Table 1: Bulk and surface properties of the nanomaterials.

ParameterAnalytical techniqueNano-Fe0VA-nano-Fe0Nano-Fe3O4VA-Nano-Fe3O4

Particle size distribution (%) XPS0–60 nm85849896
60–100 nm8724
>100 nm7900
CrystallinityXRDHighly disordered/amorphous (α-Fe)Crystalline (α-Fe, Fe2B)Crystalline (Fe3O4)Crystalline (Fe3O4)
Oxide thickness (nm)TEM3-42
Surface area (m2 g−1)BET14.775.2454.4742.45
Surface composition (%) XPSFe40.522.521.5126.78
O32.132.447.6250.08
C14.519.130.8123.14
B12.926.1
Surface chemistry XPS(Fe0/Fe2+ + Fe3+)0.030.135
Fe2+/Fe3+0.330.450.310.30