Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Nutrition before and during Surgery and the Inflammatory Response of the Heart: A Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 29 Jul 2015 12:12:19 +0000 Major surgery induces a long fasting time and provokes an inflammatory response which increases the risk of infections. Nutrition given before and during surgery can avoid fasting and has been shown to increase the arginine/asymmetric dimetlhylarginine ratio, a marker of nitric oxide availability, in cardiac tissue and increased concentrations of branched chain amino acids in blood plasma. However, the effect of this new nutritional strategy on organ inflammatory response is unknown. Therefore, we studied the effect of nutrition before and during cardiac surgery on myocardial inflammatory response. In this trial, 32 patients were randomised between enteral, parenteral, and no nutrition supplementation (control) from 2 days before, during, up to 2 days after coronary artery bypass grafting. Both solutions included proteins or amino acids, glucose, vitamins, and minerals. Myocardial atrial tissue was sampled before and after revascularization and was analysed immunohistochemically, subdivided into cardiomyocytic, fatty, and fibrotic areas. Inflammatory cells, especially leukocytes, were present in cardiac tissue in all study groups. No significant differences were found in the myocardial inflammatory response between the enteral, parenteral, and control groups. In conclusion, nutrition given before and during surgery neither stimulates nor diminishes the myocardial inflammatory response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The trial was registered in Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2183. Marlieke Visser, Hans W. M. Niessen, Wouter E. M. Kok, Riccardo Cocchieri, Willem Wisselink, Paul A. M. van Leeuwen, and Bas A. J. M. de Mol Copyright © 2015 Marlieke Visser et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term High Fat Intake Does Not Significantly Alter Markers of Renal Function or Inflammation in Young Male Sprague-Dawley Rats Sun, 21 Jun 2015 11:44:24 +0000 Chronic high fat feeding is correlated with diabetes and kidney disease. However, the impact of short-term high fat diets (HFD) is not well-understood. Six weeks of HFD result in indices of metabolic syndrome (increased adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia, and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation) compared to rats fed on standard chow. The hypothesis was that short-term HFD would induce early signs of renal disease. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either HFD (60% fat) or standard chow (5% fat) for six weeks. Morphology was determined by measuring changes in renal mass and microstructure. Kidney function was measured by analyzing urinary protein, creatinine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, as well as plasma cystatin C concentrations. Renal damage was measured through assessment of urinary oxDNA/RNA concentrations as well as renal lipid peroxidation, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Despite HFD significantly increasing adiposity and renal mass, there was no evidence of early stage kidney disease as measured by changes in urinary and plasma biomarkers as well as histology. These findings suggest that moderate hyperglycemia and inflammation produced by short-term HFD are not sufficient to damage kidneys or that the ketogenic HFD may have protective effects within the kidneys. Catherine Crinigan, Matthew Calhoun, and Karen L. Sweazea Copyright © 2015 Catherine Crinigan et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application Tue, 16 Jun 2015 08:16:33 +0000 Research into human biotransformation and elimination systems continues to evolve. Various clinical and in vivo studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of foods and food-derived components on the activity of detoxification pathways, including phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase II conjugation enzymes, Nrf2 signaling, and metallothionein. This review summarizes the research in this area to date, highlighting the potential for foods and nutrients to support and/or modulate detoxification functions. Clinical applications to alter detoxification pathway activity and improve patient outcomes are considered, drawing on the growing understanding of the relationship between detoxification functions and different disease states, genetic polymorphisms, and drug-nutrient interactions. Some caution is recommended, however, due to the limitations of current research as well as indications that many nutrients exert biphasic, dose-dependent effects and that genetic polymorphisms may alter outcomes. A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent. Romilly E. Hodges and Deanna M. Minich Copyright © 2015 Romilly E. Hodges and Deanna M. Minich. All rights reserved. Fructose Metabolism and Relation to Atherosclerosis, Type 2 Diabetes, and Obesity Sun, 14 Jun 2015 13:20:10 +0000 A high intake of sugars has been linked to diet-induced health problems. The fructose content in sugars consumed may also affect health, although the extent to which fructose has a particularly significant negative impact on health remains controversial. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the body’s fructose management and to discuss the role of fructose as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Despite some positive effects of fructose, such as high relative sweetness, high thermogenic effect, and low glycaemic index, a high intake of fructose, particularly when combined with glucose, can, to a larger extent than a similar glucose intake, lead to metabolic changes in the liver. Increased de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and thus altered blood lipid profile, seems to be the most prominent change. More studies with realistic consumption levels of fructose are needed, but current literature does not indicate that a normal consumption of fructose (approximately 50–60 g/day) increases the risk of atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, or obesity more than consumption of other sugars. However, a high intake of fructose, particularly if combined with a high energy intake in the form of glucose/starch, may have negative health effects via DNL. Astrid Kolderup and Birger Svihus Copyright © 2015 Astrid Kolderup and Birger Svihus. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study Sun, 07 Jun 2015 13:59:49 +0000 Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world’s population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL) among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional counseling on consumption of extra meal and iron-rich foods during pregnancy are recommended to prevent anemia in the pregnant women. Abel Gebre and Afework Mulugeta Copyright © 2015 Abel Gebre and Afework Mulugeta. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of the Metabolic and Skeletal Response of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N Mice in a Diet-Induced Model of Type 2 Diabetes Wed, 03 Jun 2015 11:15:06 +0000 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) represents a complex clinical scenario of altered energy metabolism and increased fracture incidence. The C57BL/6 mouse model of diet-induced obesity has been used to study the mechanisms by which altered glucose homeostasis affects bone mass and quality, but genetic variations in substrains of C57BL/6 may have confounded data interpretation. This study investigated the long-term metabolic and skeletal consequences of two commonly used C57BL/6 substrains to a high fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and the negative control strain, C3H/HeJ, mice were fed a control or HF diet for 24 wks. C57BL/6N mice on a HF diet demonstrated an increase in plasma insulin and blood glucose as early as 4 wk, whereas these responses were delayed in the C57BL/6J mice. The C57BL/6N mice exhibited more severe hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Only the C57BL/6N mice lost significant trabecular bone in response to the high fat diet. The C3H/HeJ mice were protected from bone loss. The data show that C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice differ in their metabolic and skeletal response when fed a HF diet. These substrain differences should be considered when designing experiments and are likely to have implications on data interpretation and reproducibility. Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Kelsey D. Hembree, Angela Sasaki, McKale R. Davis, Stan A. Lightfoot, Stephen L. Clarke, Edralin A. Lucas, and Brenda J. Smith Copyright © 2015 Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6–23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia Wed, 27 May 2015 07:09:43 +0000 Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence and associated factors of iron deficiency anemia among children under two (6–23 months). Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March to May, 2014, at Tsitsika Health Center in Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Automated hemoglobin machine was used to determine the hemoglobin level. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected by using a pretested and structured questionnaire. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated factors and odds ratio with 95% CI was computed to assess the strength of association. Results. Total of 347 children participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anemia was 66.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, male sex (AOR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.60–5.81)), 9–11 months of age (AOR = 9.6 (95% CI: 3.61–25.47)), poor dietary diversity (AOR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.35–7.38)), stunting (AOR = 2.7 (95% CI: 1.20–6.05)), diarrhea (AOR = 4.9 (1.63–14.59)), no formal education (AOR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.26–5.27)), early initiation of complementary food (AOR = 11.1 (95% CI: 4.08–30.31)), and lowest wealth quintile (AOR = 3.0 (95% CI: 1.01–8.88)) were significantly associated with anemia. Conclusion. The overall prevalence of anemia among children who aged 6–23 months has sever public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as appropriate infant and young child feeding practice among children under. Haile Woldie, Yigzaw Kebede, and Amare Tariku Copyright © 2015 Haile Woldie et al. All rights reserved. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Tue, 26 May 2015 06:46:16 +0000 Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR) are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 for eicosapentaenoic acid and 0.21 for docosahexaenoic acid. While there were no significant associations between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP) or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin . Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA) were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, ) and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, ). Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk. Christopher K. Nyirenda, Edmond K. Kabagambe, John R. Koethe, James N. Kiage, Benjamin H. Chi, Patrick Musonda, Meridith Blevins, Claire N. Bosire, Michael Y. Tsai, and Douglas C. Heimburger Copyright © 2015 Christopher K. Nyirenda et al. All rights reserved. Treatment Outcome of Severe Acute Malnutrition Cases at the Tamale Teaching Hospital Sun, 03 May 2015 16:30:59 +0000 Objective. This study investigated the treatment outcomes and determinant factors likely to be associated with recovery rate. Methods. A retrospective chart review (RCR) was performed on 348 patients who were enrolled in the outpatient care (OPC) during the study period. Results. Of the 348 cases, 33.6% recovered (having MUAC 125 mm), 49.1% defaulted, and 11.5% transferred to other OPC units to continue with treatment. There were 187 (53.7%) males and 161 (46.3%) females with severe malnutrition. The average weight gain rate was 28 g/kg/day. Controlling for other factors, patients who completed the treatment plan had 3.2 times higher probability of recovery from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) as compared to patients who defaulted (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.9, 5.3, and ). The children aged 24–59 months had 5.8 times higher probability of recovery from SAM as compared to children aged 6–11 months (AOR = 5.8, 95% CI = 2.5, 10.6, and ). Conclusions. Cure rate was low and the default rate was quite high. Children who were diagnosed as having marasmus on admission stayed longer before recovery than their kwashiorkor counterparts. Younger children were of greater risk of nonrecovery. Mahama Saaka, Shaibu Mohammed Osman, Anthony Amponsem, Juventus B. Ziem, Alhassan Abdul-Mumin, Prosper Akanbong, Ernestina Yirkyio, Eliasu Yakubu, and Sean Ervin Copyright © 2015 Mahama Saaka et al. All rights reserved. Performance Enhancing Diets and the PRISE Protocol to Optimize Athletic Performance Wed, 08 Apr 2015 11:13:32 +0000 The training regimens of modern-day athletes have evolved from the sole emphasis on a single fitness component (e.g., endurance athlete or resistance/strength athlete) to an integrative, multimode approach encompassing all four of the major fitness components: resistance (R), interval sprints (I), stretching (S), and endurance (E) training. Athletes rarely, if ever, focus their training on only one mode of exercise but instead routinely engage in a multimode training program. In addition, timed-daily protein (P) intake has become a hallmark for all athletes. Recent studies, including from our laboratory, have validated the effectiveness of this multimode paradigm (RISE) and protein-feeding regimen, which we have collectively termed PRISE. Unfortunately, sports nutrition recommendations and guidelines have lagged behind the PRISE integrative nutrition and training model and therefore limit an athletes’ ability to succeed. Thus, it is the purpose of this review to provide a clearly defined roadmap linking specific performance enhancing diets (PEDs) with each PRISE component to facilitate optimal nourishment and ultimately optimal athletic performance. Paul J. Arciero, Vincent J. Miller, and Emery Ward Copyright © 2015 Paul J. Arciero et al. All rights reserved. Fasting Blood Glucose Profile among Secondary School Adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria Thu, 02 Apr 2015 11:06:01 +0000 Background. Over the past two decades there has been an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in children. Baseline data is needed to assess the impact of changing lifestyles on Ado-Ekiti, a previously semiurban community in Southwest Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to assess the fasting blood glucose (FBG) of adolescents in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study involving 628 adolescents from three different secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. With parental consent, volunteers completed a structured questionnaire, and an overnight FBG was measured. Results. There were 346 males and 282 females (male : female ratio = 1.2 : 1). Their ages ranged from 10 to 19 years (mean age: years). Four hundred and forty-four (70.7%) had normal FBG, while 180 (28.7%) and 4 (0.6%) had FBG in the prediabetic and diabetic range, respectively. Female gender, age group 10–14 years, and family history of obesity were significantly associated with impaired FBG ( value <0.001, <0.001, and 0.045, resp.). Conclusion. Impaired FBG is common among secondary school adolescents and it is more prevalent among younger female adolescents (10–14 years) with positive family history of obesity. I. O. Oluwayemi, S. J. Brink, E. E. Oyenusi, O. A. Oduwole, and M. A. Oluwayemi Copyright © 2015 I. O. Oluwayemi et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Students in the Kumasi Metropolis Wed, 11 Feb 2015 14:20:51 +0000 The aim was to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among students in the Kumasi metropolis. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 500 students aged 10 to 20 years were examined from two junior high schools selected by multistage sampling technique and three randomly selected senior high schools. Height and weight were measured in all participants and the body mass index (BMI) of each individual was calculated. Body mass index classes were calculated according to the International Obesity Task Force standards. Out of the 500 students, 290 (58.00%) were males and 210 (42.00%) were females. The prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity was 7.40%, 79.60%, 12.20%, and 0.80%, respectively. Overweight was more prevalent among students than obesity. There is therefore the need to establish effective public health promotion campaigns among students in order to curtail future implications on health. D. B. Kumah, K. O. Akuffo, J. E. Abaka-Cann, D. E. Affram, and E. A. Osae Copyright © 2015 D. B. Kumah et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Fructose Intake Induces Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Male, but Not Female, Offspring Wed, 11 Feb 2015 14:13:10 +0000 Objective. Fructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. However, consumption of beverages containing fructose is allowed during gestation. Recently, we found that an intake of fructose (10% wt/vol) throughout gestation produces an impaired fetal leptin signalling. Therefore, we have investigated whether maternal fructose intake produces subsequent changes in their progeny. Methods. Blood samples from fed and 24 h fasted female and male 90-day-old rats born from fructose-fed, glucose-fed, or control mothers were used. Results. After fasting, HOMA-IR and ISI (estimates of insulin sensitivity) were worse in male descendents from fructose-fed mothers in comparison to the other two groups, and these findings were also accompanied by a higher leptinemia. Interestingly, plasma AOPP and uricemia (oxidative stress markers) were augmented in male rats from fructose-fed mothers compared to the animals from control or glucose-fed mothers. In contrast, female rats did not show any differences in leptinemia between the three groups. Further, insulin sensitivity was significantly improved in fasted female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. In addition, plasma AOPP levels tended to be diminished in female rats from carbohydrate-fed mothers. Conclusion. Maternal fructose intake induces insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, and plasma oxidative stress in male, but not female, progeny. Lourdes Rodríguez, Paola Otero, María I. Panadero, Silvia Rodrigo, Juan J. Álvarez-Millán, and Carlos Bocos Copyright © 2015 Lourdes Rodríguez et al. All rights reserved. Awareness and Perception of Plant-Based Diets for the Treatment and Management of Type 2 Diabetes in a Community Education Clinic: A Pilot Study Sat, 31 Jan 2015 08:03:45 +0000 Objective. To assess awareness, barriers, and promoters of plant-based diet use for management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) for the development of an appropriate educational program. Design. Cross-sectional study of patients and healthcare providers. Setting. Regional Diabetes Education Centre in ON, Canada. Participants. patients attending the Diabetes Education Centre and healthcare providers. Variables Measures. Patient questionnaires addressed demographics, health history, and eating patterns, as well as current knowledge, confidence levels, barriers to, promoters of, and interests in plant-based diets. Staff questionnaires addressed attitudes and current practice with respect to plant-based diets. Analysis. Mean values, frequency counts, and logistic regression (alpha = 0.05). Results. Few respondents (9%) currently followed a plant-based diet, but 66% indicated willingness to follow one for 3 weeks. Family eating preferences and meal planning skills were common barriers to diet change. 72% of healthcare providers reported knowledge of plant-based diets for diabetes management but low levels of practice. Conclusions and Implications. Patient awareness of the benefits of a plant-based diet for the management of diabetes remains suboptimal and may be influenced by perception of diabetes educators and clinicians. Given the reported willingness to try (but low current use of) plant-based diets, educational interventions targeting patient and provider level knowledge are warranted. Vincent Lee, Taylor McKay, and Chris I. Ardern Copyright © 2015 Vincent Lee et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:05:46 +0000 Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS. W. Aekplakorn, W. Satheannoppakao, P. Putwatana, S. Taneepanichskul, P. Kessomboon, V. Chongsuvivatwong, and S. Chariyalertsak Copyright © 2015 W. Aekplakorn et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities Thu, 11 Dec 2014 06:19:12 +0000 Objective. Studies demonstrate that people’s food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents’ food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. Rebecca Seguin, Leah Connor, Miriam Nelson, Andrea LaCroix, and Galen Eldridge Copyright © 2014 Rebecca Seguin et al. All rights reserved. Acute Effects of Exogenous Hormone Administration on Postprandial Acylation Stimulating Protein Levels in Ovariectomized Rats after a Fat Load Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:05 +0000 Background. ASP, a potent lipogenic factor, was linked to female fat metabolism in association studies. Aim. To investigate acute effects of sex hormone treatment on postprandial ASP levels in vivo. Methods. 24 female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including controls. The rats were ovariectomized and injected with progesterone, estrogen, or testosterone. An hour later, olive oil was administered orally. Plasma ASP and triglycerides were measured at several postprandial time points. Area under the curve (TG-AUC) represented TG clearance. Results. Only the progesterone treated group had a significant postprandial ASP increase at two hours compared to basal levels (439.8 ± 62.4 versus 253.4 ± 59.03 μg/mL, ). Interestingly, increased ASP levels coordinated negatively with corresponding TG levels and TG-AUC postprandially, mostly evident in the opposite effects in the progesterone and testosterone treated groups. ASP levels increased 3-fold in the progesterone versus testosterone treated groups, whereas TG-AUC was significantly lower. Conclusion. These findings suggest that progesterone enhances ASP production and TG clearance simultaneously, supporting the notion of a stimulatory role for progesterone on ASP-mediated TG clearance. This is the first functional study demonstrating a cause-effect relationship between hormone treatment and ASP levels in vivo and may contribute to understanding the mechanism of progesterone function as a female lipogenic hormone. Bashair Al Riyami, Marah El-Tahir, Sultan Al Maskari, Eugene H. Johnson, and Jumana Saleh Copyright © 2014 Bashair Al Riyami et al. All rights reserved. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:03 +0000 Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs). The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females) was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce. Katiya Ivanovitch, Jeeranun Klaewkla, Rewadee Chongsuwat, Chukiat Viwatwongkasem, and Wanicha Kitvorapat Copyright © 2014 Katiya Ivanovitch et al. All rights reserved. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review Tue, 25 Nov 2014 13:08:45 +0000 Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. Rachel A. Millstein Copyright © 2014 Rachel A. Millstein. All rights reserved. Effects of Canned Pineapple Consumption on Nutritional Status, Immunomodulation, and Physical Health of Selected School Children Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:47:53 +0000 This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of canned pineapple consumption on immunomodulation, nutritional status, and physical health of ninety-eight (98) school children with mean age of . The study participants were divided into three groups: Group A (33) includes subjects who were not given canned pineapple, Group B (33) includes those who were given 140 g, and Group C (32) includes those given 280 g of canned pineapple for nine weeks. Each major group was further divided into two groups: normal (N) and underweight (U) based on 2007 WHO Growth Reference Standards. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical examination, dietary intake, hemoglobin level, and immunological data were analyzed. Results showed a decrease in incidence of viral and bacterial infections for both Group B and Group C (normal and underweight) after canned pineapple consumption. Granulocyte production increased by 0.77–26.61% for normal weight subjects and 14.95–34.55% for underweight. CD16+56 count augmented by 20.44–22.13% for normal weight and 3.57–15.89% for underweight subjects. Thus, intake of both one can (140 g) and two cans (280 g) of canned pineapple may shorten the duration and incidence of infection and may increase the production of granulocytes and CD16+56, but intake of two cans (280 g) demonstrated higher granulocyte and CD16+56 production. This trial is registered with Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140826-000225. Mavil May C. Cervo, Luisito O. Llido, Erniel B. Barrios, and Leonora N. Panlasigui Copyright © 2014 Mavil May C. Cervo et al. All rights reserved. Effects of High Phosphorus Diet on Bone Metabolism-Related Gene Expression in Young and Aged Mice Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:11:20 +0000 In this study, the effects of high phosphorus (P) diet on bone metabolism-related gene expression were investigated in young and aged mice. Twelve- and 80-week-old ddY male mice were divided into two groups, respectively, and fed a control diet containing 0.3% P or a high P diet containing 1.2% P. After 4 weeks of treatment, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration was significantly higher in the high P groups than in the control groups in both young and aged mice and was significantly higher in aged mice than in young mice fed the high P diet. High P diet significantly increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA in the femur of both young and aged mice and significantly increased the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA ratio only in aged mice. High P diet significantly increased mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6, calbindin-D9k, and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 1b in the duodenum of both young and aged mice. These results suggest that high P diet increased RANKL mRNA expression in the femur and calcium absorption-related gene expression in the duodenum regardless of age. Furthermore, the high P diet-induced increase in PTH secretion might increase the RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in aged mice. Shinichi Katsumata, Hiroshi Matsuzaki, Rie Katsumata-Tsuboi, Mariko Uehara, and Kazuharu Suzuki Copyright © 2014 Shinichi Katsumata et al. All rights reserved. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mon, 10 Nov 2014 12:08:04 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU and Huang et al. equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al’s. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate. Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira, Filipe Detrano, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho, Maria Elisa Barros, Regina Serrão Lanzillotti, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Emilson Souza Portella, Haydée Serrão Lanzillotti, and Eliane de Abreu Soares Copyright © 2014 Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis Thu, 09 Oct 2014 10:09:08 +0000 Objective. To document sex differences in the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on glucose/insulin homeostasis and to verify whether these sex-related effects were associated with changes in nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Methods. All foods were provided to 38 men and 32 premenopausal women (24–53 y) during 4 weeks. Variables were measured during a 180 min OGTT before and after the MedDiet. Results. A sex-by-time interaction for plasma insulin iAUC was found (men: −17.8%, ; women: +9.4%, ; for sex-by-time interaction = 0.005). A sex-by-time interaction was also observed for insulin sensitivity (Cederholm index, ), for which only men experienced improvements (men: +8.1%, ; women: −5.9%, ). No sex difference was observed for glucose and C-peptide responses. Trends toward a decrease in NEFA AUC () and an increase in NEFA suppression rate () were noted, with no sex difference. Changes in NEFA were not associated with change in insulin sensitivity. Conclusions. Results suggest that the more favorable changes in glucose/insulin homeostasis observed in men compared to women in response to the MedDiet are not explained by sex differences in NEFA response. This clinical trial is registered with NCT01293344. Alexandra Bédard, Louise Corneau, Benoît Lamarche, Sylvie Dodin, and Simone Lemieux Copyright © 2014 Alexandra Bédard et al. All rights reserved. Leucine Modulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and SIRT1-AMPK Signaling in C2C12 Myotubes Tue, 07 Oct 2014 10:00:08 +0000 Previous studies from this laboratory demonstrate that dietary leucine protects against high fat diet-induced mitochondrial impairments and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and energy partitioning from adipocytes to muscle cells through SIRT1-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has been reported to activate AMPK synergistically with resveratrol in C2C12 myotubes. Therefore, we hypothesize that leucine-induced activation of SIRT1 and AMPK is the central event that links the upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Thus, C2C12 myotubes were treated with leucine (0.5 mM), alanine (0.5 mM), valine (0.5 mM), EX527 (SIRT1 inhibitor, 25 μM), and Compound C (AMPK inhibitor, 25 μM) alone or in combination to determine the roles of AMPK and SIRT1 in leucine-modulation of energy metabolism. Leucine significantly increased mitochondrial content, mitochondrial biogenesis-related genes expression, fatty acid oxidation, SIRT1 activity and gene expression, and AMPK phosphorylation in C2C12 myotubes compared to the controls, while EX527 and Compound C markedly attenuated these effects. Furthermore, leucine treatment for 24 hours resulted in time-dependent increases in cellular NAD+, SIRT1 activity, and p-AMPK level, with SIRT1 activation preceding that of AMPK, indicating that leucine activation of SIRT1, rather than AMPK, is the primary event. Chunzi Liang, Benjamin J. Curry, Patricia L. Brown, and Michael B. Zemel Copyright © 2014 Chunzi Liang et al. All rights reserved. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nutrition Education for Improvement of Diet Quality and Inflammation in Iranian Obese Women Thu, 02 Oct 2014 12:53:15 +0000 Background. Obesity is considered as a low grade inflammation condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional education on diet quality and biomarkers of inflammation in Iranian obese women. Method. Sixty obese women voluntarily participated in this randomized clinical trial and were randomly assigned to intervention or control group . Intervention group was instructed to attend nutrition education sessions (1 hr/wk, for 3 months) in small groups. Diet quality scores were measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Anthropometric indices and serum concentration of hs-CRP, TNF-α, and adiponectin were measured at the baseline and end of the intervention. Results. There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices of participants between the two groups at the end of intervention . However, the total HEI score was significantly higher in the educated group compared to the control group after intervention . The educated group also showed significant lower concentration of TNF-α and hs-CRP and higher levels of adiponectin than the control group at the end of study . Conclusions. Our results provide limited evidence that higher dietary quality contributes to reduced inflammation in obese women. This effect could be independent of the weight loss. Majid Mohammadshahi, Fatemeh Haidari, Majid Karandish, Sara Ebrahimi, and Mohammad-Hosein Haghighizadeh Copyright © 2014 Majid Mohammadshahi et al. All rights reserved. A Body Shape Index and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Indians with Low Body Mass Index Thu, 02 Oct 2014 09:01:43 +0000 Background. One third of Indian population is said to be suffering from chronic energy deficiency (CED), with increased risk of developing chronic diseases. A new anthropometric measure called A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is said to be a better index in predicting risks for premature mortality. ABSI is also in part said to be a surrogate of visceral fat. Objective. The present study aimed to explore the association between indices of HRV (heart rate variability), BMI, WC, and ABSI in healthy Indian males with low BMI (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and to compare with normal BMI group (BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2). Methodology. ABSI and BMI were derived from anthropometric parameters, namely, height, weight, and waist circumference in 178 males aged 18 to 78 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their BMI. Results and Conclusions. Power spectral analysis of HRV demonstrated a significant negative correlation between Log HF (high frequency) and ABSI in both low BMI [−24.2 (9.4), ] and normal BMI group [−23.41 (10.1), ] even after controlling for age. Thus even with slight increase in BMI among low BMI individuals, there could be a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Sharma Sowmya, Tinku Thomas, Ankalmadagu Venkatsubbareddy Bharathi, and Sambashivaiah Sucharita Copyright © 2014 Sharma Sowmya et al. All rights reserved. Food Insecurity and Not Dietary Diversity Is a Predictor of Nutrition Status in Children within Semiarid Agro-Ecological Zones in Eastern Kenya Sun, 28 Sep 2014 13:35:33 +0000 Machakos and Makueni counties in Kenya are associated with historical land degradation, climate change, and food insecurity. Both counties lie in lower midland (LM) lower humidity to semiarid (LM4), and semiarid (LM5) agroecological zones (AEZ). We assessed food security, dietary diversity, and nutritional status of children and women. Materials and Methods. A total of 277 woman-child pairs aged 15–46 years and 6–36 months respectively, were recruited from farmer households. Food security and dietary diversity were assessed using standard tools. Weight and height, or length in children, were used for computation of nutritional status. Findings. No significant difference () was observed in food security and dietary diversity score (DDS) between LM4 and LM5. Stunting, wasting, and underweight levels among children in LM4 and LM5 were comparable as were BMI scores among women. However, significant associations () were found between severe food insecurity and nutritional status of children but not of their caregivers. Stunting was significantly higher in older children (>2 years) and among children whose caregivers were older. Conclusion. Differences in AEZ may not affect dietary diversity and nutritional status of farmer households. Consequently use of DDS may lead to underestimation of food insecurity in semiarid settings. Zipporah N. Bukania, Moses Mwangi, Robert M. Karanja, Richard Mutisya, Yeri Kombe, Lydia U. Kaduka, and Timothy Johns Copyright © 2014 Zipporah N. Bukania et al. All rights reserved. Validity of Nutritional Screening Tools for Hospitalized Children Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:18:05 +0000 Background. Malnutrition in hospitalized children can be prevented if children with risk of malnutrition are identified. Every hospital is recommended to have a standard nutritional screening tool. Numerous simple screening tools have been developed, namely Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP), and Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONG-kids). None has been accepted as a universal tool. Our study aims to determine the best screening tools compared to Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA), an assessment tool which is more complex as our gold standard. Methods. This diagnostic study involved 116 patients aged 1–15 years. Three screening tools and SGNA were examined to each subject. Statistical analysis was used to determine sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR) by results from screening tools divided into low and moderate-high risk of malnutrition compared to results from SGNA divided into no and moderate-severe malnutrition. Results. PYMS showed superior agreement to SGNA resulting in sensitivity 95.32%, specificity 76.92%, positive LR 4.13, and negative LR 0.061. STAMP resulted in sensitivity, specificity, positive LR, and negative LR, respectively, as 100%, 11.54%, 1.13, and 0 and STRONG-kids resulted in 100%, 7.7%, 1.083, and 0. Conclusion. PYMS was the most reliable screening tool. Nathania Wonoputri, Julistio T. B. Djais, and Ina Rosalina Copyright © 2014 Nathania Wonoputri et al. All rights reserved. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats Thu, 11 Sep 2014 12:08:57 +0000 Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. O. S. Adeyemi and T. C. Elebiyo Copyright © 2014 O. S. Adeyemi and T. C. Elebiyo. All rights reserved. Effect of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Dietary Glycemic Load and Dietary Glycemic Index: The PREDIMED Study Thu, 11 Sep 2014 08:46:37 +0000 Objective. To compare the one year effect of two dietary interventions with MeDiet on GL and GI in the PREDIMED trial. Methods. Participants were older subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This analysis included 2866 nondiabetic subjects. Diet was assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The GI of each FFQ item was assigned by a 5-step methodology using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess the relationship between the intervention group and dietary GL and GI at one year of follow-up, using control group as reference. Results. Multivariate-adjusted models showed an inverse association between GL and MeDiet + extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) group: β = −8.52 (95% CI: −10.83 to −6.20) and MeDiet + Nuts group: β = −10.34 (95% CI: −12.69 to −8.00), when comparing with control group. Regarding GI, β = −0.93 (95% CI: −1.38 to −0.49) for MeDiet + EVOO, β = −1.06 (95% CI: −1.51 to −0.62) for MeDiet + Nuts when comparing with control group. Conclusion. Dietary intervention with MeDiet supplemented with EVOO or nuts lowers dietary GL and GI. Ana Isabel Rodríguez-Rejón, Itandehui Castro-Quezada, Cristina Ruano-Rodríguez, María Dolores Ruiz-López, Almudena Sánchez-Villegas, Estefanía Toledo, Reyes Artacho, Ramón Estruch, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, María Isabel Covas, Dolores Corella, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, José Lapetra, Xavier Pintó, Fernando Arós, Miquel Fiol, Rosa María Lamuela-Raventós, Valentina Ruiz-Gutierrez, Helmut Schröder, Emilio Ros, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, and Lluis Serra-Majem Copyright © 2014 Ana Isabel Rodríguez-Rejón et al. All rights reserved.