- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 167162, 8 pages
Renal Dysfunction, Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality
Department of Medicine, Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, 1731 E 20th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA
Received 26 August 2009; Accepted 21 January 2010
Academic Editor: Maria Luz Fernandez
Copyright © 2010 David Martins et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. M. Minino, R. N. Anderson, L. A. Fingerhut, M. A. Boudreault, and M. Warner, “Deaths: injuries, 2002,” National Vital Statistics Reports, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1–124, 2006.
- J. B. Meigs and R. P. Tracy, “Invited commentary: insulin resistance syndrome? Syndrome X? Multiple metabolic syndrome? A syndrome at all? Factor analysis reveals patterns in the fabric of correlated metabolic risk factors,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 10, pp. 908–911, 2000.
- J. I. Cleeman, “Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III),” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2486–2497, 2001.
- J. Coresh, B. C. Astor, T. Greene, G. Eknoyan, and A. S. Levey, “Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2003.
- M. J. Klag, P. K. Whelton, B. L. Randall, et al., “Blood pressure and end-stage renal disease in men,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 334, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 1996.
- S.-J. Pinto-Sietsma, G. Navis, W. M. T. Janssen, D. de Zeeuw, R. O. B. Gans, and P. E. de Jong, “A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 733–741, 2003.
- S. Beddhu, P. L. Kimmel, N. Ramkumar, and A. K. Cheung, “Associations of metabolic syndrome with inflammation in CKD: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 577–586, 2005.
- E. D. Crook, A. Thallapureddy, S. Migdal, et al., “Lipid abnormalities and renal disease: is dyslipidemia a predictor of progression of renal disease?” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 325, no. 6, pp. 340–348, 2003.
- P. S. Leung and M. C. Chappell, “A local pancreatic renin-angiotensin system: endocrine and exocrine roles,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 838–846, 2003.
- T. Lau, P.-O. Carlsson, and P. S. Leung, “Evidence for a local angiotensin-generating system and dose-dependent inhibition of glucose-stimulated insulin release by angiotensin II in isolated pancreatic islets,” Diabetologia, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 240–248, 2004.
- S. C. Smith Jr., L. T. Clark, R. S. Cooper, et al., “Discovering the full spectrum of cardiovascular disease: Minority Health Summit 2003: report of the Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Hypertension Writing Group,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 10, pp. e134–e139, 2005.
- E. S. Ford, “Risks for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome: a summary of the evidence,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1769–1778, 2005.
- R. Kahn, J. Buse, E. Ferrannini, and M. Stern, “The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal: joint statement from the american diabetes association and the european association for the study of diabetes: response to Citrome et al., Giugliano and Esposito, Cheta, and Psaty et al,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 177–178, 2006.
- A. S. Levey, J. Coresh, E. Balk, et al., “National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 137–147, 2003.
- National Center for Health Statistics, “Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Tech. Rep. (DHHS publication no. (PHS) 94-1308) (GPO no. 017-022-01260-0), National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 1994.
- National Center for Health Statistics, “Analytic and reporting guidelines: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES III (1988–1994),” Tech. Rep., National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, Md, USA, 1996.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and NCHS Research Data Center (RDC), “NHANES III Linked Mortality File,” 2007.
- S. M. Grundy, D. Becker, L. T. Clark, et al., “Detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III),” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 25, pp. 3143–3421, 2002.
- A. S. Levey, J. Coresh, K. Bolton, et al., “K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 39, no. 2, supplement 1, pp. S7–S10, 2002.
- J. W. Kolaczynski and J. F. Caro, “Insulin resistance: site of the primary defect or how the current and the emerging therapies work,” Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 2-4, pp. 281–294, 1998.
- P. Zimmet, E. J. Boyko, G. R. Collier, and M. De Courten, “Etiology of the metabolic syndrome: potential role of insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and other players,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 892, pp. 25–44, 1999.
- S. M. Haffner, “Epidemiology of insulin resistance and its relation to coronary artery disease,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 84, no. 1A, pp. 11J–14J, 1999.
- K. C. Chiu, A. Chu, V. L. W. Go, and M. F. Saad, “Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and cell dysfunction,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 820–825, 2004.
- J. Messite and S. D. Stellman, “Accuracy of death certificate completion: the need for formalized physician training,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 275, no. 10, pp. 794–796, 1996.