Table 3: Summary of studies about orlistat, metformin, and sibutramine in children and adolescents.

Authors and yearDrugPopulation treatedAge (years)DurationEffects on BMI or other metabolic effectsAdverse events

Chanoine et al. 2005 [8]Orlistat357 obese adolescent12–161 yearBMI: −0.55 SDMild to moderate gastrointestinal tract adverse events (9%–50%)
Srinivasan et al. 2006 [9]Metformin289–186 monthsBMI: −1.26 Kg/m2 ( ); waist circumference: −2.8 cm ( ); fasting insulin: −2.2 mU/liter ( )Nausea
Kay et al. 2001 [10]Metformin2415.6 0.48 weeksBody fat: −6.0 0.62; fat-free mass was similar in metformin group and placebo. Enhances insulin sensitivity, significant reduction in plasma leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acid.Nausea, dizziness, and stools
Freemark and Bursey 2001 [11]Metformin2912–196 monthsBMI: decline of 0.12 SD and a 5.5% reduction in serum leptin in girls. Metformin caused a progressive decline in fasting blood glucose and a reduction in fasting insulin levels.Transient abdominal discomfort or diarrhea
Jones et al. 2002 [12]Metformin8210–1616 weeksImproved glycemic control, the adjusted mean change from baseline in fasting plasma glucose was −2.4 mmol/L. Mean Hb values was significantly lower.Gastrointestinal side effects (diarrhea)
Berkowitz et al. 2003 [13]Sibutramine8213–176 monthsBMI: −8.5%Elevated blood pressure and/or pulse rate, ventricular premature beats, cholelithiasis, ecchymoses, and rash
Berkowitz et al. 2006 [14]Sibutramine49812–1612 monthsBMI: −2.9 Kg/m2; body weight: −8.4 Kg ( for both); greater improvements in triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, insulin levels and sensitivityTachycardia
Garcia-Morales et al. 2006 [15]Sibutramine4614–186 monthsBMI: −9.2%No significant difference in blood pressure, tachycardia, headache with nausea, or weakness
Godoy-Matos et al. 2005 [16]Sibutramine6014–176 monthsThe mean BMI reduction was greater in the sibutramine group: 3.6 ± 2.5 Kg/m2No significant difference in blood pressure or heart rate
Van Mil et al. 2007 [17]Sibutramine2412–1712 weeksEffect on BMI-SDS not significantAbdominal complaints, insomnia, headache, loss of interest, and loss of appetite
Daniels et al. 2007 [18]Sibutramine49812–1612 monthsBMI reduction was > or = 5%Small mean decreases in blood pressure and pulse rate were seen in both sibutramine and placebo