158434.fig.001
Figure 1: A hypothetical nanoenergy unit. The figure shows the potentially continuous exchange of ions between phases within a contained nanosystem. The system has two or more inner membranes, which act as phase-separators between phases of ion concentrations. The number of voltage pumps is chosen for illustrative purposes, and does not reflect (21). The effect of exchange of ions exploits the voltage-dependent transmembrane ion-pumps innate need to equilibrate the ionic populations as proven [15]. Competing with each other, the two direction enzymes from the inner and outer membrane continuously pump ions in and out of the membranes generating a polarization effect on the surrounding nanoencapsulating material. Simultaneously Le Chatelier’s principle exerts an additional force, which drives furthermore to stimulate the sensor domains’ activation. The nanocomposite encapsulating the fuel cell bears phototrophic qualities emitting photons. The contribution of nonadditivity yields a system that theoretically does not reach equilibrium. If equilibrium is reached however, the application of magnets can be applied to recharge the unit by distributing the ions un-evenly again. The system, emitting photons to a photosensitive switch, transforms the energy into nanomechanical energy.