About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 482564, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/482564
Review Article

Evidence for Resistance Training as a Treatment Therapy in Obesity

Institute for Sports Medicine, Alpine Medicine and Health Tourism, University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, 6060 Hall in Tirol, Austria

Received 14 May 2010; Accepted 16 June 2010

Academic Editor: Eric Doucet

Copyright © 2011 Barbara Strasser and Wolfgang Schobersberger. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. L. Pollock, B. A. Franklin, and B. A. Franklin, “Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: benefits, rationale, safety, and prescription: an advisory from the Committee on Exercise, Rehabilitation, and Prevention, Council on Clinical Cardiology, American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 828–833, 2000. View at Scopus
  2. L. S. Pescatello, B. A. Franklin, R. Fagard, W. B. Farquhar, G. A. Kelley, and C. A. Ray, “American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 533–553, 2004. View at Scopus
  3. R. J. Sigal, G. P. Kenny, D. H. Wasserman, and C. Castaneda-Sceppa, “Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2518–2539, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. J. Fitzgerald and G. S. Blair, “Muscular fitness and all-cause mortality: prospective observations,” Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 1, pp. 17–18, 2004.
  5. R. Jurca, M. J. Lamonte, C. E. Barlow, J. B. Kampert, T. S. Church, and S. N. Blair, “Association of muscular strength with incidence of metabolic syndrome in men,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1849–1855, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. A. Sayer, H. E. Syddall, E. M. Dennison, H. J. Martin, D. I. W. Phillips, C. Cooper, and C. D. Byrne, “Grip strength and the metabolic syndrome: findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study,” QJM, vol. 100, no. 11, pp. 707–713, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. G. R. Hunter, J. P. McCarthy, and M. M. Bamman, “Effects of resistance training on older adults,” Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 329–348, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. F. Hurley and S. M. Roth, “Strength training in the elderly: effects on risk factors for age-related diseases,” Sports Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 249–268, 2000. View at Scopus
  9. M. E. Nelson, M. A. Fiatarone, C. M. Morganti, I. Trice, R. A. Greenberg, and W. J. Evans, “Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 272, no. 24, pp. 1909–1914, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. M. Manini, H. Chen, S. Angleman, et al., “The role of disease in initial differences and longitudinal trajectories of muscle strength and quality among older adults,” Gerontologist, vol. 46, p. 153, 2006.
  11. B. C. Clark and T. M. Manini, “Sarcopenia dynapenia,” Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 829–834, 2008. View at Scopus
  12. G. R. Hunter, T. Kekes-Szabo, S. W. Snyder, C. Nicholson, I. Nyikos, and L. Berland, “Fat distribution, physical activity, and cardiovascular risk factors,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 362–369, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. F. Hurley, J. M. Hagberg, A. P. Goldberg, D. R. Seals, A. A. Ehsani, R. E. Brennan, and J. O. Holloszy, “Resistive training can reduce coronary risk factors without altering VO2max or percent body fat,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 150–154, 1988. View at Scopus
  14. R. W. Braith and K. J. Stewart, “Resistance exercise training: its role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Circulation, vol. 113, no. 22, pp. 2642–2650, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. M. A. Williams, W. L. Haskell, and W. L. Haskell, “Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 572–584, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. T. You, A. S. Ryan, and B. J. Nicklas, “The metabolic syndrome in obese postmenopausal women: relationship to body composition, visceral fat, and inflammation,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 5517–5522, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. K. R. Westerterp, “Daily physical activity and ageing,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 485–488, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. L. Weinsier, G. R. Hunter, R. A. Desmond, N. M. Byrne, P. A. Zuckerman, and B. E. Darnell, “Free-living activity energy expenditure in women successful and unsuccessful at maintaining a normal body weight1-3,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 499–504, 2002. View at Scopus
  19. B. Rice, I. Janssen, R. Hudson, and R. Ross, “Effects of aerobic or resistance exercise and/or diet on glucose tolerance and plasma insulin levels in obese men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 684–691, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Sarsan, F. Ardiç, M. Özgen, O. Topuz, and Y. Sermez, “The effects of aerobic and resistance exercises in obese women,” Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 773–782, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. E. Cauza, U. Hanusch-Enserer, and U. Hanusch-Enserer, “The relative benefits of endurance and strength training on the metabolic factors and muscle function of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 1527–1533, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. D. W. Dunstan, R. M. Daly, N. Owen, D. Jolley, M. De Courten, J. Shaw, and P. Zimmet, “High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1729–1736, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. R. Hunter, C. J. Wetzstein, D. A. Fields, A. Brown, and M. M. Bamman, “Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 977–984, 2000. View at Scopus
  24. G. R. Hunter, D. R. Bryan, C. J. Wetzstein, P. A. Zuckerman, and M. M. Bamman, “Resistance training and intra-abdominal adipose tissue in older men and women,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1023–1028, 2002. View at Scopus
  25. K. H. Schmitz, M. D. Jensen, K. C. Kugler, R. W. Jeffery, and A. S. Leon, “Strength training for obesity prevention in midlife women,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 326–333, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. M. S. Treuth, A. S. Ryan, and A. S. Ryan, “Effects of strength training on total and regional body composition in older men,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 614–620, 1994. View at Scopus
  27. M. S. Treuth, G. R. Hunter, T. Kekes-Szabo, R. L. Weinsier, M. I. Goran, and L. Berland, “Reduction in intra-abdominal adipose tissue after strength training in older women,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 1425–1431, 1995. View at Scopus
  28. R. Ross, J. Rissanen, H. Pedwell, J. Clifford, and P. Shragge, “Influence of diet and exercise on skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue in men,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 2445–2455, 1996. View at Scopus
  29. J. E. Donnelly, N. P. Pronk, D. J. Jacobsen, S. J. Pronk, and J. M. Jakicic, “Effects of a very-low-calorie diet and physical-training regimens on body composition and resting metabolic rate in obese females,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 56–61, 1991. View at Scopus
  30. N. P. Pronk, J. E. Donnelly, and S. J. Pronk, “Strength changes induced by extreme dieting and exercise in severely obese females,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 152–158, 1992. View at Scopus
  31. T. A. Wadden, R. A. Vogt, and R. A. Vogt, “Exercise in the treatment of obesity: effects of four interventions on body composition, resting energy expenditure, appetite, and mood,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 269–277, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. S. Weinstock, H. Dai, and T. A. Wadden, “Diet and exercise in the treatment of obesity: effects of 3 interventions on insulin resistance,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 22, pp. 2477–2483, 1998. View at Scopus
  33. A. Geliebter, M. M. Maher, L. Gerace, B. Gutin, S. B. Heymsfield, and S. A. Hashim, “Effects of strength or aerobic training on body composition, resting metabolic rate, and peak oxygen consumption in obese dieting subjects,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 557–563, 1997. View at Scopus
  34. M. E. Sweeney, J. O. Hill, P. A. Heller, R. Baney, and M. DiGirolamo, “Severe vs moderate energy restriction with and without exercise in the treatment of obesity: efficiency of weight loss,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 127–134, 1993. View at Scopus
  35. L. Vaughan, F. Zurlo, and E. Ravussin, “Aging and energy expenditure,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 821–825, 1991. View at Scopus
  36. W. J. Evans, “Protein nutrition and resistance exercise,” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. S141–S152, 2001. View at Scopus
  37. R. R. Wolfe, “The underappreciated role of muscle in health and disease,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 475–482, 2006. View at Scopus
  38. W. W. Campbell, M. C. Crim, V. R. Young, and W. J. Evans, “Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 167–175, 1994. View at Scopus
  39. R. Pratley, B. Nicklas, and B. Nicklas, “Strength training increases resting metabolic rate and norepinephrine levels in healthy 50- to 65-yr-old men,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 133–137, 1994. View at Scopus
  40. M. S. Treuth, G. R. Hunter, R. L. Weinsier, and S. H. Kell, “Energy expenditure and substrate utilization in older women after strength training: 24-h calorimeter results,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 78, no. 6, pp. 2140–2146, 1995.
  41. W. J. Kraemer, J. S. Volek, and J. S. Volek, “Influence of exercise training on physiological and performance changes with weight loss in men,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1320–1329, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. I. Shaw and B. S. Shaw, “Consequence of resistance training on body composition and coronary artery disease risk,” Cardiovascular Journal of South Africa, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 111–116, 2006. View at Scopus
  43. H. K. Vincent, C. Bourguignon, and K. R. Vincent, “Resistance training lowers exercise-induced oxidative stress and homocysteine levels in overweight and obese older adults,” Obesity, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1921–1930, 2006. View at Scopus
  44. R. Stocker and J. F. Keaney Jr., “Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1381–1478, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. G. Parise, S. M. Phillips, J. J. Kaczor, and M. A. Tarnopolsky, “Antioxidant enzyme activity is up-regulated after unilateral resistance exercise training in older adults,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 289–295, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. P. Trayhurn and J. H. Beattie, “Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 329–339, 2001. View at Scopus
  47. S.-K. Park, J.-H. Park, Y.-C. Kwon, H.-S. Kim, M.-S. Yoon, and H.-T. Park, “The effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on abdominal fat in obese middle-aged women,” Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 129–135, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. F. Dela and M. Kjaer, “Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly,” Essays in Biochemistry, vol. 42, pp. 75–88, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. R. Ross and J. Rissanen, “Mobilization of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in response to energy restriction and exercise,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 695–703, 1994. View at Scopus
  50. D. J. Cuff, G. S. Meneilly, A. Martin, A. Ignaszewski, H. D. Tildesley, and J. J. Frohlich, “Effective exercise modality to reduce insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 2977–2982, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. W. Wilson, R. B. D'Agostino, L. Sullivan, H. Parise, and W. B. Kannel, “Overweight and obesity as determinants of cardiovascular risk: the Framingham experience,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 162, no. 16, pp. 1867–1872, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. C. A. Maggio and F. X. Pi-Sunyer, “Obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 805–822, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. F. X. Pi-Sunyer, “The obesity epidemic: pathophysiology and consequences of obesity,” Obesity Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 97S–104S, 2002. View at Scopus
  54. R. Kahn, J. Buse, E. Ferrannini, and M. Stern, “The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal—joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2289–2304, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Boardley, M. Fahlman, R. Topp, A. L. Morgan, and N. McNevin, “The impact of exercise training on blood lipids in older adults,” American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Fenkci, A. Sarsan, S. Rota, and F. Ardic, “Effects of resistance or aerobic exercises on metabolic parameters in obese women who are not on a diet,” Advances in Therapy, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 404–413, 2006. View at Scopus
  57. M. M. Fahlman, D. Boardley, C. P. Lambert, and M. G. Flynn, “Effects of endurance training and resistance training on plasma lipoprotein profiles in elderly women,” Journals of Gerontology Series A, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. B54–B60, 2002. View at Scopus
  58. T. W. Boyden, R. W. Pamenter, and R. W. Pamenter, “Resistance exercise training is associated with decreases in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in premenopausal women,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 97–100, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. P. F. Kokkinos, B. F. Hurley, and B. F. Hurley, “Strength training does not improve lipoprotein-lipid profiles in men at risk for CHD,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1134–1139, 1991. View at Scopus
  60. J. M. Manning, C. R. Dooly-Manning, K. White, I. Kampa, S. Silas, M. Kesselhaut, and M. Ruoff, “Effects of a resistive training program on lipoprotein-lipid levels in obese women,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1222–1226, 1991. View at Scopus
  61. L. Goldberg, D. L. Elliot, R. W. Schutz, and F. E. Kloster, “Changes in lipid and lipoprotein levels after weight training,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 252, no. 4, pp. 504–506, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. G. Boulé, E. Haddad, G. P. Kenny, G. A. Wells, and R. J. Sigal, “Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 286, no. 10, pp. 1218–1227, 2001. View at Scopus
  63. R. J. Sigal, G. P. Kenny, D. H. Wasserman, and C. Castaneda-Sceppa, “Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2518–2539, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. E. Thomas, E. J. Elliott, and G. A. Naughton, “Exercise for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 3, Article ID CD002968, pp. 1–90, 2006. View at Scopus
  65. J. P. Miller, R. E. Pratley, and R. E. Pratley, “Strength training increases insulin action in healthy 50- to 65-yr-old men,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 1122–1127, 1994. View at Scopus
  66. M. A. Smutok, C. Reece, and C. Reece, “Aerobic versus strength training for risk factor intervention in middle-aged men at high risk for coronary heart disease,” Metabolism, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 177–184, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. M. Fenicchia, J. A. Kanaley, J. L. Azevedo Jr., C. S. Miller, R. S. Weinstock, R. L. Carhart, and L. L. Ploutz-Snyder, “Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes,” Metabolism, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 284–289, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Ibañez, M. Izquierdo, and M. Izquierdo, “Twice-weekly progressive resistance training decreases abdominal fat and improves insulin sensitivity in older men with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 662–667, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. N. Brooks, J. E. Layne, P. L. Gordon, R. Roubenoff, M. E. Nelson, and C. Castaneda-Sceppa, “Strength training improves muscle quality and insulin sensitivity in Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes,” International Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 2007. View at Scopus
  70. T. Ishii, T. Yamakita, T. Sato, S. Tanaka, and S. Fujii, “Resistance training improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM subjects without altering maximal oxygen uptake,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1353–1355, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. S. Ryan, D. E. Hurlbut, M. E. Lott, F. M. Ivey, J. Fleg, B. F. Hurley, and A. P. Goldberg, “Insulin action after resistive training in insulin resistant older men and women,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 247–253, 2001. View at Scopus
  72. J. C. Baldi and N. Snowling, “Resistance training improves glycaemic control in obese type 2 diabetic men,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 419–423, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. C. Castaneda, J. E. Layne, and J. E. Layne, “A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2335–2341, 2002. View at Scopus
  74. J. Eriksson, S. Taimela, K. Eriksson, S. Parviainen, J. Peltonen, and U. Kujala, “Resistance training in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 242–246, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. A. Honkola, T. Forsén, and J. Eriksson, “Resistance training improves the metabolic profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 245–248, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. J. Sigal, G. P. Kenny, and G. P. Kenny, “Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 147, no. 6, pp. 357–369, 2007. View at Scopus
  77. N. J. Snowling and W. G. Hopkins, “Effects of different modes of exercise training on glucose control and risk factors for complications in type 2 diabetic patients: a meta-analysis,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2518–2527, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. I. M. Stratton, A. I. Adler, and A. I. Adler, “Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7258, pp. 405–412, 2000. View at Scopus
  79. E. Cauza, U. Hanusch-Enserer, B. Strasser, K. Kostner, A. Dunky, and P. Haber, “The metabolic effects of long term exercise in type 2 diabetes patients,” Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 156, no. 17-18, pp. 515–519, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  80. D. W. Dunstan, R. M. Daly, N. Owen, D. Jolley, E. Vulikh, J. Shaw, and P. Zimmet, “Home-based resistance training is not sufficient to maintain improved glycemic control following supervised training in older individuals with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Gaster, W. Vach, H. Beck-Nielsen, and H. D. Schrøder, “GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres,” APMIS, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 611–619, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. I. Helander, H. Westerblad, and A. Katz, “Effects of glucose on contractile function, [Ca2+]i, and glycogen in isolated mouse skeletal muscle,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 282, no. 6, pp. C1306–C1312, 2002. View at Scopus
  83. B. Strasser, U. Siebert, and W. Schobersberger, “Resistance training in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of resistance training on metabolic clustering in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism,” Sports Medicine, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 397–415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  84. R. H. Fagard and V. A. Cornelissen, “Effect of exercise on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. J. Padilla, J. P. Wallace, and S. Park, “Accumulation of physical activity reduces blood pressure in pre- and hypertension,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1264–1275, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. P. K. Whelton, J. He, and J. He, “Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 15, pp. 1882–1888, 2002. View at Scopus
  87. M. S. Feigenbaum and M. L. Pollock, “Prescription of resistance training for health and disease,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Wieser and P. Haber, “The effects of systematic resistance training in the elderly,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. R. W. Braith, J. E. Graves, M. L. Pollock, S. L. Leggett, D. M. Carpenter, and A. B. Colvin, “Comparison of 2 vs 3 days/week of variable resistance training during 10- and 18- week programs,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 450–454, 1989. View at Scopus
  90. M. Wernbom, J. Augustsson, and R. Thomeé, “The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans,” Sports Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 225–264, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. K. Tambalis, D. B. Panagiotakos, S. A. Kavouras, and L. S. Sidossis, “Responses of blood lipids to aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic with resistance exercise training: a systematic review of current evidence,” Angiology, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 614–632, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. M. A. Tresierras and G. J. Balady, “Resistance training in the treatment of diabetes and obesity: mechanisms and outcomes,” Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 67–75, 2009. View at Scopus
  93. B. Strasser, P. Haber, C. Strehblow, and E. Cauza, “The benefit of strength training on arterial blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus measured with ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure systems,” Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 158, no. 13-14, pp. 379–384, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  94. E. Cauza, C. Strehblow, and C. Strehblow, “Effects of progressive strength training on muscle mass in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients determined by computed tomography,” Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 159, no. 5-6, pp. 141–147, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  95. B. Strasser, M. Keinrad, P. Haber, and W. Schobersberger, “Efficacy of systematic endurance and resistance training on muscle strength and endurance performance in elderly adults—a randomized controlled trial,” Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, vol. 121, no. 23-24, pp. 757–764, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus