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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 128608, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/128608
Review Article

Angiogenesis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Opportunities for Novel Therapies

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0278, USA

Received 2 May 2011; Revised 3 July 2011; Accepted 5 July 2011

Academic Editor: Arkadiusz Dudek

Copyright © 2012 Angelica Trujillo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) arises from neoplastic transformation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and relapsed disease remains one of the greater challenges in treating this hematologic malignancy. This paper focuses on angiogenic aspects of AML including the significance and prognostic value of bone marrow microvessel density and circulating cytokine levels. We show three general mechanisms whereby AML exploits angiogenic pathways, including direct induction of angiogenesis, paracrine regulation, and autocrine stimulation. We also present early evidence that leukemia cells contribute directly to vascular endothelia. Novel treatment strategies are proposed, and a review of relevant antiangiogenic clinical trials is presented. By understanding how blood vessels can serve as a reservoir for refractory and relapsed AML, new diagnostics and promising treatment strategies can be developed.