Miller, and Emery Ward Copyright © 2015 Paul J. Arciero et al. All rights reserved. Fasting Blood Glucose Profile among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria Thu, 02 Apr 2015 11:06:01 +0000 Background. Over the past two decades there has been an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children. Baseline data is needed to assess the impact of changing lifestyles on Ado-Ekiti, a previously semiurban community in Southwest Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to assess the fasting blood glucose (FBG) of adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study involving 628 adolescents from three different secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. With parental consent, volunteers completed a structured questionnaire, and an overnight FBG was measured. Results. There were 346 males and 282 females (male : female ratio = 1.2 : 1). Their ages ranged from 10 to 19 years (mean age: years). Four hundred and forty-four (70.7%) had normal FBG, while 180 (28.7%) and 4 (0.6%) had FBG in the prediabetic and diabetic range, respectively. Female gender, age group 10–14 years, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with impaired FBG ( value <0.001, <0.001, and 0.045, resp.). Conclusion. Impaired FBG is common among secondary school adolescents and it is more prevalent among younger female adolescents (10–14 years) with positive family history of obesity. I. O. Oluwayemi, S. J. Brink, E. E. Oyenusi, O. A. Oduwole, and M. A. Oluwayemi Copyright © 2015 I. O. Oluwayemi et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students in the Kumasi Metropolis Wed, 11 Feb 2015 14:20:51 +0000 The aim was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among students in the Kumasi metropolis. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 500 students aged 10 to 20 years were examined from two junior high schools selected by multistage sampling technique and three randomly selected senior high schools. Height and weight were measured in all participants and the body mass index (BMI) of each individual was calculated. Body mass index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Out of the 500 students, 290 (58.00%) were males and 210 (42.00%) were females. The prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was 7.40%, 79.60%, 12.20%, and 0.80%, respectively. Overweight was more prevalent among students than obesity. There is therefore the need to establish effective public health promotion campaigns among students in order to curtail future implications on health. D. B. Kumah, K. O. Akuffo, J. E. Abaka-Cann, D. E. Affram, and E. A. Osae Copyright © 2015 D. B. Kumah et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Fructose Intake Induces Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Male, but Not Female, Offspring Wed, 11 Feb 2015 14:13:10 +0000 Objective. Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. However, consumption of beverages containing fructose is allowed during gestation. Recently, we found that an intake of fructose (10% wt/vol) throughout gestation produces an impaired fetal leptin signalling. Therefore, we have investigated whether maternal fructose intake produces subsequent changes in their progeny. Methods. Blood samples from fed and 24 h fasted female and male 90-day-old rats born from fructose-fed, glucose-fed, or control mothers were used. Results. After fasting, HOMA-IR and ISI (estimates of insulin sensitivity) were worse in male descendents from fructose-fed mothers in comparison to the other two groups, and these findings were also accompanied by a higher leptinemia. Interestingly, plasma AOPP and uricemia (oxidative stress markers) were augmented in male rats from fructose-fed mothers compared to the animals from control or glucose-fed mothers. In contrast, female rats did not show any differences in leptinemia between the three groups. Further, insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in fasted female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. In addition, plasma AOPP levels tended to be diminished in female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. Conclusion. Maternal fructose intake induces insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and plasma oxidative stress in male, but not female, progeny. Lourdes Rodríguez, Paola Otero, María I. Panadero, Silvia Rodrigo, Juan J. Álvarez-Millán, and Carlos Bocos Copyright © 2015 Lourdes Rodríguez et al. All rights reserved. Awareness and Perception of Plant-Based Diets for the Treatment and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Community Education Clinic: A Pilot Study Sat, 31 Jan 2015 08:03:45 +0000 Objective. To assess awareness, barriers, and promoters of plant-based diet use for management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) for the development of an appropriate educational program. Design. Cross-sectional study of patients and healthcare providers. Setting. Regional Diabetes Education Centre in ON, Canada. Participants. patients attending the Diabetes Education Centre and healthcare providers. Variables Measures. Patient questionnaires addressed demographics, health history, and eating patterns, as well as current knowledge, confidence levels, barriers to, promoters of, and interests in plant-based diets. Staff questionnaires addressed attitudes and current practice with respect to plant-based diets. Analysis. Mean values, frequency counts, and logistic regression (alpha = 0.05). Results. Few respondents (9%) currently followed a plant-based diet, but 66% indicated willingness to follow one for 3 weeks. Family eating preferences and meal planning skills were common barriers to diet change. 72% of healthcare providers reported knowledge of plant-based diets for diabetes management but low levels of practice. Conclusions and Implications. Patient awareness of the benefits of a plant-based diet for the management of diabetes remains suboptimal and may be influenced by perception of diabetes educators and clinicians. Given the reported willingness to try (but low current use of) plant-based diets, educational interventions targeting patient and provider level knowledge are warranted. Vincent Lee, Taylor McKay, and Chris I. Ardern Copyright © 2015 Vincent Lee et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:05:46 +0000 Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS. W. Aekplakorn, W. Satheannoppakao, P. Putwatana, S. Taneepanichskul, P. Kessomboon, V. Chongsuvivatwong, and S. Chariyalertsak Copyright © 2015 W. Aekplakorn et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities Thu, 11 Dec 2014 06:19:12 +0000 Objective. Studies demonstrate that people’s food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents’ food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. Rebecca Seguin, Leah Connor, Miriam Nelson, Andrea LaCroix, and Galen Eldridge Copyright © 2014 Rebecca Seguin et al. All rights reserved. Acute Effects of Exogenous Hormone Administration on Postprandial Acylation Stimulating Protein Levels in Ovariectomized Rats after a Fat Load Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:05 +0000 Background. ASP, a potent lipogenic factor, was linked to female fat metabolism in association studies. Aim. To investigate acute effects of sex hormone treatment on postprandial ASP levels in vivo. Methods. 24 female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including controls. The rats were ovariectomized and injected with progesterone, estrogen, or testosterone. An hour later, olive oil was administered orally. Plasma ASP and triglycerides were measured at several postprandial time points. Area under the curve (TG-AUC) represented TG clearance. Results. Only the progesterone treated group had a significant postprandial ASP increase at two hours compared to basal levels (439.8 ± 62.4 versus 253.4 ± 59.03 μg/mL, ). Interestingly, increased ASP levels coordinated negatively with corresponding TG levels and TG-AUC postprandially, mostly evident in the opposite effects in the progesterone and testosterone treated groups. ASP levels increased 3-fold in the progesterone versus testosterone treated groups, whereas TG-AUC was significantly lower. Conclusion. These findings suggest that progesterone enhances ASP production and TG clearance simultaneously, supporting the notion of a stimulatory role for progesterone on ASP-mediated TG clearance. This is the first functional study demonstrating a cause-effect relationship between hormone treatment and ASP levels in vivo and may contribute to understanding the mechanism of progesterone function as a female lipogenic hormone. Bashair Al Riyami, Marah El-Tahir, Sultan Al Maskari, Eugene H. Johnson, and Jumana Saleh Copyright © 2014 Bashair Al Riyami et al. All rights reserved. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:03 +0000 Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females) was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce. Katiya Ivanovitch, Jeeranun Klaewkla, Rewadee Chongsuwat, Chukiat Viwatwongkasem, and Wanicha Kitvorapat Copyright © 2014 Katiya Ivanovitch et al. All rights reserved. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review Tue, 25 Nov 2014 13:08:45 +0000 Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. Rachel A. Millstein Copyright © 2014 Rachel A. Millstein. All rights reserved. Effects of Canned Pineapple Consumption on Nutritional Status, Immunomodulation, and Physical Health of Selected School Children Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:47:53 +0000 This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of canned pineapple consumption on immunomodulation, nutritional status, and physical health of ninety-eight (98) school children with mean age of . The study participants were divided into three groups: Group A (33) includes subjects who were not given canned pineapple, Group B (33) includes those who were given 140 g, and Group C (32) includes those given 280 g of canned pineapple for nine weeks. Each major group was further divided into two groups: normal (N) and underweight (U) based on 2007 WHO Growth Reference Standards. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical examination, dietary intake, hemoglobin level, and immunological data were analyzed. Results showed a decrease in incidence of viral and bacterial infections for both Group B and Group C (normal and underweight) after canned pineapple consumption. Granulocyte production increased by 0.77–26.61% for normal weight subjects and 14.95–34.55% for underweight. CD16+56 count augmented by 20.44–22.13% for normal weight and 3.57–15.89% for underweight subjects. Thus, intake of both one can (140 g) and two cans (280 g) of canned pineapple may shorten the duration and incidence of infection and may increase the production of granulocytes and CD16+56, but intake of two cans (280 g) demonstrated higher granulocyte and CD16+56 production. This trial is registered with Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140826-000225. Mavil May C. Cervo, Luisito O. Llido, Erniel B. Barrios, and Leonora N. Panlasigui Copyright © 2014 Mavil May C. Cervo et al. All rights reserved.