Journal of Nanotechnology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Performance Optimization of Spin-Torque Microwave Detectors with Material and Operational Parameters Thu, 28 Jul 2016 08:33:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/8347280/ Sensitivity, bandwidth, and noise equivalent power (NEP) are important indicators of the performance of microwave detectors. The previous reports on spin-torque microwave detectors (STMDs) have proposed various approaches to increase the sensitivity. However, the effects of these methods on the other two indicators remain unclear. In this work, macrospin simulation is developed to evaluate how the performance can be optimized through changing the material (tilt angle of reference-layer magnetization) and operational parameters (the direction of magnetic field and working temperature). The study on the effect of magnetic field reveals that the driving force behind the performance tuning is the effective field and the equilibrium angle between the magnetization of the free layer and that of the reference layer. The material that offers the optimal tilt angle in reference-layer magnetization is determined. The sensitivity can be further increased by changing the direction of the applied magnetic field and the operation temperature. Although the optimized sensitivity is accompanied by a reduction in bandwidth or an increase in NEP, a balance among these performance indicators can be reached through optimal tuning of the corresponding influencing parameters. X. Li, Y. Zhou, and Philip W. T. Pong Copyright © 2016 X. Li et al. All rights reserved. Nanomaterials for Sensing Applications Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:10:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/2083948/ Wen Zeng, Hua Wang, and Zhenyu Li Copyright © 2016 Wen Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Nanocomposite and Investigations of Its Thermal and Electrical Properties Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:20:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/5135420/ We describe the synthesis of acid functionalized graphene (GE) which is grafted to chitosan (CH) by first reacting the oxidized GE with thionyl chloride to form acyl-chlorinated GE. This product is subsequently dispersed in chitosan and covalently grafted to form GE-chitosan. GE-chitosan is further grafted onto polymetanitroaniline (PMNA) by free radical polymerization conditions to yield GE-CH-PMNA. We have characterized the structure of synthesized GE-CH-PMNA composites by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, and conductivity measurements. XRD data suggest the strongly crystalline character of the prepared specimen. Our measurement shows that the dielectric constants of these nanocomposites are remarkably enhanced due to interfacial polarization effect. This study demonstrates that functionalized graphene sheets are ideal nanofillers for the development of new polymer composites with high dielectric constant values. Manoj Kumar Pati, Puspalata Pattojoshi, and Gouri Sankar Roy Copyright © 2016 Manoj Kumar Pati et al. All rights reserved. Nonenzymatic Glucose Biosensors Based on Silver Nanoparticles Deposited on TiO2 Nanotubes Sun, 19 Jun 2016 11:01:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/9454830/ In the present research, a nonenzymatic glucose biosensor was fabricated by depositing Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using in situ chemical reduction method on TiO2 nanotubes which were synthesized by anodic oxidation process. The structure, morphology, and mechanical behaviors of electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation. It was found that Ag-NPs remained both inside and outside of TiO2 nanotubes whose length and diameter were about 1.2 μm and 120 nm. The composition was constructed as an electrode of nonenzymatic biosensor for glucose oxidation. The electrocatalytic properties of the prepared electrodes for glucose oxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CVs) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Compared with bare TiO2 and Ag-fresh TiO2 nanotube, Ag-TiO2/(500°C) nanotube exhibited the best electrochemical properties from cyclic voltammetry (CVs) results. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) results showed that, at +0.03 V, the sensitivity of the electrode to glucose oxidation was with a linear range from 20 mM to 190 mM and detection limit of 24 μM (signal-to-voice ratio of 3). In addition the nonenzymatic glucose sensors exhibited excellent selectivity, stability, and repeatability. Zheng Li, Yong Zhang, Jiaye Ye, Meiqing Guo, Jing Chen, and Weiyi Chen Copyright © 2016 Zheng Li et al. All rights reserved. Intermolecular Force Field Parameters Optimization for Computer Simulations of CH4 in ZIF-8 Tue, 24 May 2016 06:48:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/3926089/ The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied for obtaining the optimized intermolecular interaction parameters between CH4 and 2-methylimidazolate ([C4N2H5]−) using quantum binding energies of CH4-[C4N2H5]− complexes. The initial parameters and their upper/lower bounds are obtained from the general AMBER force field. The DE optimized and the AMBER parameters are then used in the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CH4 molecules in the frameworks of ZIF-8. The results show that the DE parameters are better for representing the quantum interaction energies than the AMBER parameters. The dynamical and structural behaviors obtained from MD simulations with both sets of parameters are also of notable differences. Phannika Kanthima, Pikul Puphasuk, and Tawun Remsungnen Copyright © 2016 Phannika Kanthima et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Magnetic Characterization of Graphite-Coated Iron Nanoparticles Wed, 04 May 2016 09:58:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/6571643/ Graphite-coated iron nanoparticles were prepared from magnetite nanoparticles by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) under methane and hydrogen atmosphere. After being purified from carbon excess, graphite-coated iron nanoparticles were tested for morphological and magnetic properties. It was found that, during the thermal process, magnetite nanoparticles 6 nm in size coalesce and transform into graphite-coated iron 200 nm in size, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman characterization assessed that high-quality graphite coats the iron core. Magnetic measurements revealed the phase change (magnetite to iron) as an increase in the saturation magnetization from 50 to 165 emu/g after the CVD process. A. M. Espinoza-Rivas, M. A. Pérez-Guzmán, R. Ortega-Amaya, J. Santoyo-Salazar, C. D. Gutiérrez-Lazos, and M. Ortega-López Copyright © 2016 A. M. Espinoza-Rivas et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Fe-Doping on the Structural and Magnetic Properties of ZnO Nanopowders, Produced by the Method of Pulsed Electron Beam Evaporation Wed, 27 Apr 2016 07:08:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/8281247/ The nanopowders (NPs) ZnO-Zn-Fe and ZnO-Fe with the various concentrations of Fe () ( mass.%) were prepared by the pulsed electron beam evaporation method. The influence of doping Fe on structural and magnetic properties of NPs was investigated. X-ray diffraction showed that powders contain fine-crystalline and coarse-crystalline ZnO fractions with wurtzite structure and an amorphous component. Secondary phases were not found. The magnetic measurements made at room temperature, using the vibration magnetometer and Faraday’s scales, showed ferromagnetic behavior for all powders. Magnetization growth of NPs ZnO-Zn and ZnO-Zn-Fe was detected after their short-term annealing on air at temperatures of 300–500°C. The growth of magnetization is connected with the increase in the concentration of the phase ZnO with a defective structure as the result of oxidation nanoparticles (NPles) of Zn. The scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) showed a lack of Fe clusters and uniform distribution of atoms dopant in the initial powder ZnO-Zn-Fe. A lack of logical correlation between magnetization and concentration of a magnetic dopant of Fe in powders is shown. V. G. Il’ves, S. Yu. Sokovnin, and A. M. Murzakaev Copyright © 2016 V. G. Il’ves et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Nanosized Silicon Oxide on the Luminescent Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Tue, 12 Apr 2016 13:24:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/2708638/ For practical use of nanosized zinc oxide as the phosphor its luminescence quantum yields should be maximized. The aim of this work was to enhance luminescent properties of ZnO nanoparticles and obtain high-luminescent ZnO/SiO2 composites using simpler approaches to colloidal synthesis. The luminescence intensity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was increased about 3 times by addition of silica nanocrystals to the source solutions during the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Then the quantum yield of luminescence of the obtained ZnO/SiO2 composites is more than 30%. Such an impact of silica is suggested to be caused by the distribution of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of silica, which reduces the probability of separation of photogenerated charges between the zinc oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, and as a consequence, there is a significant increase of the luminescence intensity of ZnO nanoparticles. This way of increasing nano-ZnO luminescence intensity facilitates its use in a variety of devices, including optical ultraviolet and visible screens, luminescent markers, antibacterial coatings, luminescent solar concentrators, luminescent inks for security printing, and food packaging with abilities of informing consumers about the quality and safety of the packaged product. Vitaliy Shvalagin, Galyna Grodziuk, Olha Sarapulova, Misha Kurmach, Vasyl Granchak, and Valentyn Sherstiuk Copyright © 2016 Vitaliy Shvalagin et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Graphene-Assisted Nonlinear Optical Signal Processing Mon, 11 Apr 2016 14:07:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/7031913/ Possessing a variety of remarkable optical, electronic, and mechanical properties, graphene has emerged as an attractive material for a myriad of optoelectronic applications. The wonderful optical properties of graphene afford multiple functions of graphene based polarizers, modulators, transistors, and photodetectors. So far, the main focus has been on graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices. Due to the linear band structure allowing interband optical transitions at all photon energies, graphene has remarkably large third-order optical susceptibility , which is only weakly dependent on the wavelength in the near-infrared frequency range. The graphene-assisted four-wave mixing (FWM) based wavelength conversions have been experimentally demonstrated. So, we believe that the potential applications of graphene also lie in nonlinear optical signal processing, where the combination of its unique large nonlinearities and dispersionless over the wavelength can be fully exploited. In this review article, we give a brief overview of our recent progress in graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device and their applications, including degenerate FWM based wavelength conversion of quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal, phase conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate FWM and transparent wavelength conversion by nondegenerate FWM, two-input and three-input high-base optical computing, and high-speed gate-tunable terahertz coherent perfect absorption (CPA) using a split-ring graphene. Jian Wang and Xiao Hu Copyright © 2016 Jian Wang and Xiao Hu. All rights reserved. Computing the Reverse Eccentric Connectivity Index for Certain Family of Nanocone and Fullerene Structures Wed, 30 Mar 2016 09:20:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/3129561/ A large number of previous works reveal that there exist strong connections between the chemical characteristics of chemical compounds and drugs (e.g., melting point and boiling point) and their topological structures. Chemical indices introduced on these molecular topological structures can help chemists and material and medical scientists to grasp its chemical reactivity, biological activity, and physical features better. Hence, the study of the topological indices on the material structure can make up the defect of experiments and provide the theoretical evidence in material engineering. In this paper, we determine the reverse eccentric connectivity index of one family of pentagonal carbon nanocones and three infinite families of fullerenes ,  , and based on graph analysis and computation derivation, and these results can offer the theoretical basis for material properties. Wei Gao and Mohammad Reza Farahani Copyright © 2016 Wei Gao and Mohammad Reza Farahani. All rights reserved. The Extraordinary Progress in Very Early Cancer Diagnosis and Personalized Therapy: The Role of Oncomarkers and Nanotechnology Wed, 16 Mar 2016 12:51:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/3020361/ The impact of nanotechnology on oncology is revolutionizing cancer diagnosis and therapy and largely improving prognosis. This is mainly due to clinical translation of the most recent findings in cancer research, that is, the application of bio- and nanotechnologies. Cancer genomics and early diagnostics are increasingly playing a key role in developing more precise targeted therapies for most human tumors. In the last decade, accumulation of basic knowledge has resulted in a tremendous breakthrough in this field. Nanooncology, through the discovery of new genetic and epigenetic biomarkers, has facilitated the development of more sensitive biosensors for early cancer detection and cutting-edge multifunctionalized nanoparticles for tumor imaging and targeting. In the near future, nanooncology is expected to enable a very early tumor diagnosis, combined with personalized therapeutic approaches. Marialuigina Fruscella, Antonio Ponzetto, Annalisa Crema, and Guido Carloni Copyright © 2016 Marialuigina Fruscella et al. All rights reserved. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Responsive Characteristics of Hierarchical Zinc Oxide Nanoflowers to Sulfur Dioxide Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:53:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/6742104/ Sulfur dioxide, SO2, is one of the most important decomposition byproducts of sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, under partial discharge in GIS apparatus. The sensing performances of semiconductor gas sensors can be improved by morphology tailoring. This paper reported the synthesis method, structural characterization, and SO2 responsive characteristics of hierarchical flower-shaped ZnO nanostructures. Hierarchical ZnO nanoflowers were successfully prepared via a facile and simple hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Planar chemical gas sensor was fabricated and its responsive characteristics towards SO2 were systematically performed. The optimum operating temperature of the fabricated sensor was measured to be about 260°C, and the corresponding maximum responses were 16.72 and 26.14 to 30 and 60 ppm of SO2. Its saturated gas concentration was 2000 ppm with a response value of 67.41. Moreover, a quick response and recovery feature (7 s and 8 s versus 80 ppm of SO2) and good stability were also observed. All results indicate that the proposed sensor is a promising candidate for detecting SF6 decomposition byproduct SO2. Qu Zhou, Bo Xie, Lingfeng Jin, Weigen Chen, and Jian Li Copyright © 2016 Qu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Structural and Electrical Studies on ZnO-Based Thin Films by Laser Irradiation Sun, 28 Feb 2016 13:58:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/9385725/ The effects of laser irradiation on the structural and electrical properties of ZnO-based thin films were investigated. The XRD pattern shows that the thin films were highly textured along the -axis and perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Raman spectra reveal that Bi2O3 segregates mainly at ZnO-ZnO grain boundaries. After laser irradiation processing, the grain size of the film was reduced significantly, and the intrinsic atomic defects of grain boundaries and Bi element segregated at the grain boundary were interacted frequently and formed the composite defects of acceptor state. The nonlinear coefficient increased to 24.31 and the breakdown voltage reduced to 5.34 V. Shanyue Zhao, Yinqun Hua, Ruifang Chen, Jian Zhang, and Ping Ji Copyright © 2016 Shanyue Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Silicon Dioxide Particles in PCVD Synthesizing Silica Glass Process Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:12:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/1963847/ SiO2 nanoparticles in PCVD process were investigated by SEM, TEM, and optical emission spectra (OES). There are large spherical SiO2 particles with diameter of 50–200 nm and more small particles about 10–50 nm in PCVD process. Size of SiO2 particles is influenced by distance and feeding speed but not electron temperature. The amount of large spherical SiO2 particles decreases with the increase of distance and decrease of feeding speed due to lower concentration. In addition, the evolution of SiO2 particles was inferred from the experimental results. Yuancheng Sun, Xuefu Song, Xiurong Du, Xiaoqiang Zhang, and Hui Wang Copyright © 2016 Yuancheng Sun et al. All rights reserved. Morphology and Optical Investigations of InAs-QD/GaAs Heterostructures Obtained by Ion-Beam Sputtering Wed, 17 Feb 2016 11:36:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/5340218/ A new ion-beam sputtering technique for obtaining self-assembled InAs quantum dots on GaAs (001) substrates is proposed. The current paper demonstrates that a temperature increase in a range from 450 to 550°C at ion current of 120 μA and energy of 150 eV leads to an expansion of average sizes of InAs hut-quantum dots. According to atomic force and electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and capacity-voltage measurements it was found that an increase of ion-beam current from 60 to 120 μA at a temperature of 500°C and energy of 150 eV slightly enlarges the average sizes of quantum dots from 15 nm to 18 nm while their dispersion is about 30%. At a current of 180 μA a surface density is  cm−2, but under these conditions there is a very high dispersion of quantum dots up to 50%. S. N. Chebotarev, A. S. Pashchenko, V. A. Irkha, and M. L. Lunina Copyright © 2016 S. N. Chebotarev et al. All rights reserved. Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films with Embedded Nanocrystals for Thermal Detectors with Very High Sensitivity Wed, 17 Feb 2016 09:18:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/5807940/ We have optimized the deposition conditions of amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor, working at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. The objective was to produce films with very large Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR), which is a signature of the sensitivity in thermal detectors (microbolometers). Morphological, electrical, and optical characterization were performed in the films, and we found optimal conditions for obtaining films with very high values of thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR = 7.9% K−1). Our results show that amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals can be used as thermosensitive films in high performance infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) used in commercial thermal cameras. Cesar Calleja, Alfonso Torres, Pedro Rosales-Quintero, and Mario Moreno Copyright © 2016 Cesar Calleja et al. All rights reserved. Nanosensing Backed by the Uncertainty Principle Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:12:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/3794109/ Possibility for a novel type of sensors for detecting nanosized substances (e.g., macromolecules or molecule clusters) through their effects on electron tunneling in a double nanoscale semiconductor heterostructure is discussed. We studied spectral distributions of localized/delocalized states of a single electron in a double quantum well (DQW) with relation to slight asymmetry perturbations. The asymmetry was modeled by modification of the dot shape and the confinement potential. Electron energy uncertainty is restricted by the differences between energy levels within the spectra of separated QWs. Hence, we established a direct relationship between the uncertainty of electron localization and the energy uncertainty. We have shown in various instances that a small violation of symmetry drastically affects the electron localization. These phenomena can be utilized to devise new sensing functionalities. The charge transport in such sensors is highly sensitive to minuscule symmetry violation caused by the detected substance. The detection of the electron localization constitutes the sensor signal. I. Filikhin, A. Karoui, and B. Vlahovic Copyright © 2016 I. Filikhin et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Three Types of Transformer Oil-Based Nanofluids and Comparative Study on the Effect of Nanoparticle Concentrations on Insulating Property of Transformer Oil Mon, 18 Jan 2016 14:20:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/5802753/ Nanofluids have the potential to become the alternatives of conventional transformer oil for their exquisite electrical and thermal properties. Three kinds of nanoparticles with distinct conductivities, namely, nonconductive nanoparticle Al2O3, conductive nanoparticle Fe3O4, and semiconductive nanoparticle TiO2, with different concentrations from 5% to 40% w/v were selected and suspended into transformer oil to develop nanofluids. The lightening impulse breakdown strengths of the oil samples with and without nanoparticles were measured according to IEC standard methods. The positive impulse breakdown strength indicated that breakdown strength is first increased up to the maximum value at certain concentration and then starts decreasing. The results of negative impulse breakdown manifested that the breakdown voltages of nanofluids with different concentrations were less than the breakdown voltage of pure transformer oil. Different effect mechanisms of dielectric and conductive nanoparticles were also used to describe the difference among three prepared nanofluids. Qi Wang, Muhammad Rafiq, Yuzhen Lv, Chengrong Li, and Kai Yi Copyright © 2016 Qi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy Development Wed, 30 Dec 2015 08:29:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/302149/ Ziyang Huo, Cheng Hao Wu, Zhongwei Zhu, and Yuxin Zhao Copyright © 2015 Ziyang Huo et al. All rights reserved. Optimization and Characterization of CMOS for Ultra Low Power Applications Tue, 22 Dec 2015 13:53:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/395090/ Aggressive voltage scaling into the subthreshold operating region holds great promise for applications with strict energy budget. However, it has been established that higher speed superthreshold device is not suitable for moderate performance subthreshold circuits. The design constraint for selecting and is much more flexible for subthreshold circuits at low voltage level than superthreshold circuits. In order to obtain better performance from a device under subthreshold conditions, it is necessary to investigate and optimize the process and geometry parameters of a Si MOSFET at nanometer technology node. This paper calibrates the fabrication process parameters and electrical characteristics for n- and p-MOSFETs with 35 nm physical gate length. Thereafter, the calibrated device for superthreshold application is optimized for better performance under subthreshold conditions using TCAD simulation. The device simulated in this work shows 9.89% improvement in subthreshold slope and 34% advantage in ratio for the same drive current. Mohd. Ajmal Kafeel, S. D. Pable, Mohd. Hasan, and M. Shah Alam Copyright © 2015 Mohd. Ajmal Kafeel et al. All rights reserved. Indoor Decontamination Textiles by Photocatalytic Oxidation: A Review Tue, 22 Dec 2015 13:45:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/104142/ A large number of researches have been made to make the textile intelligent and smarter; this is achieved by imparting functionality to the textile materials. The indoor environment possesses a variety of pollutants which do not come from the outer environment, but they come from the inner environment itself. Today, the smarter fabrics that may clean the indoor air have been studied by various researchers. The smarter fabrics contain the nanocoating of semiconductor oxides, mostly TiO2; thus the synthesis and application of these nanoparticles on the textile material have been reviewed in this paper. Moreover, there are lots of environmental and health issues regarding nanoparticles that have also been discussed in brief. Hafeezullah Memon, Sohail Yasin, Nazakat Ali Khoso, and Munir Hussain Copyright © 2015 Hafeezullah Memon et al. All rights reserved. Biological Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Cell-Free Extract of Spirulina platensis Sun, 13 Dec 2015 06:20:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/132675/ The present study explores biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the cell-free extract of Spirulina platensis. Biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and FTIR analysis and finally evaluated for antibacterial activity. Extracellular synthesis using aqueous extract of S. platensis showed the formation of well scattered, highly stable, spherical AgNPs with an average size of 30–50 nm. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were confirmed by SEM and TEM analysis. FTIR and UV-Vis spectra showed that biomolecules, proteins and peptides, are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilisation of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised nanoparticles exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli, MTCC-9721; Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-7299; Klebsiella pneumoniae, MTCC-9751, and Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-9542; S. epidermidis, MTCC-2639; Bacillus cereus, MTCC-9017, bacteria. The AgNPs had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) that is in P. vulgaris. Use of such a microalgal system provides a simple, cost-effective alternative template for the biosynthesis of nanomaterials of silver in a large scale that could be of great use in biomedical applications. Gaurav Sharma, Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja, Manoj Kumar, and Mohammad Irfan Ali Copyright © 2015 Gaurav Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Nanosized Particles of Silica and Its Derivatives for Applications in Various Branches of Food and Nutrition Sectors Tue, 08 Dec 2015 08:24:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/852394/ Nanosized particles of silica and its derivatives have been identified as versatile for a broad range of science, technology, and engineering applications. In this paper, an effort has been made to provide a short review from the available literature information on their applications in various branches of food and nutrition sectors. The information provided in this paper describes various parameters affecting their performances and efficiencies. The properties and applications of nanosilica and its derivatives have been compared with microsilica and bulk-silica for their performances. The use of nanosized particles of silica and its derivatives provides a number of advantages. Their efficiencies and performances are significantly higher than those of the traditional ones. Mohammad Reza Kasaai Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Reza Kasaai. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Surface Level Cu/SiCp Nanocomposites by Friction Stir Processing Route Mon, 07 Dec 2015 11:33:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/612617/ Friction stir processing (FSP) technique has been successfully employed as low energy consumption route to prepare copper based surface level nanocomposites reinforced with nanosized silicon carbide particles (SiCp). The effect of FSP parameters such as tool rotational speed, processing speed, and tool tilt angle on microstructure and microhardness was investigated. Single pass FSP was performed based on Box-Behnken design at three factors in three levels. A cluster of blind holes 2 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth was used as particulate deposition technique in order to reduce the agglomeration problem during composite fabrication. K-type thermocouples were used to measure temperature histories during FSP. The results suggest that the heat generation during FSP plays a significant role in deciding the microstructure and microhardness of the surface composites. Microstructural observations revealed a uniform dispersion of nanosized SiCp without any agglomeration problem and well bonded with copper matrix at different process parameter combinations. X-ray diffraction study shows that no intermetallic compound was produced after processing. The microhardness of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced and about 95% more than that of copper matrix. Cartigueyen Srinivasan and Mahadevan Karunanithi Copyright © 2015 Cartigueyen Srinivasan and Mahadevan Karunanithi. All rights reserved. Controllable Synthesis of Zn2GeO4 Nanorods for Photocatalytic Reduction of Aqueous Cr(VI) and Oxidation of Organic Pollutants Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:30:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/241841/ Zn2GeO4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The composition, morphology, and optical properties of as-synthesized Zn2GeO4 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scan electron microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic properties of Zn2GeO4 nanorods were evaluated by the reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The effects of solution pH on Cr(VI) reduction by Zn2GeO4 nanorods were studied in detail. The results indicated that the efficiency of Cr(VI) reduction was highest at pH 5.96. Moreover, Zn2GeO4 nanorods also showed excellent photocatalytic ability for the oxidation of organic pollutants such as rhodamine B and 4-nitrophenol. Jin Liu, Xiaodan Jin, Yurong Shi, and Mingming Qiao Copyright © 2015 Jin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Low Threshold, Wide Dynamic Range, Tunable, All-Optical Self-Modulator Based on Fano Resonance and Out-of-Plane Coupling in a Slab Photonic Crystal with a Graphene Layer Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:07:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/767495/ We demonstrate an all-optical modulator based on self-modulation in a one-dimensional slab photonic crystal (PhC) by using optical Kerr nonlinearity of graphene and Fano resonance effect. It has been shown that the effect of Fano resonance in a one-dimensional slab PhC for intensity enhancement can provide low threshold (~1 MW/cm2), high frequency (>1 THz), and wide dynamic range (>3 THz) tunability for the all-optical self-modulator. Such a self-modulator can find applications in optical pulse generations, optical clocks, frequency shifting, and so forth. Reza Asadi and Zhengbiao Ouyang Copyright © 2015 Reza Asadi and Zhengbiao Ouyang. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Drug Delivery Capabilities of (Zn, Al)-Based Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles Tue, 17 Nov 2015 08:10:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/350370/ There is an urgent need for the development of alternative strategies for effective drug delivery to improve the outcome of patients suffering from deadly diseases such as cancer. Nanoparticles, in particular layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles, have great potential as nanocarriers of chemotherapeutic molecules. In this study, we synthesized (Zn, Al)-LDH nanoparticles and report their enhanced pH-dependent stability in comparison to the commonly used (Mg, Al)-LDH nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and valproate (VP) were intercalated into (Zn, Al)-LDH nanoparticles to study cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and drug delivery capabilities using cultured pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3 cells. Fluorescence measurements indicated that FITC-intercalated LDH nanoparticles showed a greater degree of energy-dependent uptake rather than passive uptake by BxPC3 cells, especially at high concentrations of nanoparticles. Tetrazolium-based colorimetric assays indicated that BxPC3 cells treated with VP-intercalated LDH nanoparticles showed a significant reduction in cell viability along with about 30-fold reduction in IC50 compared to the drug alone. In contrast, the non-drug-intercalated LDH nanoparticles did not affect the cell viability indicating very low innate cytotoxicity. Our research indicates that the superior properties of (Zn, Al)-LDH nanoparticles make them ideal candidates for further development as in vivo chemotherapy drug delivery agents. Vinay J. Nagaraj, Xiaodi Sun, Jiten Mehta, Mac Martin, Thi Ngo, and Sandwip K. Dey Copyright © 2015 Vinay J. Nagaraj et al. All rights reserved. Research on Acetylene Sensing Properties and Mechanism of SnO2 Based Chemical Gas Sensor Decorated with Sm2O3 Mon, 09 Nov 2015 11:12:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/714072/ Acetylene C2H2 gas is one of the most important fault characteristic hydrocarbon gases dissolved in oil immersed power transformer oil. This paper reports the successful preparation and characterization of samarium oxide Sm2O3 decorated tin oxide SnO2 based sensors with hierarchical rod structure for C2H2 gas detection. Pure and Sm2O3 decorated SnO2 sensing structures were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, EDS, and XPS measurements, respectively. Planar chemical gas sensors with the synthesis samples were fabricated, and their sensing performances to C2H2 gas were systematically performed and automatically recorded by a CGS-1 TP intelligent gas sensing analysis system. The optimum operating temperature of the Sm2O3 decorated SnO2 based sensor towards 50 μL/L of C2H2 is 260°C, and its corresponding response value is 38.12, which is 6 times larger than the pure one. Its response time is about 8–10 s and 10–13 s for recovery time. Meanwhile good stability and reproducibility of the decorated sensor to C2H2 gas are also obtained. Furthermore, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent C2H2 selectivity among some potential interface gases, like H2 and CO gas. All sensing results indicate the sensor fabricated with oxide Sm2O3 decorated SnO2 nanorods might be a promising candidate for C2H2 detection in practice. Qu Zhou, Meiqing Cao, Wude Li, Chao Tang, and Shiping Zhu Copyright © 2015 Qu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Harmful Effects of Nanoparticles on Animals Tue, 03 Nov 2015 08:58:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/861092/ Since several years nanoparticles (NPs) are produced by industries and used in several fields of activities. They are finally found in aquatic and terrestrial environments, where they are ingested by living organisms in which they accumulate, before being eliminated. In organisms, NPs represent foreign elements with their own physicochemical properties due to their small size. So NPs may interfere with the normal physiological mechanisms of the embryos, growing animals, and adults, and it is indispensable to understand their potentially direct or indirect harmful effects on living organisms. It has been already shown that NPs could be toxic to bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and vertebrates. In this review, several examples of recent studies are given. We will examine successively the effects of NPs on terrestrial and semiaquatic and aquatic vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Jean-Marie Exbrayat, Elara N. Moudilou, and Emmanuel Lapied Copyright © 2015 Jean-Marie Exbrayat et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Buffer Agent Concentration on the Optical Properties from CdS Nanocrystals on Silicon Nanoporous Pillar Array Sun, 01 Nov 2015 13:58:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/246086/ The chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is very crucial to the reaction rate. Generally, the rate can be controlled through tuning buffer agent concentration. CdS nanocrystals on the silicon nanoporous pillar array (CdS/Si-NPA) have been prepared through the CBD method. By varying the buffer agent concentration, the reaction rates can be tuned. The diffraction peaks of hexagonal CdS and Cd can be observed due to the reduction of Cd2+ caused by the silicon nanoporous pillar array. The average size of CdS nanocrystals is decreased with the increasing buffer agent concentration and the optical band gaps from CdS nanocrystals are increased. From the photoluminescence of CdS/Si-NPA, it can be observed that the blue emissions are independent of the buffer agent concentration and the green emissions show blue shift with the increasing buffer agent concentration. Peng Fei Ji, Wei Fen Jiang, Yong Li, Yue Li Song, Ming Li Wan, and Feng Qun Zhou Copyright © 2015 Peng Fei Ji et al. All rights reserved.