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Journal of Nanoparticles
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 535901, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/535901
Review Article

Gold Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites in Clinical Diagnostics Using Electrochemical Methods

1Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sector 125, Noida 201303, India
2Department of Chemistry, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea
3Institute of BioPhysio Sensor Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea
4Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, HMC, and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747, Republic of Korea
5Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India
6Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India

Received 30 November 2012; Accepted 5 February 2013

Academic Editor: Young-Seok Shon

Copyright © 2013 Pranjal Chandra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Progress and development in clinical diagnostics certainly focus upon the advances in the nanomaterials, particularly gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that offer promise to solve the biocompatible and sensitive detection systems. This paper focuses on the recent application of AuNPs in clinical diagnosis. Various important methods of AuNPs synthesis and their application in clinical detection of various biomolecules using electrochemical detection methods have been described. AuNPs alone and in various composites are also described based on the various biosensors design recently published for the detection of cancer biomarkers, proteins, bacteria, and cancer cells. The effect of AuNPs type and size in clinical detection has also been briefly illustrated.