Table 1: Nanoparticles used in the present study.

TypeNameSourceMethod of productionIDDensity (g/cc)aSurface area (m2/g)Surface charge (pHpzc)bDiameter (nm)c

Silica dioxide (SiO2)Aerosil 90Degussa Corp.Continuous flame hydrolysisAero902.276.5 2.035.6
Aerosil 130Degussa Corp.Aero1302.2105.126
Aerosil 200Degussa Corp.Aero2002.2190.614.3
Aerosil 300Degussa Corp.Aero3002.2284.89.6

Standard alumina powderAllied High Tech ProductsProprietary calciningStd Al3.6924.167.5
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)AluminaAl15203.6992.38.2–9.117.6
Gamma alumina powder, type NAllied High Tech ProductsProprietary calciningAl γ-α3.69102.915.8

8–8408-8403.97.5204.1
9–780Temperature annealing9-7803.912.6 ± 0.9c122.3
7–660University of Delaware7-6603.933.645.8
SL1Sol-gelSL13.936.242.5
10–600Temperature annealing10-6003.936.642
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)P25Degussa Corp.Liquid-gas phase synthesisP253.944.0 ± 2.9c5.4–6.535.1
SL2University of DelawareSol-gelSL23.987.730.3
Wo5Dong et al. [63]Reverse micelleWo53.918.7
Reade 5Nanostructured and Amorphous Materials, Inc.Wet-chemistry precipitationR53.9290.5 ± 8.2c5.3
Reade 10Nanostructured and Amorphous Materials, Inc.Wet-chemistry precipitationR103.9319.34.8
U100Sachtleben ChemicalsSol-gelU11003.9322.44.8

a: references for NP density: (TiO2) [31], [63]; (SiO2) [64] (Al2O3) [64, 65].
b: references for surface charges (Al2O3 and SiO2) [30]; (TiO2) [66].
c: diameter of NP calculated from ; where is the diameter of the particle (nm), is the density of the particle (g/cm3), and is the specific surface area of the NP (m2/g) measured by N2-BET.
d: 9–780, P25, and R5 were measured in triplicate ±1 standard deviation shown.