Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Possible Neuroprotective Mechanisms in the Model of Global Ischemia in Rats Tue, 24 May 2016 13:59:47 +0000 Background. Omega-3 (3) administration was shown to protect against hypoxic-ischemic injury. The objectives were to study the neuroprotective effects of 3, in a model of global ischemia. Methods. Male Wistar rats were subjected to carotid occlusion (30 min), followed by reperfusion. The groups were SO, untreated ischemic and ischemic treated rats with 3 (5 and 10 mg/kg, 7 days). The SO and untreated ischemic animals were orally treated with 1% cremophor and, 1 h after the last administration, they were behaviorally tested and euthanized for neurochemical (DA, DOPAC, and NE determinations), histological (Fluoro jade staining), and immunohistochemical (TNF-alpha, COX-2 and iNOS) evaluations. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Newman-Keuls as the post hoc test. Results. Ischemia increased the locomotor activity and rearing behavior that were partly reversed by 3. Ischemia decreased striatal DA and DOPAC contents and increased NE contents, effects reversed by 3. This drug protected hippocampal neuron degeneration, as observed by Fluoro-Jade staining, and the increased immunostainings for TNF-alpha, COX-2, and iNOS were partly or totally blocked by 3. Conclusion. This study showed a neuroprotective effect of 3, in great part due to its anti-inflammatory properties, stimulating translational studies focusing on its use in clinic for stroke managing. Maria Elizabeth Pereira Nobre, Alyne Oliveira Correia, Francisco Nilson Maciel Mendonça, Luiz Ricardo Araújo Uchoa, Jessica Tamara Nunes Vasconcelos, Carlos Ney Alencar de Araújo, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Rafaelly Maria Pinheiro Siqueira, Gilberto dos Santos Cerqueira, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Ricardo Mário Arida, and Glauce Socorro de Barros Viana Copyright © 2016 Maria Elizabeth Pereira Nobre et al. All rights reserved. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia Tue, 24 May 2016 06:55:51 +0000 Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A. Hichami, O. Grissa, I. Mrizak, C. Benammar, and N. A. Khan Copyright © 2016 A. Hichami et al. All rights reserved. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives Mon, 23 May 2016 09:34:12 +0000 Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis) and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Vijaya Juturu Copyright © 2016 Vijaya Juturu. All rights reserved. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey Mon, 16 May 2016 12:12:17 +0000 Objective. To assess dietary-related habits among young adults. Design and Setting. Dietary habits were assessed cross-sectionally, using a self-completed questionnaire in 193 students enrolled in public and private universities in Cyprus. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the validated KIDMED index. BMI was estimated based on weight and height measurements. Results. The mean BMI was 23.31 (±3.98). The mean adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was 6.0 (IQR 4 to 8), with 26.9% of students being classified as high adherers and 21.8% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 32% of students consumed a second serving of fruit and vegetables more than once a day, whereas 26% reported going more than once a week to a fast-food restaurant and 31% consumed sweets and candy several times a day. On the other hand, 76% of participants reported consumption of at least two dairy products daily and 88% use olive oil at home. The majority consume coffee 2-3 times per day. Conclusions. Results support a shift from traditional healthy diets to more unhealthy eating patterns. However, we also report a high dairy intake and use of olive oil. Tailored-made strategies targeting the young adult population could be warranted. Elena Hadjimbei, George Botsaris, Vassilis Gekas, and Andrie G. Panayiotou Copyright © 2016 Elena Hadjimbei et al. All rights reserved. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders Thu, 12 May 2016 07:01:04 +0000 Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; ). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome. Elizabeth K. Parker, Sahrish S. Faruquie, Gail Anderson, Linette Gomes, Andrew Kennedy, Christine M. Wearne, Michael R. Kohn, and Simon D. Clarke Copyright © 2016 Elizabeth K. Parker et al. All rights reserved. Active Holistic Surveillance: The Nutritional Aspect of Delayed Intervention in Prostate Cancer Thu, 05 May 2016 11:30:30 +0000 Purpose. Active surveillance is an emergent strategy for management of indolent prostate cancer. Our institution’s watchful waiting protocol, Active Holistic Surveillance (AHS), implements close monitoring for disease progression along with various chemopreventive agents and attempts to reduce unnecessary biopsies. Our objective is to report on the treatment rates of men on our AHS protocol as well as determine reasons for progression. Materials/Methods. Low risk and low-intermediate risk patients were enrolled in AHS at Winthrop University Hospital between February 2002 and August 2015. Our IRB-approved study analyzed survival rate, discontinuation rates, and definitive treatments for patients in our AHS cohort. Results. 235 patients met inclusion criteria. Median age and follow-up for the cohort were 66 (44–88) years and 42 (3–166) months, respectively. The overall survival for the cohort was 99.6% and the disease specific survival was 100%. A total of 27 (11.5%) patients discontinued AHS. Conclusion. The incorporation of chemopreventive agents in our AHS protocol has allowed patients to prolong definitive treatment for many years. Longer follow-up and additional studies are necessary to further validate the effectiveness of AHS. Courtney J. Berg, David J. Habibian, Aaron E. Katz, Kaitlin E. Kosinski, Anthony T. Corcoran, and Andrew S. Fontes Copyright © 2016 Courtney J. Berg et al. All rights reserved. Enteral Glutamine Administration in Critically Ill Nonseptic Patients Does Not Trigger Arginine Synthesis Wed, 20 Apr 2016 09:49:00 +0000 Glutamine supplementation in specific groups of critically ill patients results in favourable clinical outcome. Enhancement of citrulline and arginine synthesis by glutamine could serve as a potential mechanism. However, while receiving optimal enteral nutrition, uptake and enteral metabolism of glutamine in critically ill patients remain unknown. Therefore we investigated the effect of a therapeutically relevant dose of L-glutamine on synthesis of L-citrulline and subsequent L-arginine in this group. Ten versus ten critically ill patients receiving full enteral nutrition, or isocaloric isonitrogenous enteral nutrition including 0.5 g/kg L-alanyl-L-glutamine, were studied using stable isotopes. A cross-over design using intravenous and enteral tracers enabled splanchnic extraction (SE) calculations. Endogenous rate of appearance and SE of glutamine citrulline and arginine was not different (SE controls versus alanyl-glutamine: glutamine 48 and 48%, citrulline 33 versus 45%, and arginine 45 versus 42%). Turnover from glutamine to citrulline and arginine was not higher in glutamine-administered patients. In critically ill nonseptic patients receiving adequate nutrition and a relevant dose of glutamine there was no extra citrulline or arginine synthesis and glutamine SE was not increased. This suggests that for arginine synthesis enhancement there is no need for an additional dose of glutamine when this population is adequately fed. This trial is registered with NTR2285. Mechteld A. R. Vermeulen, Saskia J. H. Brinkmann, Nikki Buijs, Albertus Beishuizen, Pierre M. Bet, Alexander P. J. Houdijk, Johannes B. van Goudoever, and Paul A. M. van Leeuwen Copyright © 2016 Mechteld A. R. Vermeulen et al. All rights reserved. Cocobiota: Implications for Human Health Wed, 06 Apr 2016 11:33:26 +0000 Manufacturing of dark chocolate and other cocoa-based products is a complex multistage process beginning with spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation driven in the postharvest period by different microorganisms derived from the environment. Cocobiota defined as the association of microbial species involved in cocoa bean fermentation may have considerable impact on the medicinal properties of cocoa products via various primary and secondary metabolites, whose presence in dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products has to be taken into consideration when analyzing medicinal effects of cocoa. Metabolites of acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria, two major cocobiota members, are recently shown to have considerable antifungal and cholesterol-lowering activities and promote the formation of short chain fatty acids and mannitol, an important prebiotic capable of modifying gut microbiota. Penicillium citrinum, a major type of fungi identifiable in fermented cocoa beans, produces a thermostable alkaloid, Penicitrinine A, as well as lovastatin, compounds with antineoplastic and cholesterol-lowering abilities, respectively. Moreover, recent results suggest that bacterial and fungal metabolites produced by cocobiota have a significant anti-infective potential. Therefore, various metabolites produced by cocobiota can mimic some medicinal effects of dark chocolate and other cocoa-derived products previously attributed to cocoa flavonoids and methylxanthines and need to be thoroughly investigated in in vitro and in vivo systems. Ivan M. Petyaev and Yuriy K. Bashmakov Copyright © 2016 Ivan M. Petyaev and Yuriy K. Bashmakov. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Intestinal α-Glucosidase and Glucose Absorption by Feruloylated Arabinoxylan Mono- and Oligosaccharides from Corn Bran and Wheat Aleurone Thu, 17 Mar 2016 16:33:37 +0000 The effect of feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides (FAXmo) on mammalian α-glucosidase and glucose transporters was investigated using human Caco-2 cells, rat intestinal acetone powder, and Xenopus laevis oocytes. The isolated FAXmo from wheat aleurone and corn bran were identified to have degree of polymerization (DP) of 4 and 1, respectively, by HPLC-MS. Both FAXmo extracts were effective inhibitors of sucrase and maltase functions of the α-glucosidase. The IC50 for FAXmo extracts on Caco-2 cells and rat intestinal α-glucosidase was 1.03–1.65 mg/mL and 2.6–6.5 mg/mL, respectively. Similarly, glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells was inhibited up to 40%. The inhibitory effect of FAXmo was dependent on their ferulic acid (FA) content ( = 0.95). Sodium independent glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) activity was completely inhibited by FAXmo in oocytes injected to express GLUT2. Our results suggest that ferulic acid and feruloylated arabinoxylan mono-/oligosaccharides have potential for use in diabetes management. Lovemore Nkhata Malunga, Peter Eck, and Trust Beta Copyright © 2016 Lovemore Nkhata Malunga et al. All rights reserved. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7–9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco Wed, 16 Mar 2016 13:17:49 +0000 Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID) affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine) or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region. Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou, Mehdi Azlaf, Imane El Menchawy, Mohamed El Mzibri, Khalid El Kari, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Fatima-Zahra Mouzouni, Amina Barkat, and Hassan Aguenaou Copyright © 2016 Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou et al. All rights reserved. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis Tue, 15 Mar 2016 16:35:06 +0000 Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% () to 34.6% () in the APAP and 46.3% () to 29.9% () in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Breanna Moore, Mei Hong, Sabrina Cleveland, Min Chu, Qi Jia, Young-Chul Lee, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Eu-Jin Hyun, Gayoung Jung, and Seon Gil Do Copyright © 2016 Mesfin Yimam et al. All rights reserved. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion by Freely Moving Rats of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and Related Polyphenols from Olive Fruits (Olea europaea) Tue, 19 Jan 2016 18:31:38 +0000 Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive fruits were newly evaluated after oral and intravenous administration in freely moving rats cannulated in the portal vein, jugular vein, and bile duct. Orally administered 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, an important bioactive compound in olive pomace, was readily absorbed and metabolized to hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol, as shown by dose-normalized 4 h area under the curve (/Dose) values of 27.7, 4.5, and 4.2 μM·min·kg/μmol, respectively, in portal plasma after oral administration. The parent compound 3,4-DHPEA-EDA was not observed in the portal plasma, urine, and bile after oral and intravenous administration. Additionally, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol in the portal plasma after oral administration of hydroxytyrosol showed 51.1, 22.8, and 7.1 μM·min·kg/μmol /Dose, respectively. When oleuropein, a polar glucoside, was injected orally, oleuropein in the portal plasma showed 0.9 μM·min·kg/μmol /Dose. However, homovanillic acid was detected from oleuropein in only a small amount in the portal plasma. Moreover, the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein for 4 hours was 13.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Because the amount of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in olive fruits is about 2-3 times greater than that of hydroxytyrosol, the metabolites of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA will influence biological activities. Shunsuke Kano, Haruna Komada, Lina Yonekura, Akihiko Sato, Hisashi Nishiwaki, and Hirotoshi Tamura Copyright © 2016 Shunsuke Kano et al. All rights reserved. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia Tue, 19 Jan 2016 09:14:28 +0000 Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones. Daniel B. Hoffmann, Markus H. Griesel, Bastian Brockhusen, Mohammad Tezval, Marina Komrakova, Bjoern Menger, Marco Wassmann, Klaus Michael Stuermer, and Stephan Sehmisch Copyright © 2016 Daniel B. Hoffmann et al. All rights reserved. Breakfast Protein Source Does Not Influence Postprandial Appetite Response and Food Intake in Normal Weight and Overweight Young Women Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:18:20 +0000 Breakfasts higher in protein lead to a greater reduction in hunger compared to breakfasts higher in carbohydrate. However, few studies have examined the impact of higher protein breakfasts with differing protein sources. Our objective was to determine if protein source (animal protein (AP) versus plant protein (PP)) influences postprandial metabolic response in participants consuming a high protein breakfast (~30% energy from protein). Normal weight (NW; ) and overweight women (OW; ) aging 18–36 were recruited to participate. Participants completed two visits in a randomized, cross-over design with one week between visits. Subjects had 15 minutes to consume each breakfast. Blood glucose and appetite were assessed at baseline, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes postprandial. Participants kept a 24-hour dietary record for the duration of each test day. No difference was found between NW and OW participants or breakfasts for postprandial appetite responses. AP had a significantly lower glucose response at 30 minutes compared with PP (−11.6%; 127 ± 4 versus 112 ± 4 mg/dL; ) and a slower return to baseline. There was no difference in daily energy intake between breakfasts. These data suggest that protein source may influence postprandial glucose response without significantly impacting appetite response in breakfast consumers. Christina M. Crowder, Brianna L. Neumann, and Jamie I. Baum Copyright © 2016 Christina M. Crowder et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum sessiliflorum (Cubiu) Extract: An In Vitro Assay Tue, 15 Dec 2015 09:29:55 +0000 Cubiu is a vegetable of Solanaceae family, native to the Amazon, which is widely distributed through Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. It is used in food, medicine, and cosmetics by native populations. Research has shown that cubiu extracts have antioxidant activities with great biological relevance. We performed a phytochemical screening to identify the main chemical groups that could confer antioxidant activity to this extract. Several tests and qualitative precipitation specific staining for major classes of secondary metabolites were used. Antioxidant capacity in vitro tests (DPPH and ABTS) were also used to assess the extract’s ability to sequester free radicals of 70% hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of cubiu flour. Alkaloids, organic acids, phenols, flavonoid glycosides, and coumarins were found in the hydroethanolic extract while the aqueous extract presented anthocyanins, gums, tannins and mucilage, amino groups, and volatile and fixed acids. For in vitro tests, the value obtained in the DPPH assay was 606.3 ± 3.5 μg/mL while that for the ABTS assay was 290.3 ± 10.7 µg/mL. Although cubiu extracts present chemical compounds directly related to antioxidant activity, our results show that it has a low antioxidant activity. Additional studies will be needed to isolate and characterize specific compounds to further assess antioxidant activity. Diego Rocha de Lucena Herrera Mascato, Janice B. Monteiro, Michele M. Passarinho, Denise Morais Lopes Galeno, Rubén J. Cruz, Carmen Ortiz, Luisa Morales, Emerson Silva Lima, and Rosany Piccolotto Carvalho Copyright © 2015 Diego Rocha de Lucena Herrera Mascato et al. All rights reserved. Alanine with the Precipitate of Tomato Juice Administered to Rats Enhances the Reduction in Blood Ethanol Levels Wed, 02 Dec 2015 14:22:56 +0000 Delay in gastric emptying (GE) lowers the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) after alcohol administration. We previously demonstrated that water-insoluble fractions, mainly comprising dietary fiber derived from many types of botanical foods, possessed the ability to absorb ethanol-containing aqueous solutions. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the absorption of ethanol and lowering of BEC because of delay in GE. Here we identified dietary nutrients that synergize with the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes to lower BEC in rats. Consequently, unlike tomato juice without alanine, tomato juice with 5.0% alanine decreased BEC depending on the delay in GE and mediated the ethanol-induced decrease in the spontaneous motor activity (an indicator of drunkenness). Our findings indicate that the synergism between tomato juice and alanine to reduce the absorption of ethanol was attributable to the effect of alanine on precipitates such as the water-insoluble fraction of tomatoes. Shunji Oshima, Sachie Shiiya, Yoshimi Tokumaru, and Tomomasa Kanda Copyright © 2015 Shunji Oshima et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Effect of Intervention in Subjects with High Risk of Diabetes Mellitus in Pakistan” Tue, 27 Oct 2015 07:37:19 +0000 Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Hydrie, Abdul Basit, A. Samad Shera, and Akhtar Hussain Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Hydrie et al. All rights reserved. Nutrition and Reproductive Health: Sperm versus Erythrocyte Lipidomic Profile and ω-3 Intake Sun, 25 Oct 2015 06:38:12 +0000 Fatty acid analyses of sperm and erythrocyte cell membrane phospholipids in idiopathic infertile patients evidenced that erythrocyte contents of EPA, DHA, omega-6–omega-3 ratio and arachidonic acid provide a mathematical correspondence for the prediction of EPA level in sperm cells. The erythrocyte lipidomic profile of patients was significantly altered, with signatures of typical Western pattern dietary habits and no fish intake. A supplementation with nutritional levels of EPA and DHA and antioxidants was then performed for 3 months, with the follow-up of both erythrocyte and sperm cell membranes composition as well as conventional sperm parameters. Some significant changes were found in the lipidomic membrane profile of erythrocyte but not in sperm cells, which correspondently did not show significant parameter ameliorations. This is the first report indicating that membrane lipids of different tissues do not equally metabolize the fatty acid elements upon supplementation. Molecular diagnostic tools are necessary to understand the cell metabolic turnover and monitor the success of nutraceuticals for personalized treatments. Gabriela Ruth Mendeluk, Mariano Isaac Cohen, Carla Ferreri, and Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu Copyright © 2015 Gabriela Ruth Mendeluk et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application” Mon, 12 Oct 2015 08:00:18 +0000 Tanis R. Fenton, Beth Armour, and Jayne Thirsk Copyright © 2015 Tanis R. Fenton et al. All rights reserved. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet, and Obesity Measures Change during Adolescence Sun, 11 Oct 2015 11:28:13 +0000 Background. Obesity in youth is highly prevalent. Physical activity and diet are influential in obesity development. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding links between activity and diet quality and their combined influence on obesity during adolescence. Objectives. We used five years of data from 2379 adolescent girls in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study to evaluate the association between physical activity and diet quality during adolescence and to assess both as correlates of obesity. Design. Diet, activity, and body composition measures were evaluated pairwise for correlation. A canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate relationships within and between variable groups. All statistics were examined for trends over time. Results. We found positive correlations between physical activity and diet quality that became stronger with age. Additionally we discovered an age-related decrease in association between obesity correlates and body composition. Conclusion. These results suggest that while health behaviors, like diet and activity, become more closely linked during growth, obesity becomes less influenced by health behaviors and other factors. This should motivate focus on juvenile obesity prevention capitalizing on the pliable framework for establishing healthy diet and physical activity patterns while impact on body composition is greatest. Janne H. Maier and Ronald Barry Copyright © 2015 Janne H. Maier and Ronald Barry. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Multiple Micronutrients Fortified Milk Consumption on Iron Nutritional Status in Moroccan Schoolchildren Wed, 19 Aug 2015 15:31:17 +0000 Iron deficiency constitutes a major public health problem in Morocco, mainly among women and children. The aim of our paper is to assess the efficacy of consumption of multiple micronutrients (MMN) fortified milk on iron status of Moroccan schoolchildren living in rural region. Children (), aged 7 to 9 y, were recruited from schools and divided into two groups: the nonfortified group (NFG) received daily a nonfortified Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT) milk and the fortified group received (FG) daily UHT milk fortified with multiple micronutrients including iron sulfate. Blood samples were collected at baseline (T0) and after 9 months (T9). Hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in situ by Hemocue device; ferritin and C Reactive Protein were assessed in serum using ELISA and nephelometry techniques, respectively. Results were considered significant when the value was <0.05. At T9 FG showed a reduction of iron deficiency from 50.9% to 37.2% (). Despite the low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (1.9%); more than 50% of children in our sample suffered from iron deficiency at baseline. The consumption of fortified milk reduced the prevalence of iron deficiency by 27% in schoolchildren living in high altitude rural region of Morocco. Clinical Trial Registration. Our study is registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry with the identification number PACTR201410000896410. Imane El Menchawy, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Khalid El Kari, Naima Saeid, Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou, Nada Benajiba, Imane El Harchaoui, Mohamed El Mzibri, Noureddine El Haloui, and Hassan Aguenaou Copyright © 2015 Imane El Menchawy et al. All rights reserved. Nutrition before and during Surgery and the Inflammatory Response of the Heart: A Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 29 Jul 2015 12:12:19 +0000 Major surgery induces a long fasting time and provokes an inflammatory response which increases the risk of infections. Nutrition given before and during surgery can avoid fasting and has been shown to increase the arginine/asymmetric dimetlhylarginine ratio, a marker of nitric oxide availability, in cardiac tissue and increased concentrations of branched chain amino acids in blood plasma. However, the effect of this new nutritional strategy on organ inflammatory response is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effect of nutrition before and during cardiac surgery on myocardial inflammatory response. In this trial, 32 patients were randomised between enteral, parenteral, and no nutrition supplementation (control) from 2 days before, during, up to 2 days after coronary artery bypass grafting. Both solutions included proteins or amino acids, glucose, vitamins, and minerals. Myocardial atrial tissue was sampled before and after revascularization and was analysed immunohistochemically, subdivided into cardiomyocytic, fatty, and fibrotic areas. Inflammatory cells, especially leukocytes, were present in cardiac tissue in all study groups. No significant differences were found in the myocardial inflammatory response between the enteral, parenteral, and control groups. In conclusion, nutrition given before and during surgery neither stimulates nor diminishes the myocardial inflammatory response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The trial was registered in Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2183. Marlieke Visser, Hans W. M. Niessen, Wouter E. M. Kok, Riccardo Cocchieri, Willem Wisselink, Paul A. M. van Leeuwen, and Bas A. J. M. de Mol Copyright © 2015 Marlieke Visser et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term High Fat Intake Does Not Significantly Alter Markers of Renal Function or Inflammation in Young Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Sun, 21 Jun 2015 11:44:24 +0000 Chronic high fat feeding is correlated with diabetes and kidney disease. However, the impact of short-term high fat diets (HFD) is not well-understood. Six weeks of HFD result in indices of metabolic syndrome (increased adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation) compared to rats fed on standard chow. The hypothesis was that short-term HFD would induce early signs of renal disease. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either HFD (60% fat) or standard chow (5% fat) for six weeks. Morphology was determined by measuring changes in renal mass and microstructure. Kidney function was measured by analyzing urinary protein, creatinine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, as well as plasma cystatin C concentrations. Renal damage was measured through assessment of urinary oxDNA/RNA concentrations as well as renal lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Despite HFD significantly increasing adiposity and renal mass, there was no evidence of early stage kidney disease as measured by changes in urinary and plasma biomarkers as well as histology. These findings suggest that moderate hyperglycemia and inflammation produced by short-term HFD are not sufficient to damage kidneys or that the ketogenic HFD may have protective effects within the kidneys. Catherine Crinigan, Matthew Calhoun, and Karen L. Sweazea Copyright © 2015 Catherine Crinigan et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application Tue, 16 Jun 2015 08:16:33 +0000 Research into human biotransformation and elimination systems continues to evolve. Various clinical and in vivo studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of foods and food-derived components on the activity of detoxification pathways, including phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase II conjugation enzymes, Nrf2 signaling, and metallothionein. This review summarizes the research in this area to date, highlighting the potential for foods and nutrients to support and/or modulate detoxification functions. Clinical applications to alter detoxification pathway activity and improve patient outcomes are considered, drawing on the growing understanding of the relationship between detoxification functions and different disease states, genetic polymorphisms, and drug-nutrient interactions. Some caution is recommended, however, due to the limitations of current research as well as indications that many nutrients exert biphasic, dose-dependent effects and that genetic polymorphisms may alter outcomes. A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent. Romilly E. Hodges and Deanna M. Minich Copyright © 2015 Romilly E. Hodges and Deanna M. Minich. All rights reserved. Fructose Metabolism and Relation to Atherosclerosis, Type 2 Diabetes, and Obesity Sun, 14 Jun 2015 13:20:10 +0000 A high intake of sugars has been linked to diet-induced health problems. The fructose content in sugars consumed may also affect health, although the extent to which fructose has a particularly significant negative impact on health remains controversial. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the body’s fructose management and to discuss the role of fructose as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Despite some positive effects of fructose, such as high relative sweetness, high thermogenic effect, and low glycaemic index, a high intake of fructose, particularly when combined with glucose, can, to a larger extent than a similar glucose intake, lead to metabolic changes in the liver. Increased de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and thus altered blood lipid profile, seems to be the most prominent change. More studies with realistic consumption levels of fructose are needed, but current literature does not indicate that a normal consumption of fructose (approximately 50–60 g/day) increases the risk of atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, or obesity more than consumption of other sugars. However, a high intake of fructose, particularly if combined with a high energy intake in the form of glucose/starch, may have negative health effects via DNL. Astrid Kolderup and Birger Svihus Copyright © 2015 Astrid Kolderup and Birger Svihus. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Sun, 07 Jun 2015 13:59:49 +0000 Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world’s population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional counseling on consumption of extra meal and iron-rich foods during pregnancy are recommended to prevent anemia in the pregnant women. Abel Gebre and Afework Mulugeta Copyright © 2015 Abel Gebre and Afework Mulugeta. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of the Metabolic and Skeletal Response of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N Mice in a Diet-Induced Model of Type 2 Diabetes Wed, 03 Jun 2015 11:15:06 +0000 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a complex clinical scenario of altered energy metabolism and increased fracture incidence. The C57BL/6 mouse model of diet-induced obesity has been used to study the mechanisms by which altered glucose homeostasis affects bone mass and quality, but genetic variations in substrains of C57BL/6 may have confounded data interpretation. This study investigated the long-term metabolic and skeletal consequences of two commonly used C57BL/6 substrains to a high fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and the negative control strain, C3H/HeJ, mice were fed a control or HF diet for 24 wks. C57BL/6N mice on a HF diet demonstrated an increase in plasma insulin and blood glucose as early as 4 wk, whereas these responses were delayed in the C57BL/6J mice. The C57BL/6N mice exhibited more severe hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Only the C57BL/6N mice lost significant trabecular bone in response to the high fat diet. The C3H/HeJ mice were protected from bone loss. The data show that C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice differ in their metabolic and skeletal response when fed a HF diet. These substrain differences should be considered when designing experiments and are likely to have implications on data interpretation and reproducibility. Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Kelsey D. Hembree, Angela Sasaki, McKale R. Davis, Stan A. Lightfoot, Stephen L. Clarke, Edralin A. Lucas, and Brenda J. Smith Copyright © 2015 Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6–23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia Wed, 27 May 2015 07:09:43 +0000 Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6–23 months). Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60–5.81)), 9–11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61–25.47)), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35–7.38)), stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20–6.05)), diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63–14.59)), no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26–5.27)), early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08–30.31)), and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01–8.88)) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6–23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as appropriate infant and young child feeding practice among children under. Haile Woldie, Yigzaw Kebede, and Amare Tariku Copyright © 2015 Haile Woldie et al. All rights reserved. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Tue, 26 May 2015 06:46:16 +0000 Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin . Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, ) and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, ). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk. Christopher K. Nyirenda, Edmond K. Kabagambe, John R. Koethe, James N. Kiage, Benjamin H. Chi, Patrick Musonda, Meridith Blevins, Claire N. Bosire, Michael Y. Tsai, and Douglas C. Heimburger Copyright © 2015 Christopher K. Nyirenda et al. All rights reserved. Treatment Outcome of Severe Acute Malnutrition Cases at the Tamale Teaching Hospital Sun, 03 May 2015 16:30:59 +0000 Objective. This study investigated the treatment outcomes and determinant factors likely to be associated with recovery rate. Methods. A retrospective chart review (RCR) was performed on 348 patients who were enrolled in the outpatient care (OPC) during the study period. Results. Of the 348 cases, 33.6% recovered (having MUAC 125 mm), 49.1% defaulted, and 11.5% transferred to other OPC units to continue with treatment. There were 187 (53.7%) males and 161 (46.3%) females with severe malnutrition. The average weight gain rate was 28 g/kg/day. Controlling for other factors, patients who completed the treatment plan had 3.2 times higher probability of recovery from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) as compared to patients who defaulted (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9, 5.3, and ). The children aged 24–59 months had 5.8 times higher probability of recovery from SAM as compared to children aged 6–11 months (AOR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.5, 10.6, and ). Conclusions. Cure rate was low and the default rate was quite high. Children who were diagnosed as having marasmus on admission stayed longer before recovery than their kwashiorkor counterparts. Younger children were of greater risk of nonrecovery. Mahama Saaka, Shaibu Mohammed Osman, Anthony Amponsem, Juventus B. Ziem, Alhassan Abdul-Mumin, Prosper Akanbong, Ernestina Yirkyio, Eliasu Yakubu, and Sean Ervin Copyright © 2015 Mahama Saaka et al. All rights reserved.