Table 1: Summary data of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.

Dietary SupplementTrialAverage BMI (kg/m2)TreatmentLength of TreatmentResults

Conjugated linoleic acidBlankson et al. [9]25–35CLA 1.7, 3.4, 5.1, or 6.8 grams/day or placebo12 weeks BFM with CLA 3.4 grams (  kg, ) and 6.8 grams (  kg, ).
No differences in body weight or BMI
Risérus et al. [10]32CLA 4.2 grams/day or placebo4 weeks SAD in CLA group (  cm, ).
No difference in body weight or BMI
Smedman and Vessby [11]25CLA 4.2 grams/day or placebo12 weeks % body fat in CLA group ( %, ).
No change in body weight or BMI
Gaullier et al. [8]284.5 grams/day of CLA-FFA, 4.5 grams/day of CLA-triacylglycerol, or placebo12 months BFM with CLA-triacylglycerol and CLA-FFA groups ( and  kg, resp.; )
Body weight with CLA-triacylglycerol (  kg, )
BMI with CLA-triacylglycerol (  kg/m2, )
↑ LBM with CLA-FFA (2.0 kg, )
Gaullier et al. [12]284.5 grams/day of CLA-FFA, 4.5 grams/day of CLA-triacylglycerol, or placebo24 monthsNo additional body weight or BFM

Garcinia cambogia (Hydroxycitric acid)Heymsfield et al. [13]32Garcinia cambogia 3000 mg/day (1500 mg of HCA) or placebo12 weeksBoth groups demonstrated weight loss and decrease in percent body fat; there was no difference between the groups
Mattes and Bormann [14]NRGarcinia cambogia 2.4 g/day (1.2 g of HCA) or placebo 3.7 kg with Garcinia cambogia versus 2.4 kg with placebo

ChitosanPittler et al. [15]26Chitosan 1 gram, or placebo twice daily28 daysNo difference between groups in regards to body weight or BMI
Schiller et al. [16]32Chitosan 1500 mg or placebo twice daily8 weeks Body weight of 1 kg with chitosan ( )
BMI of 0.3 kg/m2 with chitosan ( )
↑Body weight of 1.5 kg with placebo ( )
↑ BMI of 0.6 kg/m2 with placebo ( )
Ni Mhurchu et al. [17]35–36Chitosan 3 grams/day or placebo24 weeksChitosan group lost 0.39 kg versus a weight gain of 0.17 kg in the placebo group ( )
Kaats et al. [18]NRChitosan 3 grams/day with behavior modification; placebo with behavior modification; or minimal intervention control60 days Body weight of 2.8 lbs. with chitosan versus placebo ( )
Percent body fat of 0.8% with chitosan versus placebo ( )
Fat mass of 2.6 lbs. with chitosan versus placebo ( )
↑ BCI of 2.4 lbs. with chitosan versus placebo ( )
PyruvateStanko et al. [19]27.8–52.7Pyruvate 30 grams/day and calcium pyruvate 16 grams/day, or placebo21 days 0.22 kg with pyruvate versus
0.17 kg with placebo ( )
BMI 2.2 kg/m2 with pyruvate versus 1.5 kg/m2 with placebo ( )
Fat 7.3% with pyruvate versus 5.4% with placebo ( )
Kalman et al. [20] 25Pyruvate 6 grams/day, placebo or nothing (control)6 weeks↑ LBM 2.4% with pyruvate ( )
Fat mass 12.2% with pyruvate ( ), and
Body fat 12.4% with pyruvate ( )
Kalman et al. [21] 25Pyruvate 6 grams/day, or placebo6 weeks Body weight 1.6% with pyruvate ( )
Body fat 14% with pyruvate ( )
% body fat 11.7% with pyruvate ( )
Irvingia gabonensisNgondi et al. [22]NRIrvingia gabonensis 350 mg/day, or placebo4 weeks Body weight 5.6% with Irvingia gabonensis ( )
Waist circumference 5.07% with Irvingia gabonensis ( )
Hip circumference 3.42% with Irvingia gabonensis ( )
Ngondi et al. [23]26–40Irvingia gabonensis 150 mg/day, or placebo10 weeks Body weight 12.8 kg with Irvingia gabonensis ( )
Waist circumference 16.19 cm with Irvingia gabonensis ( )
% body fat 6.3% with Irvingia gabonensis ( )

Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica)Nieman et al. [24]NRChia seeds 50 g/day, or placebo12 weeksNo differences in body mass or body composition

BCI: Body Composition Improvement, BFM: Body Fat Mass, BMI: Body Mass Index, CLA: Conjugated Linoleic Acid, FFA: Free Fatty Acid, HCA: Hydroxycitric Acid, LBM: Lean Body Mass, NR: Not Reported, SAD: Sagittal Abdominal Diameter.