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Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 936041, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/936041
Review Article

Polymeric and Ceramic Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications

1Licenciatura en Tecnología, Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Juriquilla, QRO, Mexico
2Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, 58893 Morelia, MICH, Mexico
3Unidad León, Escuela Nacional de Estudios Superiores, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, León, GTO, Mexico
4Departamento de Ingeniería Molecular de Materiales, Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Juriquilla, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Juriquilla, QRO, Mexico

Received 4 October 2012; Accepted 2 December 2012

Academic Editor: Mallikarjuna Nadagouda

Copyright © 2012 Aura-Ileana Moreno-Vega et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Materials in the nanometer size range may possess unique and beneficial properties, which are very useful for different medical applications including stomatology, pharmacy, and implantology tissue engineering. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, known as nanomedicine, concerns the use of precisely engineered materials at this length scale to develop novel therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. Nanomaterials have unique physicochemical properties, such as small size, large surface area to mass ratio, and high reactivity, which are different from bulk materials of the same composition. Polymeric and ceramic nanoparticles have been extensively studied as particulate carriers in the pharmaceutical and medical fields, because they show promise as drug delivery systems as a result of their controlled- and sustained-release properties, subcellular size, and biocompatibility with tissue and cells. These properties can be used to overcome some of the limitations found in traditional therapeutic and diagnostic agents. Nanotechnology is showing promising developments in many areas and may benefit our health and welfare. However, a wide range of ethical issues has been raised by this innovative science. Many authorities believe that these advancements could lead to irreversible disasters if not limited by ethical guidelines.