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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 732874, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/732874
Review Article

MicroRNAs in Human Malignant Gliomas

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan

Received 16 March 2012; Revised 20 May 2012; Accepted 21 May 2012

Academic Editor: Arrigo De Benedetti

Copyright © 2012 Masahiro Mizoguchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a new class of small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate a wide spectrum of gene expression in a posttranscriptional manner. MiRNAs play crucial roles in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, invasion, and apoptosis for various types of tumor. Recent studies have identified dysregulation of specific miRNAs in malignant gliomas. Global expression profiling of miRNAs has revealed several miRNAs clinically implicated in human glioblastomas. Some miRNAs are clearly associated with clinical outcome and chemo- and radio-therapy resistance in these tumors. Furthermore, miRNAs also regulate specific signaling pathways, including the critical core pathways in glioblastoma. As a result, miRNAs have the potential to affect the responses to molecular-targeted therapies. More recent studies have revealed that miRNAs might be associated with cancer stem cell properties, affecting tumor maintenance and progression. Recent investigation have revealed that miRNAs are not only biological markers with diagnostic implications, but also one of the most promising treatment targets in human glioblastoma. Herein, we summarized the novel insights of miRNAs into human malignant gliomas.