Table 1: Summary of fabrication processes with focused ion beams and the corresponding physical phenomenon behind them.

Fabrication processPhysical phenomenon behind

MillingSurface sputtering

EtchingChemically enhanced milling (directed/localized reactive ion etching)

DepositionGas-phase precursor dissociation on the surface (ion-assisted chemical vapor deposition)

Surface functionalizationCreation of surface defects at low ion doses

Intermixing (layered materials)Destruction of atomic order in interaction volume

Amorphization (crystalline materials)Destruction of atomic order in interaction volume

Implantation (to alter general physical/chemical properties more often than electronic properties)Chemical and/or physical change resulting from the incorporation of ions

Resist exposure (a lithography step that requires further processing)Chemical bond dissociation or formation by interaction with secondary electrons during implantation of organic and inorganic polymers