About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 571862, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/571862
Research Article

Complex Etiology Underlies Risk and Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Human Papillomavirus, Tobacco, and Alcohol: A Case for Multifactor Disease

1Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2Veterans Affairs Medical Center and the Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3Research Program Infection and Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Received 30 July 2011; Revised 14 September 2011; Accepted 15 September 2011

Academic Editor: Adhemar Longatto-Filho

Copyright © 2012 Elaine M. Smith et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. M. Smith, L. M. Rubenstein, T. H. Haugen, E. Hamsikova, and L. P. Turek, “Tobacco and alcohol use increases the risk of both HPV-associated and HPV-independent head and neck cancers,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1369–1378, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. R. Kreimer, G. M. Clifford, P. Boyle, and S. Franceschi, “Human papillomavirus types in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas worldwide: a systemic review,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 467–475, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. L. Gillison, G. D'Souza, W. Westra et al., “Distinct risk factor profiles for human papillomavirus type 16-positive and human papillomavirus type 16-negative head and neck cancers,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 407–420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. M. Applebaum, C. S. Furniss, A. Zeka et al., “Lack of association of alcohol and tobacco with HPV16-associated head and neck cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 23, pp. 1801–1810, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Herrero, X. Castellsagué, M. Pawlita et al., “Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the international agency for research on cancer multicenter study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 23, pp. 1772–1783, 2003. View at Scopus
  6. E. M. Smith, M. Pawlita, L. M. Rubenstein, T. H. Haugen, E. Hamsikova, and L. P. Turek, “Risk factors and survival by HPV-16 E6 and E7 antibody status in human papillomavirus positive head and neck cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 111–117, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. P. Klussmann, E. Gültekin, S. J. Weissenborn et al., “Expression of p16 protein identifies a distinct entity of tonsillar carcinomas associated with human papillomavirus,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 747–753, 2003. View at Scopus
  8. E. M. Smith, L. M. Rubenstein, J. M. Ritchie et al., “Does pretreatment seropositivity to human papillomavirus have prognostic significance for head and neck cancers?” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 2087–2096, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Waterboer, P. Sehr, K. M. Michael et al., “Multiplex human papillomavirus serology based on in situ-purified glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1845–1853, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Waterboer, P. Sehr, and M. Pawlita, “Suppression of non-specific binding in serological Luminex assays,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 309, no. 1-2, pp. 200–204, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Sehr, M. Müller, R. Höpfl, A. Widschwendter, and M. Pawlita, “HPV antibody detection by ELISA with capsid protein L1 fused to glutathione S-transferase,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 61–70, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. F. Summersgill, E. M. Smith, H. L. Kirchner, T. H. Haugen, and L. P. Turek, “p53 polymorphism, human papillomavirus infection in the oral cavity, and oral cancer,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 334–339, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. F. Chehab, M. Doherty, S. Cai, Y. W. Kan, S. Cooper, and E. M. Rubin, “Detection of sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemias,” Nature, vol. 329, no. 6137, pp. 293–294, 1987. View at Scopus
  14. Y. Ting and M. M. Manos, “Detection and typing of genital human papillomaviruses,” in PCR Protocols, A Guide to Methods and Applications, M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky, and T. J. White, Eds., pp. 356–367, Academic Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1990.
  15. A. Hildesheim, M. H. Schiffman, P. E. Gravitt et al., “Persistence of type-specific human papillomavirus infection among cytologically normal women,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 235–240, 1994. View at Scopus
  16. A. M. de Roda Husman, J. M. M. Walboomers, A. J. C. Van den Brule, C. J. L. M. Meijer, and P. J. F. Snijders, “The use of general primers GP5 and GP6 elongated at their 3' ends with adjacent highly conserved sequences improves human papillomavirus detection by PCR,” Journal of General Virology, vol. 76, part 4, pp. 1057–1062, 1995. View at Scopus
  17. S. F. Altschul, T. L. Madden, A. A. Schäffer et al., “Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 3389–3402, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. W. Hosmer and S. Lemeshow, “Confidence interval estimation of interaction,” Epidemiology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 452–456, 1992. View at Scopus
  19. L. Kalilani and J. Atashili, “Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios,” Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations, vol. 3, article 5, pp. 1–10, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. R. Dahlstrom, J. A. Little, M. E. Zafereo, M. Lung, Q. Wei, and E. M. Sturgis, “Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in never smoker-never drinkers: a descriptive epidemiologic study,” Head and Neck, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 75–84, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. C. Hafkamp, J. J. Manni, A. Haesevoets et al., “Marked differences in survival rate between smokers and nonsmokers with HPV 16-associated tonsillar carcinomas,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 2656–2664, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Fakhry, W. H. Westra, S. Li et al., “Improved survival of patients with human papillomavirus-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in a prospective clinical trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 261–269, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Hashibe, P. Brennan, S. Benhamou et al., “Alcohol drinking in never users of tobacco, cigarette smoking in never drinkers, and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the international head and neck cancer epidemiology consortium,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 777–789, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Rotnáglová, R. Tachezy, M. Saláková, et al., “HPV involvement in tonsillar cancer: prognostic significance and clinically relevant markers,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 129, pp. 101–110, 2010.