Table 1: Overview of top-down and bottom-up approaches used for the synthesis of nanoparticles (based on [26, 86, 99, 102106]).

Top-down technologiesBottom-up technologies

(i) Mechanical grinding
(ii) Metal vapor
(iii) Thermal breakdown
(iv) Chemical breakdown
(v) Spontaneous chemisorption
(i) Sol-gel
(ii) Chemical reduction of salts
(iii) Electrochemistry
(iv) Solvothermal processing
(v) Template-directed
(vi) Precipitation
(vii) Microemulsion
(viii) Microwave irradiation
(ix) Sonochemistry